Ludwig von Bertalanffy
Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901 – June 12, 1972) was an Austrian-born biologist known as one of the founders of general systems theory (GST). GST is an interdisciplinary practice that describes systems with interacting components, applicable to biology, cybernetics, and other fields. Bertalanffy proposed that the classical laws of thermodynamics applied to closed systems, but not necessarily to "open systems", such as living things. His mathematical model of an organism's growth over time, published in 1934, is still in use today.
- Biologie und Medizin, 1946. (German)
- Robots, Men and Minds, New York: G. Brazilier, 1967. Reviews: G. A. Hilgartnera (World Futures, 1971), Marjorie C. Meehan (JAMA, 1968), T. G. Bever (The American Journal of Psychology, 1971), Alicia Lozano Mascarua (c1974, ES).
- General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications, New York: George Braziller, 1968, xv+289 pp.
- T.E. Weckowicz, Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972): A Pioneer of General Systems Theory, University of Alberta Center for Systems Research, Working Paper No. 89-2.