Zdeněk Mlynář

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Zdeněk Mlynář (born Zdeněk Müller, 22 June 1930, Vysoké Mýto, Czechoslovakia – 15 April 1997, Vienna, Austria) was a politician, lawyer, political scientist and Charter 77 signatory. He was a close associate of Alexander Dubček, the leader of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, whose short-lived experiment to launch "socialism with a human face" was brought to an abrupt end by the Soviet-led military invasion in August 1968. Mlynář wrote the political manifesto "Towards a Democratic Political Organisation of Society" which was released on 5 May 1968, at the height of the Prague Spring. He also wrote, while in exile in Vienna, an autobiographical account of the Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact invasion that put an end to it in August 1968, Mráz přichází z Kremlu (1978). It was published in an English translation as Nightfrost in Prague: The End of Humane Socialism (1980).

Life and work[edit]

Based on an obituary by Gabriel Partos.

Born in Vysoke Myto, in eastern Bohemia, in 1930, Mlynář joined the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (CPCz) at the age of 16 and worked for the party's youth wing after secondary school. Like many Communists of his generation, he was sent to the Soviet Union to complete his education. Between 1951 and 1955 he studied at the law faculty of Moscow's Lomonosov University where he and Mikhail Gorbachev became, in Mlynář's words, "a pair of close friends".

A year after his return to Prague, Mlynář joined the Institute for State and Law of the Academy of Sciences. In the mid-1960s, as the long winter of Communist orthodoxy was beginning to be assailed by the first harbingers of the Prague Spring, Mlynář became a senior official in the CPCz's legal affairs department. The economic downturn in the early 1960s and the failure of Antonín Novotný, the long-standing CPCz leader, to follow the de-Stalinisation programmes of some of his Communist neighbours, had fuelled widespread discontent which, in turn, prompted growing demands for change within and outside the party.

It was in these conditions that in 1967 Mlynář became head of an inter-disciplinary research team whose task was to work on the development of democracy in the Communist system. This provided the theoretical foundations for the Alexander Dubček leadership's Action Programme of April 1968, a substantial part of which was written or inspired by Mlynář. Dubček had become the CPCz's leader in January 1968, and within weeks Czechoslovakia was embarking on a new path which brought the end of censorship, the re-emergence of non-Communist organisations and the promise of far-reaching market-oriented economic reforms. Mlynář was already an influential figure; as the pace of change accelerated, he was promoted in June to become one of the secretaries of the CPCz's Central Committee which, at the age of 38, made him the youngest member of the leadership.

Mlynář, like Dubček and many other reformers, believed that the Kremlin would allow them to carry on with their reforms as long as they assured the Soviet leadership of their loyalty to Moscow, stayed within the Soviet bloc and prevented the re-establishment of viable non-Communist parties. That turned out to be asomewhat naive assumption - the more so because as Mlynář was to recall in Nightfrost in Prague (1980), his insider's account of the events of 1968, János Kadár, the Hungarian leader, had warned Dubček of the dangers ahead represented by Brezhnev, asking rhetorically whether Dubček realized who he was dealing with. The Soviet-led invasion on 21 August put an end to the Czechoslovak experiment with humane socialism.

Mlynář was with the rest of the Czechoslovak leadership that was kidnapped by the invaders and whose members were forced to negotiate under duress in Moscow to give their qualified blessing to the Soviet military presence in the country. He was then elected to the CPCz's decision-making Presidium (Politburo) at the party's secret Congress held under the noses of the invading troops in a factory in the Prague suburb of Vysočany.

But as the Soviet military presence and the Kremlin's pressure weakened the reformers, Mlynář resigned his posts just three months after the invasion. In 1970 he was expelled from the CPCz and was sacked from his job at the Academy. For the next seven years he worked in the entomology department of the National Museum. This was not the only punishment he suffered; Vladimír, his son, was barred from going to university and worked as a hospital orderly.

Mlynář became one of the first signatories of Charter '77, the dissident human rights movement, when it was established in January 1977. But a few months later Mlynář and his second wife, Irena Dubská, were allowed to leave the country and they settled in Austria.

