Fernand Edmond Jean Marie Khnopff (12 September 1858 – 12 November 1921) was a Belgian symbolist artist (painter, illustrator, sculptor and photographer). He became a popular society portraitist in the 1880s, using elements that had served him well as an avant-garde Symbolist painter: visual realism and a mood of silence, isolation, and reverie.
- Gisèle Ollinger-Zinque, "Fernand Khnopff et la Photographie", Art et Photographie, Bruxelles, 1980:pp. 19-29.
- Michel Draguet, Fernand Khnopff: Portrait of Jeanne Kéfer, Los Angeles: Getty Museum studies on art, 2004.