Media art in Central and Eastern Europe
 Light-music synthesis
- 1900s-20s: Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (Warsaw/Vilnius), A.N.Scriabin, Vladimir Baranoff-Rossiné, Mikhail Matyushin (St. Petersburg), Alexander László, Arnošt Hošek, Zdeněk Pešánek (Prague), Erwin Schulhoff, Miroslav Ponc (Prague)
- Prometei, Kazan, 1960s-2000s
 Colour organs
- There will be a day when a composer will compose music with a notation that will be conceived in terms of music and light… and that day, the artistic unity we were talking about will probably be closer to perfection.., Vladimir Baranoff-Rossiné, 1925.
- (Colour) pianos (or organs) were constructed by the likes of Alexander Scriabin (with Preston Millar), Vladimir Baranoff-Rossiné, Alexander László, and Zdeněk Pešánek (with Erwin Schulhoff) in an attempt to navigate between musical and visual realms.
- Scriabin composed a color-music piece Prometheus: The Poem of Fire (1911) and contracted Preston Millar to build an instrument to produce colors along to the music, named Chromola (Clavier à lumières; tastiéra per luce; keyboard with lights).
- Futurist painter Baranoff-Rossiné's instrument introduced patterns and shapes into a color organ, built upon a modern piano, thus called the Optophonic Piano (Piano optophonique). The piano projected light through painted and rotating glass plates, whose colors, shapes and rhythms closely complemented the music (1916, developed since 1912); it was presented in the Theatre of Vsevolod Meyerhold, at his exhibition in Kristiana in Oslo (1916), and in the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow (1924). Baranoff-Rossiné performed until the late 1920s, but his work was displayed in several museums in Europe and the US from 1966 to 1975.
- Alexander László, a Hungarian raised in Germany, a pianist and orchestra conductor, composed and performed music for various silent films in 1900s-10s. Arguing for a relation between the film and the music, he wrote a theoretical text on color-light-music, "Farblichtmusik" (1925). The theories were brought into practice in a series of performances across Europe. His device, Sonchromatoscope, consisted of a few switches above his piano, controlling a few projection lights and a slide projector lightning the stage above the piano. When the first reviews arrived, the main remark was that the projections were too simple. It was in a completely different league than the Chopin-like complexity of the piano music. In those days Oskar Fischinger was experimenting with abstract films. László contacted him to help improve his performance. Multiple extra slide projectors and overlapping projection lights were added to increase the complexity and the number of possible colors. This resulted in a a visual spectacle which completely turned the reviews over. Both László and Fischinger have toured with the show. 
- With their Spectrophon-Piano (1928), Pešánek and Schulhoff attempted to create an audio-visual sculpture. The piano enabled the dynamic synthesis of music and coloured light in performances in big concert halls.
- Sandor Laszlo, Die Farblichtmusik [Color Light Music], Leipzig, 1925.
- Hans Scheugl and Ernst Schmidt, "Lichtkunst", in Eine Subgeschichte des Films: Lexikon d. Avantgarde-, Experimental- u. Undergroundfilms, 2 vol, Frankfurt am Main, 1974.
- Jörg Jewanski, "Color Organs", 
- Teun Lucassen, "Color Organs", 
- Cornelia Lund and Holger Lund (eds.), Audio.Visual - On Visual Music and Related Media (English/German), book with DVD, 320 pp, 2009. 
- See This Sound, catalogue
- Audiovisualogie, Vol. 1 and 2
- Jan Schneider, Lenka Krausová (eds.), Intermedialita: Slovo-Obraz-Zvuk: Sborník příspěvku ze sympozia, Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2008, 336 pp. (Czech)
- Kateřina Drajsajtlová, Světelný klavír v uměleckém díle Alexandera Nikolajeviče Skrjabina a Zdeňka Pešánka, Bc thesis, 2012 (Czech)
- "Bibliography: Synesthesia in Art and Science", compiled by Crétien van Campen (editor), Greta Berman, Anton V. Sidoroff-Dorso and Bulat Galeyev, Leonardo. 