He worked at the Austrian Institute for International Policy (Österreichisches Institut für Internationale Politik) in Laxenburg, outside Vienna, from 1982 till 1989, lectured at Innsbruck University from 1989 to 1993 and became a much-quoted commentator on Soviet-bloc affairs, particularly after Mikhail Gorbachev's accession to power. Following the Velvet Revolution of November 1989, there were rumours that Gorbachev's reform-minded KGB and their Czechoslovak collaborators had plotted to install Mlynář as the leader of a revamped CPCz to prevent the complete collapse of communism. Mlynář always denied these allegations for which no conclusive evidence has ever come to light.

In the 1990s Mlynář divided his time between Austria and Prague where he became active in Czech politics and was elected honorary chairman of the Left Bloc - a small group of reform Communists who occupied the ground between the Communist Party and the Social Democrats. He stood for parliament in 1996's elections in which the Left Bloc failed to secure a single seat. As a Communist reformer of the 1968 generation, Mlynář was intensely critical of the all-out drive towards a largely unregulated market economy that followed the Velvet Revolution.

He stayed loyal to many of the ideals of the Prague Spring - an attitude that was largely out of step with Czech thinking in the 1990s.

Mlynář died of lung cancer in 1997.

Zdeněk Mlynář was married to economist and translator Rita Budínová (1931-1993) from 1956-1967. Their daughter Milena Bartlová (1958) is an art historian, the son Vladimír Mlynář (1966) is a manager. In 1968, he married sociologist and philosopher Irena Dubská (1924-2010).

Publications, interviews[edit]

