In-Out Center

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In-Out Center was the first independent artist space in Amsterdam. From 1972 until 1974 it offered a platform for everything that was new at the time: performances, video art, visual poetry, audio art, conceptual art and artist books.

Its nine members came from Latin America, Iceland and The Netherlands. Michel Cardena, Raul Marroquin, Ulises Carrión, Hreinn Fridfinnsson, Sigurdur Gudmundsson, Kristján Gudmundsson, Hetty Huisman, Pieter Laurens Mol and gerrit jan de rook contributed to the experimental art climate in Amsterdam, a city they admired for its open and free spirit. Each member invited befriended artists to exhibit, which enhanced the space’s exciting international character. It was an inspiring scene to visitors. While in residence at In-Out Center, Ulises Carrión self-published five artists' books through the imprint In-Out Productions: "Sonnet(s)", "Dancing with You", "Tell Me What Sort of Wallpaper Your Room Has and I Will Tell You Who You Are", "amor, la palabra", and "Speeds". [1]

In 1975, soon after In-Out Center was closed, Wies Smals founded De Appel in part to ensure a space for performances. Ulises Carrión’s Other Books and So (1975-1979) was another off-shoot from In-Out Center.


  1. Maderuelo, Javier, "Ulises Carrión, Escritor," Heras (Cantabria), Spain: Ediciones La Bahía, 2016.