 See also
 Constructivists, Futurists
formism (1910s, Chwistek, Czyżewski), Pure Form (1920s, Witkiewicz), strefism (1920s, Chwistek), mechano-faktura (1920s, Berlewi), unism (1920s, Strzemiński), photogenism (1920s, Funke), robot (1920s, Čapek)
- 1910s-20s: Wassily Kandinsky (Moscow/Weimar), Kazimir Malevich (Moscow/St. Petersburg), Naum Gabo (Moscow/Berlin), Vladimir Tatlin (Moscow), El Lissitzky (Moscow/St. Petersburg/Vitebsk), Alexander Rodchenko (Moscow), Lajos Kassák (Budapest), László Moholy-Nagy (Berlin/London), Leon Chwistek (Krakow/Lwow), Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz (Warsaw), Anatol Stern (Warsaw), Karel Teige (Prague), Josef Vydra (Bratislava), Jaromír Funke (Prague/Bratislava), Henryk Berlewi (Warsaw/Berlin/Paris), Ljubomir Micić (Zagreb/Belgrade), Josip Seissel (Jo Klek; Zagreb), Ion Vinea (Bucharest), Marcel Janco (Bucharest), Victor Brauner (Bucharest/Paris), Władysław Strzemiński (Warsaw/Lodz), Katarzyna Kobro (Warsaw/Lodz), Mieczyslaw Szczuka (Warsaw), Avgust Černigoj (Trieste/Ljubljana), Ferdo Delak (Ljubljana), Vytautas Kairiūkštis (Vilnius), Jaan Vahtra (Tartu)
 Networks, Journals
- MA, Budapest/Vienna, mid 1910s-mid 1920s
- Bauhaus, Weimar/Dessau/Berlin, 1920s-mid 1930s
- Productivist Group and VkHUTEMAS, Moscow, 1920s
- Devětsil, Prague, 1920s
- Zwrotnica, Krakow, 1920s
- Blok, Warsaw, 1920s; Praesens, Warsaw, late 1920s; a.r., Lodz, 1930s
- Zenit, Zagreb and Belgrade, 1920s
- Travelers, Zagreb, 1920s
- Group of Estonian Artists, Tartu and Tallinn, 1920s
- Contimporanul, Bucharest, 1920s
- 75HP and Punct, Bucharest, mid-1920s
- Tank, Ljubljana, late 1920s
- School of Arts and Crafts, Bratislava, 1930s
- Congress of International Progressive Artists in Düsseldorf in May 1922. Formation of The International Faction of Constructivists was organized by Theo Van Doesburg (representing the journal De Stijl), Hans Richter (representing 'the Constructivist groups of Romania, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Germany') and El Lissitzky (representing the editorial board of Veshch'-Gegenstand-Objet). The faction’s declaration was later published in De Stijl (no. 4, 1922).
- Congress of the Constructivists and Dadaists, Weimar, 25-26 Sep 1922.
- First Russian Art Exhibition [Erste russische Kunstausstellung] opened at Galerie van Diemen in Berlin on 15 October 1922, with 750 works by 157 artists. Organised by Naum Gabo. Version of the exhibition later traveled to Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, in spring 1923.
- The New Art Exhibition, May - June 1923, organised by Władysław Strzemiński and Vytautas Kairiūkštis in Vilnius. Meeting ground for Russian and Western European avant-garde movements.
- The First Zenit International Exhibition of New Art organised by Ljubomir Micić in April 1924 in Belgrade. Featured one hundred works advertised as "futurism, cubism, expressionism, ornamental cubism, suprematism, constructivism, neoclassicism and the like".
- 'International Art Exhibition', organised by Contimporanul group in November 1924 in Bucharest brings together almost the entire Romanian avant-garde along with international artists.
- a.r. International Collection of Modern Art donated by a.r. group to the Municipal Museum of History and Art (now Museum of Art; Museum Sztuki) in Lodz opened to the public in February 1931. It included 111 works and represented - as no other contemporary European collection had done - the main movements of avant-garde art, from Cubism, Futurism and Constructivism, through Purism and Surrealism, to Neo-Plasticism, Unism and Formism.
- 'Europa, Europa. Das Jahrhundert der Avantgarde in Mittel- und Osteuropa' exhibition, 27 May - 16 October 1994, Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bonn.
- 'Central European Avant-Gardes' exhibition, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2002, curated by Timothy O. Benson, included ca 300 artworks.
- Arthur Segal and Nikolas Braun, Lichtprobleme in der bildenden Kunst [Light Problems in the Visual Arts], (German), Berlin, 1925. The book is divided into two parts: Arthur Segal, "Das Lichtproblem in der Malerei" and Nikolas Braun, "Konkretes Licht".
- László Moholy-Nagy, Painting Photography Film, 1925. Trans. Janet Seligman. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1973.
- László Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion, 1947.
- Douglas Macagy, "The Russian Desert: A Note on our State of Knowledge", Aspen 5+6 (1967), 
- Susan Compton, "Review: The Tradition of Constructivism. by Stephen Bann", Slavic Review, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Sep., 1975), pp. 662-663 
- Folke Dietzsch, "Zu einigen Aspekten der Internationalität des Bauhauses und seiner Studentenschaft", Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift / A // Hochschule für Architektur und Bauwesen, Jg. 33, 1987, H. 4/6. 
- Kristina Passuth, Les avant-gardes de l’Europe Centrale 1907–1927 (French), Flammarion, 1988, 327 pp. 