  • Z dějin západoevropských politických ideologií. 1, Renesance a reformace, Prague: Státní nakl. politické literatury (SNPL), 1961, 304 pp. [1] (Czech)
  • K teorii socialistické demokracie, Prague: Státní nakl. politické literatury (SNPL), 1961, 205 pp. [2] (Czech)
  • Funkce práva v naší společnosti: referát z celostátního semináře k otázkám státu a práva, Prague: Československá společnost pro šíření politických a vědeckých znalostí, 1964, 33 pp. (Czech)
Stát a člověk, 1964.
  • Stát a člověk: úvahy o politickém řízení za socialismu, Prague: Svobodné slovo, 1964, 191 pp. TOC. (Czech)
    • "L'État et l'homme", in La conception marxiste de l'homme, Paris: Ed. de la Nouvelle Critique, 1965. Trans. of the opening article. (French)
    • "El estado y el hombre", trans. Hugo Acevedo, in La concepción marxista del hombre, Buenos Aires: Arandu, 1966, pp 227-252. Trans. of the opening article. (Spanish)
    • "Stát a občan", intro. Jan Mervart and Joseph Grim Feinberg, Kontradikce 3:1, Prague, 2019, pp 202-204. Reprint of the opening article. [3] (Czech)
  • with Viktor Knapp, La Tchécoslovaquie, Paris: Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence (LGDJ), R. Pichon and R. Durand-Auzias, 1965, 263 pp. Review: Lesage (RIDC). (French)
  • Otázky rozvoje socialistické demokracie a státnosti. Záznam přednášky ze semináře "Základní problémy vývoje ČSSR", Prague: Čs. společ. PVZ, 1965, 31 pp. Lecture published on the occassion of 20th anniversary of ČSSR. (Czech)
  • "Problems of Political Leadership and the New Economic Mechanism", World Marxist Review 8:12, Prague, Dec 1965. [4] (English)
  • "Proč a jak se starat o politiku", in Mlynář et al., Hledání jistot: úvahy o věčné otázce, Prague: Mladá fronta, 1966, 154 pp. (Czech)
  • "Úvod", in Edvard Kardelj, Poznámky o naší společenské kritice, Prague: Svoboda, 1966. [5] (Czech)
  • with Václav Pavlíček, "Politická organizace ve vztahu k vyvoji sociální struktury socialistické společnosti", in Sociální struktura socialistické společnosti: Sociologické problémy soudobé československé společnosti, ed. Pavel Machonin, Prague: Svoboda, 1966, pp 642-659. Review: Macků (Sociologický Časopis). (Czech)
  • Bemerkungen über die Beziehung sozialistischer Politik und wissenschaftlich-technischer Revolution, Prague, 1967, 24 pp. (German)
  • with Milan Čermák and Eduard Kučera, Základní otázky teorie státu a soudobé typy státu, 2 vols., Prague: Vysoká škola politická ÚV KSČ, 1968, 198 & 135 pp. (Czech)
  • "K demokratické politické organizaci společnosti", Nová mysl 22:5, ed. Václav Hájek, Prague: Rudé právo, May 1968, pp 607-627. [8] (Czech)
    • "Towards a Democratic Political Organization of Society. May 5, 1968", in From Czechoslovakia: The Party and the People, eds. Andrew Oxley, Alex Pravda, and Andrew Ritchie, London: Allen Lane, 1973; repr., shortened, in From Stalinism to Pluralism: A Documentary History of Eastern Europe since 1945, ed. Gale Stakes, Oxford University Press, 1991, pp 123-125; 2nd ed., 1996. WP. (English)
Československý pokus o reformu 1968, 1975, PDF.
  • "Open Letter to Communist and Socialist Parties in Europe" [17 Sep 1975], in Voices of Czechoslovak Socialists, eds. Tamara Deutscher et al., London: Merlin, 1976. (English)
  • "Politická situace kolem Charty 77: Pokus o bilanci za leden 1977", in Dokumenty Charty 77, Jan 1977. Samizdat. (Czech)
    • "Autour de la Charta '77, la situation politique", Politique aujourd'hui 3-4: "Démocraties populaires: une opposition socialiste?", Paris, 1977. (French)
  • "První bilance Charty 77", Listy 7:2, ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, May 1977, pp 1-9. (Czech)
    • "Premier bilan de la Charte 77", Les Temps Modernes 372, Paris: Gallimard, Jul 1977, pp 2170-2177. [13] (French)
    • "A Charta 77 első mérlege", Budapest: Országgyűlési Könyvtár Információs és Dokumentációs Szolgálata, 19??, 11 pp. Typescript. (Hungarian)
Mráz přichází z Kremlu, 1978/1990, PDF.
