Parallelnoe Kino. The first experiments in parallel cinema began in 1984 in Moscow and in St Petersburg (then Leningrad). By 1987 two distinct schools had developed. The Moscow school was pioneered by the Cine Fantom Studio which was run by Igor and Glen Aleinikov. The Muscovites were strongly influenced by conceptualist art and concentrated on pure expressiveness, experimenting with form, searching for new language possibilities. The Leningrad school was more inclined to use comics, épatage, shock therapy, and raised absurdity to a high degree of absolute: expressionist cinema and necro-realism.
Eventually the schools merged in Moscow, and Cine Fantom Studio became the center of all activity. To date, Cine Fantom has produced hundreds of films, and film and video projects. Many are award-winners, including «Tractors» by the Aleinikov brothers, which in 1990 was showcased in London as one of the ten best post-war experimental films in the world. Several other films are housed in the permanent collections of film museums around the world. The studio has also organized numerous international tours of independent and experimental Russian film across Europe, Eastern Europe, and America. In Moscow, Cine Fantom runs festivals and seminars and continues to support both Russian and international independent film.
The Cine Fantom Club was founded in November 1995 by Gleb Aleinikov at the Moscow Cinema Museum, both to commemorate the death of his brother Igor' in a plane crash in 1994 and to expand the "Parallel Cinema" movement. Since 2004, it is based at Fitil Cinema, Moscow. The club organizes screenings of Russian and foreign filmmakers, programs of short films that are selected from festivals, works by new artists, video performances, retrospectives of classical and contemporary avant-garde directors, seminars and discussions.
- "A Brief History of Parallel Cinema"
- Vladimir Kozlov, "The CINE FANTOM club"
- Seth Graham (ed.), Necrorealism: Contexts, History, Interpretations, Pittsburgh, 2001.
 See also