- Art Journal Vol. 49, No. 1, From Leningrad to Ljubljana: The Suppressed Avant-Gardes of East-Central and Eastern Europe during the Early Twentieth Century (Spring, 1990). 
- Stephen Bann, Traditions of Constructivism, 1990, 
- Ryszard Stanislawski and Christoph Brockhaus (eds.), Europa, Europa. Das Jahrhundert der Avantgarde in Mittel- und Osteuropa, exhibition catalogue, Bonn, 1994. Contributions from ca 150 authors. Four volumes: Vol I (five introductory essays followed by 73 short texts on the work of specific artists) 479 pp. incl. 247 col. pls. and 116 b&w ills.; Vol II (36 essays on aspects of architecture, literature, theatre, film and music) 239 pp. incl. 251 b&w ills.; Vol III, compiled by Hubertus Gassner (354 short texts of the period 1894-1994 by artists, critics etc., in German translation), 367 pp.; Vol IV (biographies; selected bibliography; list of exhibited works; index) 99 pp. ISBN 978-3-89322-623-8.  
- George Rickey, Constructivism: Origins and Evolution, 1995, 
- Susanne Anna (ed.), Das Bauhaus im Osten: Slowakische und tschechische Avantgarde 1928-1939, Hatje Cantz Verlag, 1997.  contents, , review
- "The Romanian Avant-Garde", Plural Magazine 3, 1999. 
- Timothy O. Benson, Éva Forgács (eds.), Between Worlds: A Sourcebook of Central European Avant-Gardes, 1910-1930, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2002. 
- Esther Levinger, "The Second Narrative, Constructivism in East-Central Europe", colloquium talk, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Mass, 2002.
- Centropa journal, "Central European Architectural Students at the Bauhaus", volume 3, number 1, January 2003. 
- Dubravka Đurić and Miško Šuvaković (eds.), Impossible Histories: Historic Avant-Gardes, Neo-Avant-Gardes, and Post-Avant-Gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918-1991, MIT Press, 2003. 
- Kristina Passuth, Treffpunkte der Avantgarden: Ostmitteleuropa 1907–1930 (German), Verlag der Kunst Dresden, 2003. 
- Peter Weibel, "On the Origins of Hungarian Constructivism in Vienna: MA 1920-25. The Only Instance of Modernism Between the Wars", in: Beyond Art: A Third Culture, 2005, pp 57-71.  
- Vojtěch Lahoda (ed.), Local Strategies, International Ambitions: Modern Art and Central Europe 1918-1968, Prague: Artefactum, 243 pp, 2006. Papers from the International conference, Prague, 11-14 June 2003.  
- Viktoras Liutkus, "Lithuanian Art and the Avant-Garde of the 1920s: Vytautas Kairiūkštis and the New Art Exhibition in Vilnius", Lituanus, 2008. 
 See also
 Literature, literary theory, aesthetics
structuralism (1920s, Prague Linguistic Circle), linguistic functionalism (1920s, Prague Linguistic Circle), proletkult (1920s, international), Poetism (1920s, Teige and Nezval), factography (1920s, LEF), aesthetic object (1930s, Ingarden), phoneme (Jakobson), morphophonology (Trubetzkoy), genetic structuralism (1960s, Goldmann), communicative functions (1960s, Jakobson)
- 1910s-30s: Vladimir Mayakovsky (Moscow), Josip Brik (St. Petersburg/Moscow), Nikolai Trubetzkoy (Moscow/Vienna), Viktor Shklovsky (St. Petersburg/Berlin), Petr Bogatyrev (Moscow/Prague), Roman Jakobson (Moscow/Prague), Jan Mukařovský (Prague), Karel Teige (Prague), Vítězslav Nezval (Prague), Jaroslav Seifert (Prague), Bedřich Václavek (Prague), Roman Ingarden (Lwow), György Lukács (Berlin/Moscow/Budapest)
- 1960s: Lucien Goldmann (Bucharest/Paris), Felix Vodička (Prague)
- Russian Formalists, Moscow Linguistic Circle and OPOYEZ in St. Petersburg, 1910s-20s
- Prague Linguistic Circle, 1920s-30s
- Devětsil, Prague, 1920s
- LEF, Moscow, 1920s
photogram, photo-eye, photomontage, photogenism (1922, Funke), heliography (1928, Hiller)
- 1920s: László Moholy-Nagy (photograms, Berlin/London), Alexander Rodchenko (Moscow), Gustav Klutsis and Valentina Kulagina (photomontages, Riga/Moscow), Franciszka and Stefan Themerson (Warsaw), Mieczysław Szczuka (photomontage, Warsaw), Vane Bor (surrealist, Belgrade/Paris), Jaromír Funke (Prague/Bratislava), Karel Teige (theory, Prague), Jindřich Štyrský (surrealist, Prague), Jaroslav Rössler (Prague/Paris), Karol Hiller (heliography, Łódź)
