Iakov Chernikhov

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Born December 17, 1889(1889-12-17)
Pavlohrad, Yekaterinoslav Governorate (now Dnepropetrovsk region), Russian Empire
Died May 9, 1951(1951-05-09) (aged 61)
Moscow, Soviet Union
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Iakov Georgievich Chernikhov (Яков Георгиевич Чернихов; 1889–1951) was a Constructivist architect and graphic artist.

Life and work[edit]

This section is sourced from the website of ICIF.

Iakov Chernikhov was born on the 17th of December, 1889 in Pavlograd, Ekaterinoslav province (now Dnepropetrovsk region) and was the 12th child in the family. In 1906 he left Pavlograd for Odessa and entered the Odessa Art School that was a branch of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. To earn his living young Chernikhov worked as a docker, carton factory worker, passe-partout maker, retoucher/ photographer, and as an architect assistant to design and construct the Odessa Commercial and Industrial Exhibition, due to which he had early commanded various aspects of graphical skills.

In 1914, having graduated from the Art School, he moved to St. Petersburg (from the 31st of August 1914 – Petrograd, from the 26th of January 1924 – Leningrad) and entered the Academy of Arts, the faculty of painting, and simultaneously took courses of the Higher Pedagogical Academy. In 1916 Iakov Chernikhov switched to the architectural faculty and in 1925 he graduated it as a certified architect / artist. Among his professors were such classical school educators as Kiriak Kastandi and Gennadiy Ladyzhensky in Odessa, Vladimir Becklemishev, Dmitriy Kardovsky, Georgiy Kosyakov, Ivan Fomin and his main schoolmaster — architecture academician Leontiy Benua — in Petrograd.

Iakov Chernikhov launched his independent career in perspective art and graphics in 1912; in the same year he began his educational practice, which lasted all of his life. In 1927 Iakov Chernikhov established his own Science and Research Pilot Laboratory for Architectural Forms and Graphical Studies to get actively involved, together with his disciples and assistants, in experimental and design work.

Relatively late, having joined the Constructivism movement, when the climax of laboratory researches were behind (late 1920s – early 1930s), Chernikhov published his books of architectural fantasies that made him known: Osnovy sovremennoy arkhitektury (Basics of Modern Architecture, 1929-30), Konstruktsiya arkhitekturnykh i mashinnykh form (Design of Architectural and Machine Forms, 1931), and Arkhitekturnye fantazii. 101 kompozitsiya (Architectural Fantasies. 101 Compositions, 1933). Perfectly formatted and printed, they have become a source of inspiration to many generations of architects.

In 1933 was opened an exhibition of Iakov Chernikhov's works 2222 Architectural Fantasies, arranged in Anichkov Palace, under the direction of Sergey Kirov.

Publications[edit]

  • Iskusstvo nachertaniya [Искусство начертания], 1927.
  • Geometricheskoye chercheniye [Геометрическое черчение], 1928.
  • Osnovy sovremennoy arkhitektury [Основы современной архитектуры], 1930; 2nd ed., Leningrad: Leningradskoye obshchestvo arkhitektorov, 1931, 96+[3] pp, 31 x 22 cm, edition of 3150. [1]
  • Ornament [Орнамент], Leningrad, self-published, 1931.
  • Konstruktsiya arkhitekturnykh i mashinnykh form [Конструкция архитектурных и машинных форм], Leningrad: Leningradskoe obchestvo arkhitektorov, 1931, 232+[2] pp, 30 х 21.3 cm, edition of 5150.
  • Arkhitekturnye fantazii. 101 kompozitsiya [Архитектурные фантазии. 101 композиция], Leningrad: Mezhdunarodnaya kniga, 1933.
  • Postroyenie shriftov [Построение шрифтов] [1958], ed. N.A. Sobolev (Н.А. Соболев), Moscow: Architektura-S, 2007, 116 pp.

Literature[edit]

Links[edit]