  • Mráz přichází z Kremlu, Cologne: Index, 1978, 339 pp; 2nd ed., 1979, 343 pp; 4th ed., 1988, ix+336 pp; repr., new forew., Prague: Mladá Fronta, 1990, 283 pp; repr., Prague: Zeď, 2018, 277 pp. Excerpt in Listy 9:7, ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, Dec 1979, pp 46-50. Memoir; written 1977-1978. Review: Kalvoda (Nationalities Papers). [14] (Czech)
    • Nachtfrost: Erfahrungen auf dem Weg vom realen zum menschlichen Sozialismus, trans. Bedřich Uttiz, Cologne: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 1978, 366 pp; 2nd ed. as Nachtfrost: das Ende des Prager Frühlings, Frankfurt am Main: Athenäum, 1988, x+368 pp. Review: Skilling (Slavic R). (German)
    • "From Prague to Moscow: August 1968", intro. Robert J. Antonio, trans. Paul Wilson, Telos 41, New York: Telos Press, Dec 1979, pp 21-55. Trans. of excerpt. (English)
    • Nightfrost in Prague: The End of Humane Socialism, trans. Paul Wilson, New York: Karz, 1980, v+300 pp; London: Hurst, Dec 1980, 300 pp; repr., London: Hurst, 1986, 300 pp. Reviews: Antonio (Telos), Svitak (Telos), Wallace (Int'l Affairs), Zinner (Russian R), Wightman (Soviet Stud), Valenta (Am Pol Soc R), Eckstein (Dissent). (English)
    • Nattfrost: om försöken att bygga en mänsklig socialism i Tjeckoslovakien, trans. Gunnar Gällmo, Stockholm: Ordfront, 1980, 309 pp; audio book, Johanneshov: TPB, 2009, 18 hours (CD). (Swedish)
    • Yan han lai zi Kelimulin gong [严寒来自克里姆林宮], trans. Zheng Xin, Beijing: Shi jie zhi shi chu ban she, Apr 1980, 295 pp. (Chinese)
    • Yosamu: Puraha no haru no higeki [夜寒: プラハの春の悲劇], trans. Kenji Miura (三浦健次), Tokyo: Shinchi Shobō (新地書房), Nov 1980, iv+440 pp; 3rd ed., 1981. (Japanese)
    • Mróz ze Wschodu, trans. Piotr Godlewski (as Paweł Heartman), Warsaw: Niezależna Oficyna Wydawnicza, Mar 1981, 185 pp; repr., 3 vols., Gdynia: Komisja Zakładowa NSZZ "Solidarność" przy Wyższej Szkole Morskiej, 1981, 73 & 73 & 116 pp; repr., Warsaw: Niezależna Oficyna Wydawnicza, 1989, 207 pp. [15] (Polish)
    • Le Froid vient de Moscou: Prague 1968: du socialisme réel au socialisme à visage humain, trans. Guy Fritsch-Estrangin and Jeanne Marie Gaillard-Paquet, Paris: Gallimard, Apr 1981, 389 pp. Publisher. Review: Bouffard (Canadian J Pol Sci). (French)
    • Zdenek Mlynarzh (Зденек Млинарж), Kholodom veet ot Kremlya [Холодом веет от Кремля], trans. Larisa Silnitsky (Лариса Силницкая), New York: Problems of Eastern Europe, 1983, 299 pp; 2nd ed., 1988, 299 pp. [16] (Russian)
    • Mraz dolazi iz Kremlja, trans. Romeo Vikić, Zagreb: Globus, 1985, viii+323 pp. (Serbo-Croatian)
    • A Kreml felől jő a fagy, trans. Gyula Dénes, Budapest: AB Független, 1987, 418 pp; repr. as Prága, 1968, Paris: Magyar Füzetek, 1988, vi+253 pp. (Hungarian)
    • A Prágai Tavasz ... és ősz, trans. Iván Bába, Budapest: Vita, 1989, vi+242 pp; repr., Budapest: Kairosz, 2008, 340 pp. (Hungarian)
    • Zdenek Mlynarzh (Зденек Млынарж), Moroz udaril iz Kremlya [Мороз ударил из Кремля], trans. S.I. Razuvan (С.И. Разуван), Moscow: Respublika (Республика), 1992, 287 pp. (Russian)
    • Ĩngheţul vine de la Kremlin, trans. Helliana Ianculescu, Bucharest: Vremea, 2018, 396 pp. (Romanian)
  • Ideologische und politische Richtungen innerhalb der Bürgerrechtsbewegung in der heutigen Tschechoslowakei, Cologne: Bundesinstitut für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien, 1978, 67 pp. (German)
  • "Lettera aperta ai giovani comunisti", La città futura 31, Rome: Nuova Generazione, 2 Aug 1978, pp 1-2. (Italian)
  • Ignacio Cembrero, "Eurocommunism Finds Its Inspiration in 'Prague's Spring", Translations on Eastern Europe 1601, JPRS, Oct 1978. First published in Spanish in Diario 16, Madrid, 7 Aug 1978. Interview with Jiří Pelikán, Mlynář, Antonín Liehm and Eduard Goldstuecker on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of Prague Spring. (English)
  • "Československo po deseti letech", Listy, Special Issue: "Ohlédnutí 1968-1978", ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, Dec 1978, pp 35-38. Given at a seminar in Oslo, 1 Jun 1978. (Czech)