- 1930s: Eugen Wiškovský (Prague), Irena Blühová (social photography, Bratislava), Lubomír Linhart (theory, Prague)
 See also
 Light art
- 1920s-30s: Naum Gabo (Moscow/Berlin), László Moholy-Nagy (Hungary/Berlin/London), István Sebök (Budapest/Vienna/Dessau), El Lissitzky (Moscow/St. Petersburg/Vitebsk), Nikolas Braun (Berlin), Zdeněk Pešánek (Prague)
- 1970s: Antoni Mikołajczyk (Łódź), Stanislav Zippe (Prague)
 Experimental film
- 1920s-40s: Sergei Eisenstein (Moscow), Dziga Vertov (Moscow), Alexander Hammid (Prague), Otakar Vávra (Prague), Franciszka and Stefan Themerson (Warsaw)
- 1960s: Radúz Činčera (Prague), Vladimir Petek (Zagreb), Mihovil Pansini (Zagreb), Tomislav Gotovac (Zagreb), Ivan Martinac (Split), Živojin Pavlović (Belgrade), Karpo Godina (Ljubljana), Ivica Matić (Sarajevo)
- 1970s-80s: Gábor Bódy (Budapest/Berlin), Jozef Robakowski (Lodz), Zbigniew Rybczynski (Lodz), Miklós Erdély (Budapest), Wojciech Bruszewski (Lodz), Vladimír Havrilla (Bratislava), Petr Skala (Prague)
- 1990s-2000s: Lukasz Ronduda (theorist, Warsaw)
GEFF festival (Zagreb, 1963-70), MAFAF festival (Pula, 1965-90), 8 mm (Novi Sad), Alternative Film Festival (Split), April Meetings festival (Belgrade, 1972-77), Alternative Film & Video Festival (Belgrade, *1982), xfilm festival and series of lectures / screenings (Sofia, since 2005), This Is All Film! Experimental Film in Yugoslavia 1951-1991 exhibition (Ljubljana, 2010)
- Zagreb Cinema Club, Zagreb, 1930s and 1950s-60s
- Start film club and SAF film co-operative, Warsaw, 1930s
- Split Cinema Club, Split, 1950s-60s and 1980s
- Balázs Béla Studio, Budapest, 1960s-1980s
- Open Form, Lodz and Warsaw, 1960s-70s
- Sarajevo Cinema Club, Sarajevo, 1960s
- Workshop of Film Form, Lodz, 1970s
- Belgrade Cinema Club and Academic Film Center Belgrade, Belgrade, 1960s-70s; Black Wave, Belgrade, 1970s
- Kinema Ikon, Arad, 1975-1990
- Sigma group, Timisoara, 1970s
- Parallel Cinema (necrorealist movement), St. Petersburg and Moscow, mid 1980s
- Lukasz Ronduda (eds.), 1,2,3 -- avant-gardes : film, art between experiment and archive, Centre for Contemporary Art, Warsaw ; Berlin ; New York : Sternberg, 2007.
- Ana Janevski (ed.): As Soon as I Open My Eyes I See a Film. Experiment in the Art of Yugoslavia in the 1960s and 1970s, Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw, 2010. With essays by Ana Janevski (on experimental art and film in Yugoslavia), Stevan Vuković (on political upheaval in 1968 in Belgrade), and Łukasz Ronduda (on contacts between Yugoslav and Polish artists in the 1970s).  Interview with Ana Janevski, June 2011
- Bojana Piškur et al (eds.), This Is All Film: Experimental Film in Yugoslavia 1951-1991 [Vse to je film: Eksperimentalni film v Jugoslaviji 1951-1991], catalogue, Museum of Modern Art, Ljubljana, 2010. 154 pages. ISBN: 9789612060909
 See also
 Geometric abstraction, Neo-constructivism, Op art, Kinetic art
visual kinetics (plastique cinétique, 1950s, Vasarely)
- late 1940s-60s: Victor Vasarely (Budapest/Paris), Nicolas Schöffer (Hungary/Paris), Zdeněk Sýkora (Prague), Exat 51 group (Zagreb), Gyula Kosice (Košice/Buenos Aires)
- 1960s-70s: Milan Dobeš (Bratislava), Dvizheniye group (Moscow, incl. Lev Nusberg and Francisco Infante), 111 group (Timisoara), Piotr Kowalski (Lwow/Paris), Bulat Galeev (Kazan), Gyula Pauer (Budapest), Zbigniew Gostomski (Warsaw), Ryszard Winiarski (Warsaw), Diet Sayler (Romania/Germany), Juraj Dobrović (Zagreb), Sigma group (Timisoara)
 See also
 Audiovisual compositions
 See also
 Electroacoustic music
- Lev Termen, the patriarch of musical electronics, a talented physicist, created Aetherophone (later called the Theremin or Thereminovox) in 1920 - unsurpassed till now in the family of performing electronic instruments (owing to its keen sound control options).
