Clifford Geertz

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Clifford James Geertz (August 23, 1926 – October 30, 2006) was an American anthropologist who is known for his work in symbolic anthropology. He served until his death as professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton.


(in English unless noted otherwise)


Religion of Java, 1970/1976, PDF.
  • Religion of Java, Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1960, 386 pp; rev. ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976, 415 pp, PDF, PDF, ARG. Review
Agricultural Involution, 1963, PDF.
  • Agricultural Involution: The Processes of Ecological Change in Indonesia, University of California Press, 1963, PDF, PDF, ARG.
    • Inboryushyon: uchi ni mukau hatten [インボリューション: 内に向かう発展], trans. Yukio Ikemoto [池本幸生], Tokyo: Enutitishyuppan = NTT S'yuppan [東京 - NTT 出版], 2001, 287 pp. (Japanese)
  • Peddlers and Princess: Social Change and Economic Modernization in Two Indonesian Towns (Modjokuto, Java & Tabanan, Bali, Indonesia), Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963, 162 pp.
  • editor, Old Societies and New States: The Quest for Modernity in Asia and Africa, New-York & London: The Free Press of Glencoe/ Collier-Macmillan, 1963, 310 pp.
  • The Social History of an Indonesian Town, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965, 217 pp.
  • Person, Time, and Conduct in Bali: An Essay in Cultural Analysis, New-Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966.
    • Bali: interpretation d'une culture, 1959-1973. Essais ethnographiques', trans. Louis Švrard and Denise Paulme, Paris: Gallimard, 1983, 255 pp. (French).
  • Islam Observed, Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia, University of Chicago Press, 1968; 1971, PDF.
  • The Interpretation of Cultures, New York: Basic Books, 1973, Log.
    • A interpretação das culturas, Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 1989; 2008, Log. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Interpretace kultur: Vybrané eseje, trans. Hana Červinková, Václav Hubinger and Hedvika Humlíčková, 2000, Log. (Czech)
    • La interpretación de las culturas, trans. Alberto L. Bixio, Barcelona: Gedisa, 2003, Log. (Spanish)
    • Interpretatsiya kultur [Интерпретация культур], trans. О.В. Барсукова, A.A. Борзунов, Г.М. Дашевский, Е.M. Лазарева and В.Г. Николаев, 2004, Log. (Russian)
  • with Hildred Geertz, Kinship in Bali, University of Chicago Press, 1975, PDF.
  • with H. Geertz and L. Rosen, Meaning and Order in Moroccan Society, Cambridge University Press, 1979, PDF.
  • Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth Century Bali, Princeton University Press, 1980, PDF.
  • Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology, Basic Books, 1983, PDF; 2000.
    • O saber local. Novos ensaios em antropologia interpretativa, trans. Vera Mello Joscelyne, Petropolis: Vozes, 1988, Scribd. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Conocimiento local: ensayos sobre la interpretación de las culturas, trans. Alberto López Bargados, Barcelona: Paidós Ibérica, 1994, PDF. (Spanish)
  • "The Uses of Diversity", in Tanner Lectures on Human Values 7, ed. Sterling M. McMurrin, Cambridge University Press, and University of Utah Press, 1986, pp 251-275.
    • Los usos de la diversidad, trans. José Nicolau La Roda, Nicolás Sánchez Dura and Alfredo Taberna, Barcelona: Paidós Ibérica, 1996, PDF. (Spanish)
  • Works and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author, Stanford University Press, 1988, PDF.
  • Available Light: Anthropological Reflections on Philosophical Topics, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000, PDF, ARG.
  • Life Among the Anthros and Other Essays, Princeton University Press, 2010, PDF.
  • Sūq: Geertz on the Market, ed. & intro. Lawrence Rosen, Chicago: HAU Books, 2022, 255 pp, PDF.

Journal issues[edit]

  • editor, Daedalus 101(1): "Myth, Symbol and Culture", American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Winter 1972; repr. as Myth, Symbol, and Culture, New York: Norton, 1974, 240 pp.

Book chapters, papers, articles[edit]

  • "Religion as a Cultural System", in Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays, Fontana Press, 1993, pp 87-125, PDF.
  • "An Inconstant Profession: The Anthropological Life in Interesting Times", Annual Review of Anthropology 31 (2002), pp 1-19, PDF.