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The Congrès internationaux d'architecture moderne (CIAM), or International Congresses of Modern Architecture, was an organization founded in 1928 and disbanded in 1959, responsible for a series of events and congresses arranged across Europe by the most prominent architects of the time, with the objective of spreading the principles of the Modern Movement focusing in all the main domains of architecture (such as landscape, urbanism, industrial design, and many others).


  • 1928, CIAM I, La Sarraz, Switzerland, Foundation of CIAM.
  • 1929, CIAM II, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, on The Minimum Dwelling.
  • 1930, CIAM III, Brussels, Belgium, on Rational Land Development (Rationelle Bebauungsweisen).
  • 1933, CIAM IV, Athens, Greece, on The Functional City (Die funktionelle Stadt).
  • 1937, CIAM V, Paris, France, on Dwelling and Recovery.
  • 1947, CIAM VI, Bridgwater, England, (untitled).
  • 1949, CIAM VII, Bergamo, Italy, on The Athens Charter in Practice.
  • 1951, CIAM VIII, Hoddesdon, England, on The Heart of the City.
  • 1953, CIAM IX, Aix-en-Provence, France, on Habitat.
  • 1956, CIAM X, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, on Habitat.
  • 1959, CIAM XI, Otterlo, the Netherlands, organized dissolution of CIAM by Team 10.


  • Rassegna 52: "The Last CIAMs", Princeton Architectural Press, Dec 1992, 117 pp.
  • Eric Mumford, The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, 1928-1960, foreword Kenneth Frampton, MIT Press, 2000. Excerpts: [1], [2], [3]. Summary in Spanish. Review: Sansbury (H-Net).
  • Mitchell Schwarzer, "CIAM: City at the End of History", in Autonomy and Ideology: Positioning the Avant-Garde, New York: Monacelli Press, 1997, pp 232-261.
  • Atlas of the Functional City: CIAM 4 and Comparative Urban Analysis, eds. Evelien van Es, Gregor Harbusch, Bruno Maurer, Muriel Pérez, Kees Somer and Daniel Weiss, Zürich: gta, 2014, 480 pp. (German)