- Other early instruments include Sonchromatoskop by Sándor László (1920), Sonar by N.Anan'yev (c1930), Ekvodin by V.A.Gurov (1931), Emiriton by A.Ivanov and A.Rimsky-Korsakov (1932). While in the United States, Termen also created Theremin Cello (electric Cello with no strings and no bow, using a plastic fingerboard, a handle for volume and two knobs for sound shaping, c1930), Theremin keyboard (a piano-like device, c1930), Rhythmicon (world's first drum machine, 1931), and Terpsitone (platform that converts dance movements into tones, 1932). In the 1930s, professor E.A.Sholpo established a laboratory for sound synthesis where he developed his Variophone (1932), a precursor of the synthesizers. A.A.Volodin, a scientist in the field of electronic sound synthesis, designed a whole series of new instruments.
- In Moscow, Eugene Murzin constructed one of the world's first synthesizers in 1955. He named his invention, ANS synthesizer, in honor of Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin, as the ANS worked on the principle of the transformation of light waves into electronic soundings. The compositions created on the ANS in the Moscow Studio of Electronic Music since 1958 played the major role in the development of electronic music in USSR. In the 1960s, the ANS was the only synthesizer in the Union, and became the training ground of a great number of young composers, including one of the most dedicated experimenters in the field of electronic music, Edward Artemyev. Artemyev's compositions are characterized by a constant search for new sounds and by a desire to obtain maximum timbre modification from minimal sound material. In the music for A. Tarkovsky's film Solaris (1972), Artemyev discovered an entire realm of unusual (for that time) sound effects; he founded a new trend in electronic music that musicologists have named 'space music'. (In 1972 the studio acquired the module synthesizer "SYNTHI-100" of English company "Taylor".)
- Warsaw Autumn Festival initiated by Baird and Serocki presented since 1956 works by Berg, Schönberg, or Bartók; Stockhausen or Schaeffer visited. Polish Radio Experimental studio was founded by Patkowski in 1957.
- In Czechoslovakia, the first representative Seminar on Electronic Music, organized on the initiative of several Czech and Slovak composers, musicologists and sound technicians, was held at the Research Institute of Radio and Television in Pilsen in 1964. It appeared a miracle to many people interested in this kind of musical creativity. The seminar dealt seriously and manifestly with questions of electronic music, for the first time in Czechoslovak cultural context. The representative survey on electronic music written by Czech musicologist Vladimir Lebl and published in 1966 was the fundamental theoretical work, followed by his translation of the book "La Musique concrete" by Pierre Schaeffer. Several compositions by the classicists of concrete, tape and electronic music appeared in radio broadcasts in 1965 and the first LP with electronic music pieces by both inland and foreign composers was published as soon as in 1966. Followed by foundation of experimental music studios in Bratislava (1965) and Pilsen (1967).
- During 1950s-70s the number of composers visited New Music courses in Darmstadt (Kotonski, Piňos, Jeney, Sáry), studied and worked with studios WDR Cologne (Kotonski, Eötvös, Dubrovay), GRM Paris (Kotonski, Kabeláč, Piňos, Vidovszky), Munich (Piňos), STEM Utrecht (Kabeláč), or IRCAM Paris (Eötvös).
- Gorizont became known as some sort of Russian version of Kraftwerk, releasing an LP by the "Soviet State" record label Melodia.
musique concréte (1949, Schaeffer, Paris), elektronische Musik (1950, Eimert and Meyer-Eppler, Cologne), New Music, synthesizer (ANS synthesizer, 1955, Moscow; RCA Music synthesizer, 1955), white noise, vocoder, atonal music, serialism
Polish Radio Experimental Studio Warsaw (1957, Patkowski), Experimental studio of electronic music Moscow (1958, Murzin), Experimentalstudio für künstliche Klang- und Geräuscherzeugung East Berlin (1953 or 1962?), Experimental Studio of Slovak Radio Bratislava (1965, Kolman), Experimental Studio of Czech Radio Pilsen (1967-94), New Music Studio Budapest (1970), Electronic Studio of Radio Belgrade (1972, Radovanović), Electro-acoustic Music Studio at Academy of Music Krakow (1973, Patkowski), Electronic music studio Sofia (1974), Electroacoustic Music Studio of the Hungarian Radio Budapest (1975, Decsényi), Studio for Electronic Music Dresden (1984, Wissmann), Audiostudio of Czechoslovak Radio Prague (1990-94), Theremin Center Moscow (1992, Smirnov), Electronic Music Studio at the Estonian Academy of Music Tallinn (1995, Sumera) more
- mid-1950s-60s: Jozef Patkowski (Warsaw), Wlodzimierz Kotonski (Warsaw), Evgeny Murzin (engineer, Moscow), Edward Artemiev (Moscow), Peter Kolman (Bratislava), Miloslav Kabeláč (Pilsen), Vladimír Lébl (musicologist, Prague), Antonín Sychra (musicologist, Prague), Milan Knížák (Prague)
- 1970s: Vladan Radovanović (Belgrade), Péter Eötvös (Budapest), Zoltán Jeney (Budapest), László Vidovszky (Budapest), László Sáry (Budapest)
- 1980s: Mindaugas Urbaitis (Kaunas)
- 1990s: Andrey Smirnov (Moscow), Lepo Sumera (Tallinn)
- 1950s-60s: Warsaw Autumn Festival (Warsaw, *1956), International Seminars on New Music (Smolenice, 1968-70), Exposition of Experimental Music (Brno, 1969-70).
