open knowledge, open data, digital divide, community informatics, knowledge commons, open access, open government, data journalism.
- Burak Arikan
- Fair-Play Alliance
- Free Bitflows
- Free/Libre Culture Forum
- Miren Gutiérrez
- Lambert Heller
- Nicolas Malevé
- Manufactura Independente
- Open Cultures
- Open Government Data Camp
- Open Knowledge Foundation
- Open Legislative Data
- P2P Foundation
- Public Netbase/t0
- Public Software Group
- Jason Scott
- Transparency Works
- Niklas Treutner
- Zuzana Wienk
- Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) meeting, Open Society Foundation, Budapest, 1-2 Dec 2001. Declaration issued 14 Feb 2002. Sparked the emergence of open access movement.
- OKCon, *2007.
- Free/Libre Culture Forum, *2009.
- Open Government Data Camp 2011
- Transparency Works, 2012.
- OpenSpending is exploring, structuring and mapping out different kinds of public finance from all around the world. An opendata project of Open Knowledge Foundation.
- Graph Commons is a collaborative network mapping, analyzing, and publishing platform and an open knowledge base of relationships data.
- Open Data Book Club, a monthly event where civic-minded individuals get together to talk about and present on open data.
- Tactical Tech, a Berlin-based non-profit organisation, working since 2003 to advance the use of information and digital technologies by advocates and activists worldwide.
- Public Software Group
- Interaktive Demokratie
- LiquidFeedback software is used for the decision-making within German Pirate Party.
- Datactive: The Politics of Data According to Civil Society research initiative, U Amsterdam.
- Contentious Data, U Amsterdam, 15 Sep 2016. Organised by Datactive.
- Share Lab, a research and data investigation lab for exploring the intersections between technology and society. Est 2015 by Share Foundation.
- Od Infozákona po WikiLeaks, hranice otvorenosti, organised by Open Society Foundation, Bratislava, 7-8 Dec 2011.
- Otvorené nápady pre Slovensko, Bratislava, 17-18 Dec 2011.
- "Participatívny rozpočet - Otvorený list poslancom bratislavského mestského zastupiteľstva", Dec 2011. 
- HackerSpace, “During the code sprint we have decided to focus on two important projects: GovSearch, which consists of a search engine that will serve as a platform for any Tunisian user to access all publicly available information from Tunisian administrative bodies anytime and anywhere… We are planning to contact all the Tunisian administrations to ask them about the different ways to reach them, then we will upload the results into the database,” December 2011. 
- Telecomix Tunisia
- Free Government Information (FGI), a place for initiating dialogue and building consensus among the various players (libraries, government agencies, non-profit organizations, researchers, journalists, etc.) who have a stake in the preservation of and perpetual free access to government information.
- BetaNYC, a civic organization dedicated to improving lives in New York through civic design, technology, and data. It started off as the "NYC Open Government" meetup. In 2009, was renamed to "Open NY Forum" and was co-founded by Philip Ashlock and Hailey Austin Cooperrider. In 2013 and after the NY Governor launched the State's Open Government initiative, aka Open NY, the group renamed to BetaNYC.
- Berlin Declaration on Open Access, 2003. Signed by 200 universities, research institutions, funding agencies, foundations, libraries, museums and archives from all over the world. The declaration states that "our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society".
- FCForum, "Sustainable Models for Creativity in the Digital Age", 2010.
- FCForum, "Charter for Innovation, Creativity and Access to Knowledge", 2010.
- Michael Gurstein, "Are the Open Data Warriors Fighting for Robin Hood or the Sheriff?: Some Reflections on OKCon 2011 and the Emerging Data Divide", 2011.
- Michael Gurstein, "“Open”–“Necessary” but not “Sufficient”", 2011. Criticism of Open Knowledge Foundation and open data activism.
- Michael Gurstein, "Open data: Empowering the empowered or effective data use for everyone?", First Monday 16:2, 7 Feb 2011.
- Tom Slee, "Seeing Like a Geek", 25 Jun 2012.
- Data Journalism Handbook, 2012.  
- The Open Book, eds. Jussi Nissilä, Kaitlyn Braybrooke and Timo Vuorikivi, London: Finnish Institute in London, 2013, 138 pp.
- Shannon Mattern, "Public In/Formation", Places, Nov 2016.
communities of practice
Art and technology centres,
Internet of things,