  • Notions of Political Pluralism in the Policy of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in 1968, 1979, [42] leaves. Working paper no. 3 of the research project Experiences of the Prague Spring 1968 led by Mlynář. (English)
    • Les idées du pluralisme dans la politique du Parti Comuniste Tchécoslovaque en 1968, 1979, [50] leaves. Manuscript. (French)
    • Ideas sobre el pluralismo político en la política del Partido comunista checoslovaco en 1968, 1979, [72] leaves. Manuscript. (Spanish)
    • "Idee sul pluralismo politico nella linea del Partito comunista di Cecoslovacchia nel 1968", in Che cosa fu la 'Primavera di Praga'? Idee e progetti di una riforma politica e sociale; con l'intervista di Alexander Dubček a "L'Unità", ed. Francesco Leoncini, Manduria: Lacaita, 1989; repr., Venice: Cafoscarina, 2007. (Italian)
  • "August 1968", in Communist Reformation: Nationalism, Internationalism, and Change in the World Communist Movement, ed. G.R. Urban, London: Temple Smith, 1979; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979. A dialogue broadcast in 1978 or 1979 by the Radio Free Europe Division of RFE/RL Inc. (English)
  • Vorstellungen der KPTsch im Jahre 1968 zur Entwicklung des sozialistischen Systems, Mannheim: Univ., Inst. für Sozialwiss., 1980, 29 pp. (German)
  • "Dubcek-Brejnev face à face au Kremlin. La capitulation du 26 août 1968" / "Dubcek and Brezhnev, Face-to Face in the Kremlin. The Capitulation of August 26, 1968", Le Débat 9:2, Paris: Gallimard, Feb 1981, p 36-41. [18] [19] (French)
  • "Zdeněk Mlynář", in Vývoj Charty. Záznam z konference ve Franken, ed. Pavel Tigrid, Cologne: Index, and Munich: Opus Bonum, 1981, pp 39-56. Presented at a conference in Franken, West Germany, in April 1979. [20] (Czech)
  • "Polské perspektivy bez invaze", Listy 11:2, ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, Apr 1981, pp 2-7. Written 25 Jan 1981 for Das Parlament. (Czech)
    • "Die polnischen Kommunisten zwischen Scylla und Charybdis", L'80 20, Cologne, 1981. (German)
  • "Die politische Macht sowjetischen Typs und der Prozess menschlicher Emanzipation", in Menschliche Emanzipation: Rudolf Bahro und der demokratische Sozialismus, eds. Hans Kremendahl and Thomas Meyer, Frankfurt am Main: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 1981. (German)
  • editor, Krisen in den Systemen sowjetischen Typs / Crises in Soviet-type Systems / Les crises des systèmes de type soviétique, Cologne: Index, 1982-1988. Series of studies. (German)/(English)/(French)
  • "Die Normalisierung in der Tschechoslowakei nach dem Jahre 1968", in Wlodzimierz Brus, Pierre Kende, Zdenek Mlynář, "Normalisierungsprozesse" im sowjetisierten Mitteleuropa: Ungarn, Tschechoslowakei, Polen, Cologne: Index, Oct 1982. Study no. 1 of the research project Krisen in den Systemen sowjetischen Typs led by Mlynář. (German)
    • "Normalization in Czechoslovakia after 1968", in Włodzimierz Brus, Pierre Kende, Zdeněk Mlynář, "Normalization" Processes in Soviet-Dominated Central Europe: Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Cologne: Index, 1982. (English)
    • in Włodzimierz Brus, Pierre Kende, Zdeněk Mlynář, Processus de "normalisation" en Europe centrale soviétisée: Hongrie, Tchécoslovaquie, Pologne, Cologne: Index, 1983. (French)
  • "Časopis o zemích sovětského bloku", Listy 12:5, ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, Oct 1982, pp 64-65. About the new journal Problems in Eastern Europe published by František and Larisa Silnitsky, Czech and Russian émigrées in New York. (Czech)
  • editor, with Jiří Pelikan, Budapest, Prague, Varsovie: le Printemps de Prague, quinze ans après, Paris: La Découverte/Maspero, 1983, 221 pp. Proceedings from the colloquium Expériences du Printemps de Prague et possibilités d'un socialisme démocratique, Paris, 1981. (French)
