Ludwig Wittgenstein

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Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. From 1929–1947, Wittgenstein taught at the University of Cambridge. During his lifetime he published just one slim book, the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921), one article, one book review and a children's dictionary. His voluminous manuscripts were edited and published posthumously. Philosophical Investigations appeared as a book in 1953 and by the end of the century it was considered an important modern classic.


  • "Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung", Annalen der Naturphilosophie 14, 1921.
    • Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, trans. C. K. Ogden, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & CO.; New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1922. (English)
    • Tractatus logico-philosophicus, trans. Mircea Dumitru and Mircea Flonta, Bucharest: Humanitas, 2001. (Romanian)
  • The Blue and Brown Books [1933-35], 1958, HTML. Notes dictated in English to Cambridge students in 1933–1935.
    • Caietul albastru, trans. Mircea Flonta & Mircea Dumitru, București: Humanitas, 1993, 2005, IA. (Romanian)
  • Vorlesungen und Gespräche über Ästhetik, Psychologie und Religion, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1966.
    • Lectures and Conversations on Aesthetics, Psychology, and Religious Belief, Cyril Barrett (editor), University of California, 1967. (English)
    • Lecții și convorbiri despre estetică, psihologie și credință religioasă, trans. Mircea Flonta and Adrian-Paul Iliescu, Bucharest: Humanitas, 1993, IA. (Romanian)
  • Über Gewißheit [1950-51], Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1984.
    • On Certainty, eds. G.E.M. Anscombe and G.H. von Wright, trans. Denis Paul and G.E.M. Anscombe, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1969-1975. (English)
    • Despre certitudine, trans. Ion Giurea and Mircea Flonta, Bucharest: Humanitas, 2005, IA. (Romanian)