Expanded cinema

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Stan VanDerBeek, Movie-Drome, c1963-65. Interior view. Documentation (PDF).
Carolee Schneemann, Snows, 1967. Performance at the Martinique Theatre, NY. EAI. Artist.
Still from Andy Warhol's Exploding Plastic Inevitable (1967) by Ronald Nameth. Film on UbuWeb.
Valie Export, Abstract Film No. 1, 1967-68. MoMA. Artist.
Michael Snow, Two Sides to Every Story, 1974. Installation view at Projected Images exhibition, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis. Synchronised film projectors on 2 sides of suspended screen, 16 mm colour, sound. 300 x 600 x 1250 cm. CCCA. Video.

"'Expanded cinema' is an elastic name for many sorts of film and projection event. It is notoriously difficult to pin down or define. At full stretch, it embraces the most contradictory dimensions of film and video art, from the vividly spectacular to the starkly materialist. Stan VanDerBeek's synthetic multimedia Movie-Drome of the 1960s, for example, is in high contrast to the analytic and primal cinema of 1970s Filmaktion screenings in the UK. Some kinds of expanded cinema widen the field of vision so far that they dissolve cinema itself as a separate entity, merging it into cybernetic space, as envisaged in Gene Youngblood's seminal book of 1970 or in Carolee Schneemann's manifesto-like performance scripts of the same era. Other variants seek film's ontology in the medium's simplest elements, such as the projector lightbeam or the bare bulb. In 'paracinema', the notion of the film medium is itself questioned, and the cinematic is sought outside or beyond the film machine." (Rees et al 2011: 12)

Filmmakers, artists[edit]


Stan VanDerBeek, "Culture: Intercom", 1966, PDF, Log.
Carolee Schneemann, "Expanded Cinema: Free Form Recollections of New York", 1970, PDF.

Artists' writings[edit]

  • Jonas Mekas, "On the Expanding Eye", Village Voice, 6 Feb 1964; repr. in Mekas, Movie Journal: The Rise of the New American Cinema, 1959-71, New York: Collier, 1972, pp 118-120.
  • Jonas Mekas, "More On Expanded Cinema: Emshwiller, Stern, Ken Jacobs, Ken Dewey", Village Voice, 2 Dec 1965; repr. in Mekas, Movie Journal: The Rise of the New American Cinema, 1959-71, New York: Collier, 1972.
  • Stan VanDerBeek, "“Culture: Intercom” and Expanded Cinema: A Proposal and Manifesto", Film Culture 40 (Spring 1966), pp 15-18; repr. in Motive, Nov 1966, pp 13-23; repr. in The Tulane Drama Review 11:1 (Autumn 1966), pp 38-48.
  • Jonas Mekas, "On the Plastic Inevitables and the Strobe Light", Village Voice, 26 May 1966; repr. in Mekas, Movie Journal: The Rise of the New American Cinema, 1959-71, New York: Collier, 1972, pp 242-244.
  • Film Culture 43: "Expanded Arts", ed. Jonas Mekas, New York: Film Culture, Winter 1966, 12 pp.
  • Carolee Schneemann, "Expanded Cinema: Free Form Recollections of New York", International Underground Film Festival, London, 1970.
  • Werner Nekes, "Some Notes on Some Expanded Films", International Underground Film Festival, London, 1970.
  • Annabel Nicolson, "Artist as Filmmaker", Art and Artists, Dec 1972; repr. in A Perspective on English Avant-Garde Film, 1978.
  • Japanese Expanded Cinema and Intermedia: Critical Texts of the 1960s, eds. Ann Adachi-Tasch, Go Hirasawa and Julian Ross, intro. Julian Ross, Berlin: Archive Books, 2020, 222 pp. Introduction. Publisher. Editors. Reviews: Pires (CAA), Gómez (Hyperallergic), Macfarlane (Brooklyn Rail).
Gene Youngblood, Expanded Cinema, 1970, Log, PDF.

Film/art history and theory[edit]

For catalogues see Events above.


  • Gene Youngblood, Expanded Cinema, intro. R. Buckminster Fuller, New York: Dutton, 1970, 432 pp; 50th anniv. ed., Fordham University Press, 2020, 464 pp. 50th anniversary event (video documentation). [9]
    • Cine expandido, Buenos Aires: Eduntref, 2012, 456 pp. [10] (Spanish)
    • Expanded cinema, trans. Pier Luigi Capucci and Simonetta Fadda, Bologna: CLUEB, 2013, xvi+388 pp. (Italian)
  • Hans Scheugl, Erweitertes Kino. Die Wiener Filme der 60er Jahre, Vienna: Triton, 2002. (German)
  • Pavel Büchler, Tanya Leighton (eds.), Saving the Image: Art After Film, Glasgow: Centre for Contemporary Arts (CCA), and Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University, 2003, 264 pp. Bellour's essay. [11]
  • Matthias Michalka (ed.), X-Screen: Film Installations and Actions in the 1960s and 1970s, Cologne: Walther König, 2004. Kotz's essay.
  • Joachim Jäger, Gabriele Knapstein, Anette Hüsch (eds.), Beyond Cinema: The Art of Projection: Films, Videos and Installations from 1963 to 2005, Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2006, 152 pp. [12]
  • Janine Marchessault, Susan Lord (eds.), Fluid Screens, Expanded Cinema, University of Toronto Press, 2008, 368 pp.
  • Stan Douglas, Christopher Eamon (eds.), Art of Projection, Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2009, 192 pp. [13]
  • A.L. Rees, David Curtis, Duncan White, Stephen Ball (eds.), Expanded Cinema: Art, Performance and Film, London: Tate Publishing, 2011, 304 pp. Reviews: Utterson (Screen), MacDonald (MIRAJ).
  • Gertrud Koch, Volker Pantenburg, Simon Rothöhler (eds.), Screen Dynamics: Mapping the Borders of Cinema, Vienna: Synema – Gesellschaft für Film und Medien, 2012, 181 pp. TOC, [14]. Reviews: Voci (Screen), Brydon (Necsus), Casau (Comp Cinema).
  • Erik Bullot, Sortir du cinéma: histoire virtuelle des relations de l'art et du cinéma, Geneva: Mamco, 2013, 267 pp. Review: Terrier (CdA). (French)
  • Erika Balsom, Exhibiting Cinema in Contemporary Art, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2013, 260 pp.
  • Andrew V. Uroskie, Between the Black Box and the White Cube: Expanded Cinema and Postwar Art, University of Chicago Press, 2014, x+273 pp.
  • François Bovier, Adeena Mey (eds.), Cinéma exposé / Exhibited Cinema, Lausanne: Ecole cantonale d’art de Lausanne, 2014, 224 pp. Review: Venturi (Critique d'art). [15] (French)/(English)
  • Julian Ross, Beyond the Frame: Intermedia and Expanded Cinema in 1960s-1970s Japan, Leeds: University of Leeds, 2014, 287 pp. PhD dissertation. (English)
  • Omar Kholeif (ed.), