Central and Eastern Europe

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Czech Republic




former GDR (Eastern Germany)

  • Hermann Glöckner, a very active artist almost till the end of his very long live (died in 1987), i.e. till the eighties, however, his influences among young East-German artists were not very significant


  • 111, neo-constructivist group
  • Sigma, neo-constructivist group

former Soviet Union (Russia)

  • Dvizheniye (Movement) group (early 1960s-1970s)
  • ARGO group (early 1970s)
  • Viacheslav Koleichuk, one of the leaders of constructivist art in Russia.
  • Composers, musicians and artists, attending classes or working at the Theremin Center in 1992-1998:, [1]
  • Cybertheater, 1967, Lev Nusberg and the 'Movement' Group. A 20 m2 complex of kinetic "cyber-creatures", mostly 130 X 80 cm. Members of the Russian 'Movement' Group built in St. Petersburg (then, Leningrad) cyber-creatures, or "cybers", which had five to six degrees of freedom. In this theater of artificial creatures, the actors were capable of controlling the color and intensity of the lights, as well as sounds and smells. A color film was planned by the "Movement" Group. A much bigger and more complex programmed "Cybertheater" was also projected.
  • CD Mrs. Lenin. Electro-Acoustic music from the Theremin Center, http://payplay.fm/theremincenter
  • 1965 - Exhibition - Kinetic Art, Dvizheniye (Movement) group, House of Architect, Leningrad
  • 1967 - EXPO '67, Soviet Pavilion, Montreal, Canada
  • 1978 - Science and Art, House of Scientists, exhibition, Moscow
  • 1979 - Colour - Form - Space, Exhibition Hall on Malaja Gruzinskaja, exhibition, Moscow
  • 1987 - Retrospection of Moscow Unofficial Art (1957-1987), Exhibition Hall of the association "Ermitazh" in Belajevo, Moscow
  • 1988 - Geometry in Art, Exhibition Hall on Kashirskaja, Moscow
  • 1996 - Concert program for Lev Theremin’s 100 anniversary.
  • 1997 - The Theremin Center. The Multimedia Concert Program at Russian Musical Academy, Moscow.
  • VKhUTEMAS, Russian architectural avant-garde school 1920-1930 in Moscow. Together with the French rationalism, German and Dutch functionalism it is a turning point in the historical development of the world architectural process. [2] [3] Tomáš Štrauss (1998) pp 180-182
  • 1921 exhibition of Constructivist art, put together by Obmokhu, or the Society of Young Artists, a group founded in 1919 by recent graduates of the First State Free Art Studios [4]
  • Wladimir Baranoff-Rossine, in 1924 he had the first presentation of his optophonic piano during a performance at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow - a synaesthetic instrument that was capable of creating sounds and coloured lights, patterns and textures simultaneously.
  • Russian Avantgarde Foundation [5]
  • Bibliography of Articles Published in Leonardo on Art, Science and Technology in the Former Soviet Union [6]

Electro-acoustic music studios and societies


All neo-constructivists favored the discourse of freedom expressed in a more or less orthodox language of geometry. The crucial question, however, to repeat after Rosalind Krauss, is: how was the expression of freedom possible in that way, if the "grid," a system of intersecting lines, allegedly discovered anew again and again, is one of the most stereotypical visual devices? Furthermore, as the American art historian suggests, all the artists who started using "grid" as their "own" means of expression brought their artistic evolution to an end, since in many respects (structural, logical, as well as commonsensical) that particular figure can only be repeated.2 What was then the justification of the discourse of freedom or, more precisely, of its mythologization in the artistic practice of the Central European neo-constructivists? Most likely, it was the negative function of that art; the fact that under the specific historical circumstances it was directed against the socialist realism, absolutizing "form" (or even "pure form") while the authorities, particularly in the early fifties, were conducting a campaign against the so-called "formalism" identified with the bourgeois culture. According to the doctrine of the socialist realism, the form was supposed to be "national" ("narodnaya"), and the content "socialist." On the contrary, the neo-constructivists preferred the form to be universal, whereas the so-called content did not exist for then at all. [7]