- 1990s: Evenings of New Music (Bratislava, *1990), IFEM and FEM festival (Bratislava, 1992-96), Exposition of New Music (Brno, *1993).
- 2000s: Next festival (Bratislava, *1999), X-Peripheria festival (Budapest, *2000)
- Lejaren A Hiller, Report on Contemporary Music, 1961 (Technical Report no. 4), Urbana, Il.: Experimental Music Studio, University of Illinois, 1962.
- Golo Föllmer, Markus Steffens, Melanie Uerlings (eds.), Anthology of Experimental Music Cultures in Central and Eastern Europe 1950-2010, 2012. (English/German/intl)
- David Crowley, Daniel Muzyczuk, Sounding the Body Electric: Experiments in Art and Music in Eastern Europe 1957-1984, Lodz: Muzeum Sztuki, 2012.
- Daniel Muzyczuk, David Crowley, Michał Libera, "Sounding the Body Electric: A Conversation", ArtMargins, 8 October 2012.
 See also
Electroacoustic music in East Germany, Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia. Further bibliography. See also Audiovisual tools and instruments, Electronic art music, The International Documentation of Electroacoustic Music and .
 Multimedia environments
 People and works
- 1950s-60s: Josef Svoboda's Laterna Magika, Diacran, Polyecran, and Diapolyecran (Prague), Jaroslav Frič's Polyvision and Vertical Cinemascope (Prague), Dvizheniye group's Cybertheatre (Moscow, incl. Lev Nusberg and Francisco Infante), Stano Filko's Cathedral of Humanism (Bratislava), Jerzy Rosołowicz's Neutrdrom (Wroclaw), VAL group's Heliopolis (Bratislava)
- 1970s: Attila Kováts (Cologne/Budapest)
- 1980s: András Mengyán (Budapest)
- David Crowley, "The Art of Cybernetic Communism", 2011.
 See also
 Computer art, Dynamic objects, Cybernetic sculpture
new materials, information aesthetics (1960s, Bense and Moles)
- 1950s: Nicolas Schöffer (cybernetic sculpture, Hungary/Paris)
- 1960s: Vladimir Bonačić (dynamic objects, Zagreb), Petar Milojević (Belgrade/Toronto)
- 1970s: Edward Ihnatowicz (cybernetic sculpture, Poland/London), Stanisław Dróżdż (concrete poetry, Poland), Zdeněk Sýkora (computer-aided painting, Prague), Jozef Jankovič (computer prints, Bratislava), Juraj Bartusz (computer-aided sculpture, Bratislava), Ryszard Winiarski (paintings and objects, Warsaw), Mihai Jalobeanu (computer graphics, Cluj), Sherban Epuré (Romania/New York City), Zoran Radović (Belgrade/Berlin), Sergej Pavlin (Ljubljana)
- 1980s: Tamás Waliczky (Budapest), Vladan Radovanović (Belgrade)
- 1990s: Zoltán Szegedy-Maszák (Budapest), Jan Pamula (Krakow), Alexandru Patatics (Timisoara)
 Events, Networks
- New Tendencies, Zagreb, 1960s-mid 70s
- Margit Rosen (ed.), A Little-Known Story About a Movement, a Magazine, and the Computer’s Arrival in Art: New Tendencies and Bit International, 1961-1973, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2011.
- David Crowley, "The Art of Cybernetic Communism", 2011.
