Georges Canguilhem

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Georges Canguilhem (4 June 1904 – 11 September 1995) was a French philosopher and physician who specialized in epistemology and the philosophy of science (in particular, biology).


(in French unless noted)


  • Essai sur quelques problèmes concernant le normal et le pathologique, 1943; repr. as Le Normal et le Pathologique; new ed. as Nouvelles Réflexions concernant le normal et le pathologique, 1966; 9th ed., Paris: PUF/Quadrige, 2005.
  • La Connaissance de la vie, 1952; exp ed., Paris: Vrin, 1965; 1992.
    • Knowledge of Life, eds. Paola Marrati and Todd Meyers, trans. Stefanos Geroulanos and Daniela Ginsburg, New York: Fordham University Press, 2008. (English)
  • La Formation du concept de réflexe aux xviie et xviiie siècles, Paris: PUF, 1955.
  • with Georges Lapassade, Jean Piquerol and Jacques Ulmann, Du développement à l’évolution au xixe siècle, 1962; Paris: PUF/Quadrige, 2003.
  • Études d'histoire et de philosophie des sciences concernant les vivants et la vie, 1968; 7th ed., Paris: Vrin, 1990.
  • Idéologie et rationalité dans l'histoire des sciences de la vie, 1977; Paris: Vrin, 2009.
    • Ideology and Rationality in the History of the Life Sciences, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, MIT Press, 1988. (English)

Selected book chapters and essays

  • "Machine et organisme", in Canguilhem, La Connaissance de la vie, Hachette, 1952, pp 124-159.
    • "Machine and Organism", trans. Mark Cohen and Randall Cherry, in Incorporations, ed. Jonathan Crary and Sanford Kwinter, New York: Zone Books, 1992, pp 44-69. (English)
    • "Machine and Organism", in Canguilhem, Knowledge of Life, 2008, pp 75-98. (English)