Central and Eastern Europe
Early electronic music
- Lev Termen, the patriarch of musical electronics, a talented physicist, created termenvox - unsurpassed till now in the family of performing electronic instruments (owing to its keen sound control options).
- A.A.Volodin, a scientist in the field of electronic sound synthesis, designed a whole series of new instruments.
- In the 1930s, professor E.A.Sholpo established a laboratory for sound synthesis where he developed his variophone, a precursor of the synthesizers.
- In 1955, engineer Murzin finished ANS synthesizer and in 1955 founded the Experimental studio of electronic music in Moscow. In 1972 the studio acquired the module synthesizer "SYNTHI-100" of English company "Taylor".
- Warsaw Autumn Festival initiated by Baird and Serocki presented since 1956 works by Berg, Schönberg, or Bartók; Stockhausen or Schaeffer visited.
- During 1950s-70s the number of composers visited New Music courses in Darmstadt (Kotonski, Piňos, Jeney, Sáry), studied and worked with studios WDR Cologne (Kotonski, Eötvös, Dubrovay), GRM Paris (Kotonski, Kabeláč, Piňos, Vidovszky), Munich (Piňos), STEM Utrecht (Kabeláč), or IRCAM Paris (Eötvös).
- Gorizont became known as some sort of Russian version of Kraftwerk, releasing an LP by the "Soviet State" record label Melodia.
musique concréte (1949, Schaeffer, Paris), elektronische Musik (1950, Eimert and Meyer-Eppler, Cologne), New Music, synthesizer (ANS synthesizer, 1955, Moscow; RCA Music synthesizer, 1955), white noise, vocoder, atonal music, serialism
Polish Radio Experimental Studio Warsaw (1957, Patkowski), Experimental studio of electronic music Moscow (1958, Murzin), Experimentalstudio für künstliche Klang- und Geräuscherzeugung Berlin (1962), Experimental Studio of Slovak Radio (1965, Kolman), Experimental Studio of Czech Radio Pilsen (1967-94), New Music Studio Budapest (1970), Electro-acoustic Music Studio at Academy of Music Krakow (1973, Patkowski), Electronic music studio Sofia (1974), Electroacoustic Music Studio of the Hungarian Radio Budapest (1975, Decsényi), Audiostudio of Czechoslovak Radio Prague (1990-94), Theremin Center Moscow (1992, Smirnov)
- mid-1950s-60s: Jozef Patkowski (Warsaw), Wlodzimierz Kotonski (Warsaw), Evgeny Murzin (engineer, Moscow), Edward Artemiev (Moscow), Peter Kolman (Bratislava), Miloslav Kabeláč (Pilsen), Vladimír Lébl (theorist, Prague)
- 1970s: Péter Eötvös (Budapest), Zoltán Jeney (Budapest), László Vidovszky (Budapest), László Sáry (Budapest)
- Prague, 1960s
- Warsaw, mid-1950s-60s
- Media art#Early electronic music
- Poland#Electroacoustic and experimental music, sound art
- Electroacoustic music in Slovakia
- Czech Republic#Electroacoustic and experimental music, sound art
- Hungary#Electroacoustic and experimental music, sound art
See also Media art