 See also
new art practices (1970s)
- 1970s: Woody Vasulka (Prague/New York City), Jozef Robakowski (Lodz), Wojciech Bruszewski (Lodz), Antoni Mikołajczyk (Lodz), Ryszard Waśko (Lodz), Nuša and Srečo Dragan (Ljubljana), Miha Vipotnik (Ljubljana), Sanja Iveković (Zagreb), Dalibor Martinis (Zagreb), Goran Trbuljak (Zagreb), Ivan Faktor (Osijek)
- 1980s: Pawel Kwiek (Warsaw), Petr Skala (Prague), Team T group, Izabella Gustowska (Poznań), Yach-Film group, Marina Abramović (Novi Sad/Belgrade/Amsterdam), Raša Todosijević (Belgrade), Krzysztof Wodiczko (Warsaw/New York City/Boston)
- 1990s: Peter Rónai (Bratislava), Cãlin Dan (Bucharest/Amsterdam), Apsolutno group (Novi Sad), Ando Keskküla (Tallinn), Jaan Toomik (Tallinn), Deimantas Narkevicius (Vilnius), Ryszard Kluszczynski (theorist, Lodz/Poznan)
April Meetings festival (Belgrade, 1972-77), Video CD biennial (Ljubljana, 1983-89), WRO Biennale (Wroclaw, since 1989), Sub Voce exhibition (Budapest, 1991), French-Baltic-Nordic Video and New Media Festival (Riga/Vilnius/Tallinn, *1992), Ex Oriente Lux exhibition (Bucharest, 1993), Videomedeja festival (Novi Sad, *1996), New Video, New Europe exhibition (Chicago, 2004), E.U. Positive exhibition (Berlin, 2004), Instant Europe (Udine, 2005)
- FAVIT, Ljubljana, 1970s
- Student Cultural Center, Belgrade, since 1970s
- Infermental, Berlin and international, 1980s
- ŠKUC, Ljubljana, 1980s
- Video Salon, Prague, late 1980s
- WRO, Wroclaw, 1990s-2000s
- Transitland archive, 1990s-2000s
 See also
 New media art, Media culture
mailing list, discussion forum, media lab (1990s-2000s), net art (1990s), streaming, tactical media, hacker culture, audiovisual performance, digital signal processing (DSP), Pure Data, Max/MSP, vvvvv, SuperCollider, online social network
- 1990s-2000s: János Sugár (Budapest), Miloš Vojtěchovský (Prague), Keiko Sei (Prague/Brno), Nina Czegledy (Budapest/Toronto), Stephen Kovats (Dessau), Silver (Prague), Alexei Shulgin (Moscow/London), Olia Lialina (Moscow), Inke Arns (Berlin), Rasa Smite and Raitis Smits (Riga), Luchezar Boyadjiev (Sofia), Cãlin Dan (Bucharest), Vuk Ćosić (Ljubljana), Marko Peljhan (Ljubljana), Igor Štromajer (Ljubljana), John Grzinich (Mooste), Ákos Maróy (Budapest/New York City), Petko Dourmana (Sofia), Ivor Diosi (Bratislava/Prague), Guy van Belle (Brussels/Bratislava), Jakub Nepraš (Prague), Rene Beekman (Amsterdam/Sofia), Krassimir Terziev (Sofia)
The Media Are With Us conference (Budapest, 1990), Ostranenie (Dessau, 1993/95/97/99), Orbis Fictus exhibition (Prague, 1994), Hi-tech/Art exhibition and symposium series (Brno, 1994-97), MetaForum conferences (Budapest, 1994-96), Butterfly Effect (Budapest, 1996), Dawn of the Magicians? (Prague, 1996-97), LEAF conference (Liverpool, 1997), Beauty and the East Nettime conference (Ljubljana, 1997), Communication Front (Plovdiv, 1999-2001), Media Forum (Moscow, *2000), Enter Multimediale festival (Prague, 2000/05/07/09), Multiplace festival (Bratislava/Prague/Brno/international, *2002), FM@dia (Prague, 2004), Trans european Picnic (Novi Sad, 2004), Remake exhibition (Brno/Bratislava/Cluj, 2012).
- Soros Center of Contemporary Arts (loose) network: C3 (Budapest), Ljudmila (Ljubljana), Radio Jeleni (Prague), MediaArtLab (Moscow), mid 1990s-early 2000s
- V2_East / Syndicate, international, mid 1990s-2000
- Nettime, international, mid 1990s-2000s
- Media Research Foundation and C3, Budapest, 1990s
- Arkzin, Zagreb, 1990s
- Terminal Bar and NoD Media Lab, Prague, mid 1990s-early 2000s
- E-lab and RIXC, Riga, mid 1990s-2000s
- Kuda.org, Novi Sad, mid 1990s-2000s
- Stephen Kovats (ed.), Media Revolution. Electronic Media in the Transformation Process of Eastern and Central Europe. (German title: Ost-West Internet.) Edition Bauhaus 6, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/M. and New York, 1999. 381 pp., illus. (All texts Engl. and German.) ISBN: 3-593-36365-8. With CD-Rom: Ostranenie 93 - 95 - 97. Bauhaus Dessau Foundation, Dessau, 1999. Mac & PC. ISBN: 3-910022-30-8, . Review by Andreas Broeckmann
- and Ostranenie 93, 95, 97 catalogues
- Syndicate Publication Series
- Inke Arns (ed.) 1996 V2_East Meeting. Syndicate Publication Series 000.   
