Warhol, photographed by Steve Wood, 1981.
August 6, 1928|
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
February 22, 1987 (aged 58)|
New York City, New York, US
|Web||UbuWeb Film, UbuWeb Sound, Aaaaarg, Wikipedia|
Andy Warhol (born Andrew Warhola; 1928–1987) was an American artist, director and producer who was a leading figure in pop art.
Beginning with the 5-hour-and-21-minute Sleep (1963), Warhol made hundreds of films between 1963 and 1968. Following his near-fatal shooting by Valerie Solanas, Warhol shifted into the role of producer with Flesh (1968–1969), directed by his associate, Paul Morrissey. Generally speaking, Warhol’s films interrogate cinematic conventions. For instance, instead of the shot or frame, Warhol used the film roll (whose length was determined by Kodak) as the basic unit of his cinema. He also projected his early films without sound as well as the silent Screen Tests (1964–1966) at 16 fps, a slower speed than the standard 24 fps. Warhol’s films can be broken down into several different phases or periods, including works created with different collaborators. His early films, such as Sleep, Eat (1964), Blow Job (1964), and Empire (1964), are notorious for being excessively “minimal.” He later switched to shooting in synchronous sound, first using scenarios written by playwright Ronald Tavel, and then later with the involvement of Chuck Wein and Paul Morrissey. Warhol also made sound portraits (including biopics), including 472 cinematic portraits or Screen Tests. These were short, 100-foot long film portraits of artists, celebrities, and ordinary people who gravitated to his infamous art studio known as the Factory. Warhol’s “middle period” experimented with expanded cinema and utilizing multiple screens. Warhol called these multimedia events “the Exploding Plastic Inevitable,” which involved films, dancing, light shows, theater, and music by the Velvet Underground. This period culminated in the release of Warhol’s most commercially successful film, The Chelsea Girls (1966), which became the epic of the underground cinema. In 1967, Warhol began making sexploitation films at the bequest of the owner of the Hudson Theater in Midtown Manhattan, where his earlier My Hustler (1965) had been a box office success. Many of Warhol’s films, most notably Lonesome Cowboys (1967–1968) and Blue Movie (1968), ran into censorship problems. Warhol also worked in video and television. 
Warhol made over 100 movies between 1963 and the late 1970s.
- Sleep, with John Giorno, 1963
- Kiss, 1963
- Eat, with Robert Indiana, 1964
- with Gerard Malanga, Screen Tests, New York: Kulchur, 1967, 115 pp.
- The Philosophy of Andy Warhol (From A to B & Back Again), written by Pat Hackett and Bob Colacello, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975.
- Filosofiya Endi Uorkhola [Философия Энди Уорхола], Apolon, 2002. (Russian)
- with Pat Hackett, POPism: The Warhol '60s, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980, 310 pp; repr. as Popism: The Warhol Sixties, Penguin, 2009. Memoir.
- POPizam. Warholove šezdesete, trans. Josip Preveo, Zagreb: Studeni, 2009. (Croatian)
- The Andy Warhol Diaries, ed. Pat Hackett, Grand Central Publishing, 1991.
- Diarios de Andy Warhol, 2011. (Portuguese)
- I'll Be Your Mirror: The Selected Andy Warhol Interviews, ed. Kenneth Goldsmith, New York: Carroll & Graf, 2004.
- Interviews mit Andy Warhol, intro. Klaus Theweleit, trans. Susanne Höbel, Kippenheim: Liebig, 2005, 381 pp. (German)
- Entretiens: 1962-1987, trans. Alain Cueff, Paris: Bernard Grasset, 2006, 405 pp. (French)
- Będę twoim lustrem: wywiady z Warholem, trans. Marcin Zawada, Warsaw: Twój Styl, 2006, 391 pp. (Polish)
- Wo jiang shi ni de jing zi: An diWo huo er fang tan jing xuan, Beijing: San lian shu dian, 2007, 463 pp. (Chinese)
- Entrevistas: 1962-1987: treinta y siete entrevistas con el maestro del pop, intro. Reva Wolf, afterw. Wayne Koestenbaum, trans. Ferran Esteve, Barcelona: Blackie Books, 2010, 559 pp. (Spanish)
- Peter Gidal, Andy Warhol: Films and Paintings, London: Studio Vista, 1971, 160 pp; new ed., 1991.
- David Bourdon, Warhol, New York: Abrams, 1989.
- Victor Bockris, The Life and Death of Andy Warhol, New York: Bantam Books, 1989.
- Klaus Honnef, Andy Warhol, 1928-1987: Commerce Into Art, Taschen, 2000.
- Annette Michelson (ed.), Andy Warhol, MIT Press, 2001.
- Wayne Koestenbaum, Andy Warhol, New York: Viking, 2001.
- Linda Bolton, Andy Warhol, London: Franklin Watts, 2002, PDF, ARG.
- Steven Watson, Factory Made: Warhol and the Sixties, New York: Pantheon, 2003.
- Arthur C. Danto, Andy Warhol, Yale University Press, 2009.
- Tony Scherman, David Dalton, Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol, New York: Harper, 2009.
- Gary Indiana, Andy Warhol and the Can that Sold the World, New York: Basic Books, 2010.
- Douglas Crimp, "Our Kind of Movie": The Films of Andy Warhol, MIT Press, 2012, xv+171 pp. Collection of Crimp's essays on Warhol's films.
- Anthony E. Grudin, Warhol's Working Class: Pop Art and Egalitarianism, University of Chicago Press, 2017, 240 pp. 
- Lucy Mulroney, Andy Warhol, Publisher, University of Chicago Press, 2018, 193 pp.
- Andrew Higgins, Miroslava Germanova, "Andy Warhol Said He Came From ‘Nowhere.’ This Is It", New York Times, 7 Oct 2018.
- Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- Andy Warhol Museum of Modern Art, Medzilaborce, Slovakia, est 1991
- Andy Warhol: Motion Pictures, online companion to 2010 exhibition at MoMA
- Warhol digitally paints Debbie Harry with the Amiga 1000 Computer (1985)
- Warhol robot designed by Walt Disney animator Alvaro Villa