Book - Chronology

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  • prve počítače vo vychodnom bloku vyvinuli Sovieti--najprv v Kyjeve (MESM; Kiev), potom v Moskve (BESM; Strela; TsEM-1; M-20; Setun), Minsku (M-3) a Penze (Ural), prvy v roku 1950; nasledovali Cesi (SAPO v 1956), Rumuni (CIFA-1 v 1957), Madari (MESz-1 v 1958; M-3 v 1959) a Poliaci (Odra v 1959); v 1963 vyvinuli prvy pocitac v Juhoslavii (CER-10); o par rokov neskor uz Sovieti svojim satelitom zacali distribuovat vlastne kompy--Ural, cca od zaciatku 60s, islo vzdy len o par kusov najma na vyskumne a obranne ucely; od 1967 sa vyrazne zvysil nakup pocitacov do ZSSR od Americanov; od 1972 Sovieti zacali masovo vyrabat klony vtedajsieho americkeho IBM, nazvane ES EVM, stali sa standardom pre cely blok, vyrabali sa az do 90tych rokov, niektore modely serie vyvinuli aj Bulhari, Madari, Poliaci, Cechoslovaci, Rumuni a Nemci; slo o taky standard, ze napriklad ked v Polsku vyvinul jeden vedec rychlejsi a lacnejsi pocitac v 1973, tak nakoniec nesiel do masovej vyroby, lebo nebol kompatibilny s ES EVM; v 1986-87 vznikli v tejto serii aj verzie osobnych pocitacov. k tejto teme vysli zatial len tri knihy, ktore mapuju vyvoj pocitacov, resp kybernetiky v Sovietskom zvaze.


  • (Ukraine; USSR) In 1950, when the model of MESM computer (the fist digital programmable computer in Continental Europe developed by the research group in Theophania near Kiev led by Sergei Lebedev) had been tested, the only other similar working machines were Frederick Williams and Tom Kilburn's Baby and Maurice Wilkes' EDSAC in England (however, each British computer employed a sequential operational arithmetic unit, while MESM worked on parallel arithmetic units). When the word got out that there was an operating computer in the Ukraine, a steady parade of scientists from Kiev and Moscow headed to Pheophania with scientific and defense-related problems that could not be solved without the aid of a computer -- problems from the fields of thermonuclear weapons processes (such as Yakov B. Zeldovich's work), space flights and rocket technology, long-distance electric transmission lines, mechanics, statistical quality control, and others.
  • (USSR) At the time of completion, in 1952, BESM developed in Moscow was the fastest computer in Europe.
  • (USSR) M-20 developed in Moscow in 1958 was capable of 20 thousand operations per second, fastest in the world at that time
  • (USSR; COMECON) In early 60s, the COMECON made a decision at this time, which was accepted by all Socialist countries, that the computers will be developed only in the Soviet Union, and that other countries will buy, rather than develop, computers -- eg. Ural-series.
  • (USSR; USA) In 1965 only $5,000 worth of electronic computers and parts were shipped from the United States to the Soviet Union, and only $2,000 worth in 1966. This changed in 1967. Computer exports increased to $1,079,000 and a higher rate of export of U.S. electronic computers to the USSR has been maintained to the present time under constant lobbying pressure from U.S. businessmen and their trade associations. [1]
  • (USSR; USA) when Soviet government decided to copy the IBM 360 system in the 1960s instead of relying on their own enormous community of scientific and engineering talent, Lebedev, Glushkov, and several of the Soviet Union’s established computer scientists fought this directive vigilantly while trying to retain faith in their political leaders.
  • (USSR; USA) In 1974-1976 IBM had contacted the Soviet authorities and expressed interest in ES EVM development (series of clones of IBM's System/360, System/370 and System/390 mainframes); however, after the Soviet Army invaded Afghanistan, in 1979, all contacts between IBM and ES developers were interrupted, due to the US embargo on technological cooperation with the USSR.
  • (Poland) K-202 was first Polish 16-bit minicomputer invented by Jacek Karpiński between 1971-1973. It was faster and cheaper than the Odra computer, but the production was shunned because of political reasons - it was not compatible with the ES EVM standard.

  • (video art; exp film; Poland) in 1970s strong support for artists working with 16mm from the state in Poland => strong experimental film scene; video art postponed