Biennial of Dissent
The so-called Biennale del dissenso culturale [Biennial of Dissent] was held from 15 October to 17 November 1977 in Venice (a year between the main exhibitions) to mark the 60th anniversary of the October Revolution. It had examined the phenomenon of dissent as an alternative to official aesthetics and ideology in the Eastern Bloc countries. It consisted of three exhibitions devoted to film, samizdat literature and fine arts. The fine arts exhibition, La nuova arte sovietica. Una prospettiva non ufficiale [New Art from the Soviet Union. An Unofficial Perspective], was curated by Enrico Crispolti and Gabriella Di Milia Moncada and featured mainly Soviet unofficial artists.
- La nuova arte sovietica. Una prospettiva non ufficiale, Venice: La Biennale di Venezia & Marsilio Editori, 1977. Catalogue.
- Mira Liehm (ed.), Il cinema nell'Europa dell'Est, 1960-1977, Venice: La Biennale di Venezia & Marsilio Editori, 1977.
- Carlo Ripa di Meana, "News from the Biennale", The New York Review of Books, 15 Sep 1977. (English)
- Responses in media, 1977. (English)
- Maria-Kristiina Soomre, "An interview with Enrico Crispolti, the curator of the exhibition “New. Art from the Soviet Union. Unofficial viewpoint,” which was held during the “Biennale del dissenso of 1977”", 23 Jun 2007. (English)
- Maria-Kristiina Soomre, "Art, Politics and Exhibitions: (Re)writing the History of (Re)presentations", Studies on Art and Architecture 3-4 (2012), 106-121. (English)
- "Salon Suisse - Criticism and Dissent: 1977 Re-enacted: La nuova arte Sovietica", 2013. Discussion with Enrico Crispolti and Gabriella Di Milia Moncada. (English)
- Matteo Bertelé, Sandra Frimmel (eds.), ZKK:Rereading: La nuova arte sovietica: una prospettiva non ufficiale, Zürich: Schublade, 2014, 68 pp.  (German)
- "La Biennale del Dissenso: uno scontro a Sinistra", unclosed.eu, n.d. (Italian)
|Art exhibitions and events|
Second Spring Exhibition of OBMOKhU (Moscow, 1920-21), Congress of International Progressive Artists (Düsseldorf, 1922), Congress of the Constructivists and Dadaists (Weimar, 1922), First Russian Art Exhibition (Berlin, 1922), New Art Exhibition (Vilnius, 1923), Zenit Exhibition (Belgrade, 1924), Contimporanul Exhibition (Bucharest, 1924), Machine-Age Exposition (New York, 1927), a.r. International Collection of Modern Art (Łódź, 1931), New Tendencies (Zagreb, 1961-73), The Responsive Eye (New York, 1965), 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering (New York, 1966), Cybernetic Serendipity (London, 1968), Live In Your Head: When Attitudes Become Form (Bern, 1969), Information (New York, 1970), Software - Information Technology: Its New Meaning for Art (New York, 1970), Documenta 5 (Kassel, 1972), Pictures (New York, 1977), Biennial of Dissent (Venice, 1977), Les Immatériaux (Paris, 1985), Magiciens de la Terre (Paris, 1989), Hybrid Workspace (Kassel, 1997)