- Inke Arns and Andreas Broeckmann (eds.) Deep Europe: The 1996 - 97 edition. Selected texts from the V2_East / Syndicate mailing list (143 pp.), Syndicate Publication Series 001, Berlin, October 1997. 
- Inke Arns (ed.) Junction Skopje: The 1997 - 1998 Edition. Syndicate Publication Series 002. 
- ZKP series 1-6, 1996-2001, 
- ZKP1. Amsterdam, January 1996 
- ZKP2. Madrid June 1996. 
- ZKP3. Budapest, October 1996. 
- ZKP3.2.1. Ljubljana, November 1996. 
- (ZKP4) Pit Schultz, Diana McCarty, Geert Lovink, Vuk Cosic (eds.), The Beauty and the East. Ljubljana, May 1997. 
- (ZKP5) Josephine Bosma, Pauline van Mourik Broekman, Ted Byfield, Matthew Fuller, Geert Lovink, Diana McCarty, Pit Schultz, Felix Stadler, McKenzie Wark, Faith Wilding (editors). README! Filtered by NETTIME: ASCII Culture and the Revenge of Knowledge. New York: Autonomedia, February 1999. 556 pages. ISBN: 1570270899. 
- (NKP6) Net.art Per Me. Catalogue of the Slovenian Pavillion. Venice Biennale 2001. 
- Rossitza Daskalova, "The ground for net.art in the former Eastern Block (Central and Eastern Europe)", 2001, 
- Rossitza Daskalova, "Web projects" reviews, 2001, 
- Inke Arns and Andreas Broeckmann, "Small Media Normality for the East", Jun 1997. , (German version)
- Inke Arns (ed.), "New Media Cultures in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe", Convergence: Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 4, No. 2, University of Luton Press / GB, Summer 1998 [ISSN 1354-8565] [ISBN 1-86020-032-X]. 
- Slavomír Krekovič, "New Media Culture. Internet as a Tool of Cultural Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe", 2003. In Crossing Boundaries: From Syria to Slovakia, ed. S. Jakelic and J. Varsoke, Vienna: IWM Junior Visiting Fellows' Conferences, Vol. 14. 
- Dušan Barok, Magdaléna Kobzová (eds.), Save Before It's Gone, 2006. Includes interviews with Dirk Paesmans, Maja Kuzmanovic, Darko Fritz, and Andrei Smirnov. 
- Barbora Šedivá (ed.), 3/4 magazine: Special issue on media art history: Remake, No. 27-28, Bratislava: Atrakt Art, 2012. (English/Slovak) 
 See also
 Media theory
Vilém Flusser (Prague/Germany/Brazil)
 Art theory, history, and criticism
Jindřich Chalupecký (Prague), Tomáš Štrauss (Bratislava/Germany), Ješa Denegri (Belgrade), Bojana Pejić (Belgrade/Berlin), Jiří Valoch (Prague), Boris Groys (Moscow/Berlin), Igor Zabel (Ljubljana), Miško Šuvaković (Belgrade), Marina Gržinić (Ljubljana), Miklós Peternák (Budapest), Piotr Piotrowski (Poznan/Warsaw), Viktor Misiano (Moscow), Éva Forgács (Budapest/Pasadena), Keiko Sei (Brno/Karlsruhe/Thailand), Tomáš Pospiszyl (Prague), IRWIN (Ljubljana), Boris Buden (Zagreb), Georg Schöllhammer (Vienna), Reuben Fowkes (Budapest), Gerald Raunig (Vienna), Dejan Sretenović (Belgrade), Dmitry Vilensky (St. Petersburg), David Crowley.
Third Text, Springerin magazine (Vienna), Tranzit (Vienna), EIPCP (and Transversal journal, Vienna), Chto delat (St. Petersburg), SocialEast, Prelom magazine (Belgrade), IDEA Arts+Society magazine (Cluj), ARTMargins (int), Artyčok (Prague)
 Local histories
Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kosova, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Slovenia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States.
 See also
Contributors include Dušan Barok, Guy van Belle, Nina Czegledy, Lenka Dolanová, Eva Krátká, Magdaléna Kobzová, Barbora Šedivá, Joanna Walewska, Darko Fritz, Miro A. Cimerman, Matko Meštrović, Paul Stubbs, Rarita Szakats, Călin Man, Raluca Velisar, Miklós Peternák, János Sugár, Pit Schultz, Diana McCarty, Barbara Huber, Maxigas, Miloš Vojtěchovský, Grzegorz Klaman, František Zachoval, Sølve N.T. Lauvås, and many others.