Aleksei Kruchenykh

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Aleksei Eliseevich Kruchenykh (also Kruchonykh, Kruchyonykh; Алексей Елисеевич Крученых; 1886-1968) was a well-known poet of the Russian "Silver Age", perhaps the most radical poet of Russian Futurism, a movement that included Vladimir Mayakovsky, David Burliuk and others. Together with Velimir Khlebnikov, Kruchenykh is considered the inventor of zaum.

Kruchenykh was born to a peasant family in the Kherson province of Ukraine. After graduating from the Odessa School of Art in 1906, he studied painting independently and taught graphic art in secondary schools. When he moved to Moscow, Kruchenykh shifted from painting to poetry. In 1912, David Burliuk introduced him to Mayakovsky and Khlebnikov, and his subsequent collaborations with poets and visual artists achieved a revolution in book art. The same year he married Olga Rozanova, an avant-garde artist. He wrote the libretto for the Futurist opera Victory Over the Sun (1913), with sets provided by Kazimir Malevich. During the Civil War, Kruchenykh worked in railway construction in the Caucasus and founded the Futurist society 41° in Tiflis (now Tbilisi). He joined Mayakovsky's LEF in Moscow in 1923. After the Communist Party denounced Futurism in Soviet literature, Kruchenykh ceased writing zaum’ and became an archivist. He died in Moscow. [1]



  • with V., N. and D. Burliuk, Kamensky, Guro, Khlebnikov, et al., Sadok sudey [Садок Судей], St Petersburg: Zhuravl' [Журавль], [Apr 1910], 131 pp, JPG, IA, HTML. (Russian)
  • with Velimir Khlebnikov, Igra v adu [Игра в аду; A Game in Hell], illustr. Natalia Goncharova, Moscow: [Kuzmin & Dolinsky], Aug 1912; new ed., illustr. Olga Rozanova and Kazimir Malevich, late 1913.
  • Starinnaya lyubov [Старинная любовь; Old-Time Love], illustr. Mikhail Larionov, [Moscow]: [Kuzmin & Dolinsky], cAug 1912; new ed., illustr. Kruchenykh, Olga Rozanova and Nikolai Kulbin, 1913.
  • with Velimir Khlebnikov, Mirskontsa [Мирсконца; Worldbackwards], illustr. Mikhail Larionov, Natalia Goncharova, Vladimir Tatlin, and I. Rogovin, [Moscow]: [Kuzmin & Dolinsky], 1912, 43 pp.
  • with David Burliuk, Nikolai Burliuk, Wassily Kandinsky, Benedikt Livshits, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Victor Khlebnikov, Poshchechina obshchestvennomu vkusu. V zashchitu svobodnogo iskusstva. Stikhi, proza, stat’i [Пощёчина общественному вкусу. В защиту свободного искусства: Стихи, проза, статьи; A Slap in the Face of Public Taste: In Defense of Free Art: Poems, Prose, Essays], Moscow: Georgy L. Kuzmin, Dec 1912, 114 pp.
  • Poluzhivoi [Half Alive], illustr. Mikhail Larionov, [Moscow]: [Kuzmin & Dolinsky], early 1913.
  • Pustynniki [Hermits], [Moscow]: [Kuzmin & Dolinsky], early 1913.
  • Pomada [Pomade], [Moscow]: [Kuzmin & Dolinsky], Jan 1913.

Collected writings[edit]


See also[edit]