    • editor, with Antonin Müller, Československo 1968, Polsko 1981 a krize sovětských systému: sborník z mezinár. semináře v Paříži v říjnu 1981, Cologne: Index, 1983, 276 pp. [22] (Czech)
  • Relative Stabilisierung sowjetischer Systeme in den siebziger Jahren, Cologne: Index, 1983, 40 pp. Study no. 2 of the research project Krisen in den Systemen sowjetischen Typs led by Mlynář. (German)
    • Relative Stabilization of the Soviet Systems in the 1970's, Cologne: Index, 1983, 40 pp. (English)
    • Stabilisation relative des systèmes de type soviétique dans les années 1970, Cologne: Index, 1983, 46 pp. (French)
  • Krize v sovětských systémech 1953-1981: příspěvek k teoretické analýze, Cologne: Index, 1983, 210 pp; 2nd ed. as Krize v sovětských systémech od Stalina ke Gorbačovovi: příspěvek k teoretické analýze, Prague: Prospektrum, 1991, 150 pp. [23] (Czech)
    • Krisen und Krisenbewaltigung im Sowjetblock, trans. Jirzi Starek, Cologne: Bund: W. Braumuller, 1983, 213 pp. Review: McAdams (Comp Pol). (German)
    • Kryzysy w bloku radzieckim i ich przezwyciężanie, trans. & afterw. Artur Hajnicz (as Justyn), Warsaw: KOS: Oświata Niezależna, 1987, 53 pp. [24] (Polish)
  • Mlynář, et al., Tschechoslowakei '83: neue Auseinandersetzungen mit der Krise in Osteuropa, ed. Sozialistischen Osteuropakomitee, Hamburg: Junius, 1983. (German)
  • "Normalizovat normalizaci?", Listy 13:4, ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, Jul 1983, pp 5-7. Written 8 May 1983 for Wiener Tagebuch 6, 1983. (Czech)
  • editor, Der "Prager Fruhling": ein wissenschaftliches Symposion, Cologne: Bund, 1983, 323 pp. Papers from a meeting organized by the Pariser "Ausschuss zur Verteidigung der Freiheiten in der Tschechoslowakai" and held in Paris, 22-23 Oct 1983. (German)
  • Włodzimierz Brus, Pierre Kende, Zdeněk Mlynář, Die sowjetischen Systeme nach Breschnjew, Cologne: Index, 1984. Study no. 5 of the research project Krisen in den Systemen sowjetischen Typs led by Mlynář. (German)
    • The Soviet systems after Brezhnev, Cologne: Index, 1984. (English)
    • Les systèmes soviétiques après Brejnev , Cologne: Index, 1984. (French)
  • Möglichkeiten einer Stabilisierung des sozialpolitischen Systems in Polen, Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller, and Laxenburg: Austrian Institute for International Affairs, 1984, 61 pp. (German)
  • "Současné mírové hnutí a politická levice", in Mír, mírové hnutí, křesťanská etika. Výbor z materiálů ze stejnojmenného sympozia, ed. Milan Schulz, Munich: Opus Bonum, 1984, pp 125-137; repr., Listy 14:1, ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, Feb 1984, pp 7-11. Presented at a symposium in Franken, West-Germany, 24-27 Nov 1983. [25]
  • "Khrushchev's Policies as a Forerunner of the 'Prague Spring'", in Khrushchev and the Communist World, eds. Robert F. Miller and Ferenc Fehér, London: Croom Helm, and Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble Books, 1984. (English)
  • with Milan Šimečka and AZ, Många år med Gorbatjov: tre tjeckoslovakiska regimkritiker om den nye sovjetledaren och hans politik, Stockholm: Charta-77 stiftelsen, 1985, 40 pp. [26] (Swedish)
  • editor, Die Beziehungen zwischen Österreich und Ungarn. Sonderfall oder Modell?, Vienna: Braumüller, and Österreichisches Institut für Internationale Politik, 1985, 173 pp. (German)
    • Mlynář, "Die österreichisch-ungarischen Beziehungen als Sonderfall der Ost-West-Beziehungen", pp 147-173.
  • editor, with Thomas Meyer, Die Krise des Sowjetsystems und der Westen. Ökonomie, Ideologie, Politik und die Perspektiven der Ost-West-Beziehungen, Cologne: Bund, 1986, 320 pp. Conference proceedings. Review: Perrey (Osteuropa). (German)
  • "Politica nuova - ideologia vecchia", Rinascita, Rome, 11 Jan 1986. (Italian)
    • "Oživená politika a umrtvená ideologie", Listy 16:1, ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, Feb 1986, pp 18-22. (Czech)
