peer preservation in Thylstrup 2019
outside the Anglosphere. According to Alexa Internet analytics, the top five
country sources of traffic to Sci-Hub were China, Iran, India, Brazil, and
Japan, which account for 56.4 percent of recent traffic. As of early 2016,
data released by Sci-Hub’s founder Alexandra Elbakyan also shows high usage in
developed countries, with a large proportion of the downloads coming from the
US and countries within the European Union.64 The same tendency is evident in
the #ICanHazPDF Twitter phenomenon, which while framed as “civil disobedience”
to aid users in the Global South65 nevertheless has higher numbers of posts
from the US and Great Britain.66
This brings us to the second cultural-political production, namely the
question of distribution. In their article “Book Piracy as Peer Preservation,”
Denis Tenen and Maxwell Henry Foxman note that rather than condemning book
piracy _tout court_ , established libraries could in fact learn from the
infrastructural set-ups of shadow libraries in relation to participatory
governance, technological innovation, and economic sustainability.67 Shadow
libraries are often premised upon an infrastructure that includes user
participation without, however, operating in an enclosed sphere. Often, shadow
libraries coordinate their actions by use of social media platforms and online
forums, including Twitter, Reddit, and Facebook, and the primary websites used
to host the shared files are AvaxHome, LibGen, and Sci-Hub. Commercial online
cloud storage accounts (such as Dropbox and Google Drive) and email are also
used to share content in informal wa
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287. Sumner, William G. 1952. _What Social Classes Owe to Each Other_. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers.
288. Tate, Jay. 2001. “National Varieties of Standardization.” In _Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage_ , ed. Peter A. Hall and David Soskice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
289. Tawa, Michael. 2012. “Limits of Fluxion.” In _Architecture in the Space of Flows_ , eds. Andrew Ballantyne and Chris Smith. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
290. Tay, J. S. W., and R. H. Parker. 1990. “Measuring International Harmonization and Standardization.” _Abacus_ 26 (1): 71–88.
291. Tenen, Dennis, and Maxwell Henry Foxman. 2014. “ _Book Piracy as Peer Preservation_.” Columbia University Academic Commons. doi: 10.7916/D8W66JHS.
292. Teubner, Gunther. 1997. _Global Law Without a State_. Aldershot, UK: Dartmouth.
293. Thussu, Daya K. 2007. _Media on the Move: Global Flow and Contra-Flow_. London: Routledge.
294. Tiffen, Belinda. 2007. “Recording the Nation: Nationalism and the History of the National Library of Australia.” _Australian Library Journal_ 56 (3): 342.
295. Tsilas, Nicos. 2011. “Open Innovation and Interoperability.” In _Opening Standards: The Global Politics of Interoperability_ , ed. Laura DeNardis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
296. Tygstrup, Frederik. 2014. “The Politics of Symbolic Forms.” In _Cultural Ways of Worldmaking: Media and Narratives_ , ed. Ansgar Nünning, Vera Nünning, and Birgit Neumann. Berlin: De Gru
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