    • "Új politika, régi ideológia", Budapest: Országgyűlési Könyvtár Információs és Dokumentációs Szolgálata, 198?, 18 pp. Typescript. (Hungarian)
  • Problémy politického systému: texty o roce 1968, normalizaci a současné reformě v SSSR, Cologne: Index, Stockholm: Foundation of Charter 77, and Rome: Listy, 1987, 132 pp. (Czech)
    • Mlynář, et al., Il progetto Gorbaciov, Rome: Rinascita/L'Unità, 1987, 174 pp. Mlynář's contribution consists of his selected articles on Gorbachov and perestroika from Rinascita weekly, 1986. Czech originals were published in Mlynář, Problémy politického systému, pp 85-109. The book was published as a supplement to Rinascita 20, 23 May 1987. (Italian)
    • Min kamrat Gorbatjov, trans. Mikael Dolfe, Stockholm: Ordfront, 1988, 151 pp; audio book, Enskede: TPB, 2008, 7 hours (CD). (Swedish)
    • "Razpotja politične reforme", trans. Neda Pagon, Teorija in praksa 24:1/2, Ljubljana, 1987, pp 212-222; cont. as "Prenova političnega sistema v ZSSR", Teorija in praksa 24:3/4, Ljubljana, 1987, pp 457-470. Trans. of articles published in Rinascita 42, 1986, pp 3-5; 44, 1986, pp 30-32; 45-47, Nov-Dec 1986. [27] [28] (Slovenian)
  • "Vorwort", in Jiří Hájek, Begegnungen und Zusammenstösse. Erinnerungen des ehemaligen tschechoslowakischen Aussenministers, Freiburg im Breisgau: Herderbücherei, 1987. (German)
  • with Pavel Kohout and Jiří Němec, "Prohlášení pro tisk", Listy 17:1, ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, Feb 1987, p 7. Written in Vienna, 1 Jan 1987. (Czech)
  • "Moskva po slavnostech", Listy 17:6, ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, Dec 1987, pp 17-19. Written early Nov 1987 for Rinascita, 21 Nov 1987. (Czech)
  • Peter Glotz, "Achterjahre: ein Gespräch mit Zdenek Mlynar", Neue Gesellschaft/Frankfurter Hefte 35:8, Aug 1988, pp 694-706. Interview. [30] (German)
  • "Bilance politiky Pražského jara po dvaceti létech", Listy 18:5, ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, Sep 1988, pp 5-7, 78-82, HTML; repr. in Mlynář, Socialistou na volné noze, Prague, 1992. Given at a conference held in Bologna, 7-8 July 1988, on the occasion of 20th anniversary of Prague Spring. (Czech)
  • Was kann Gorbatschow ändern? Die Möglichkeiten, Grenzen und Zukunft sowjetischer Reformpolitik, Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder Taschenbuch, 1989, 221 pp. (German)
    • Can Gorbachev Change The Soviet Union? The International Dimensions Of Political Reform, trans. Marian Sling and Ruth Tosek, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Jun 1990, viii+184 pp, OL; repr., Routledge, Jul 2019. Publisher. Reviews: Theen (Slavic R), Salitan (Pol Sci Q), Wingrove (Int'l Affairs), Clark (Canadian Am Slavic Stud), Shneidman (Annals Am Acad Pol Soc Sci), Campbell (Foreign Affairs). (English)
  • "Čeho se bojí?", Listy 19:4, ed. Jiří Pelikán, Rome, Aug 1989, pp 46-47. Interview for the Voice of America, 2 Mar 1989. (Czech)
  • "Ponyatie sotsializma i istoricheskiy opyt" [Понятие социализма и исторический опыт], Kommunist [Коммунист] 5, Moscow, Mar 1990, pp 105-112. (Russian)
  • Kak dalshe posle politicheskogo perevorota? [Как дальше после политического переворота], trans. Yu.N. Scherbakov, Moscow: Institut obshchestvennych nauk pri CK KPSS, 1991, 29 pp. (Russian)
  • Socialistou na volné noze, Prague: Prospektrum, 1992, 235+[19] pp. (Czech)
  • "Nachwort", in Leopold Spira, Kommunismus adieu: eine ideologische Biographie, Vienna: Europa, 1992. (German)
  • Ost-Mitteleuropa nach dem "realen Sozialismus" Polen, Tschechoslowakei, Ungarn 1989-1992, Laxenburg: Institut für Internationale Politik, 1994, iii+188 pp. (German)

Literature[edit]

  • Jiří Hoppe, in Ivana Denčevová, Michal Stehlík et al., Rozděleni železnou oponou, Prague: Radioservis, 2015, pp 168-171. With a CD. [36]

Films[edit]

  • Invasion, dir. Leslie Woodhead, 1980. Docudrama on the events leading to the Soviet Union's invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Mlynář is played by Paul Chapman. [37]

Links[edit]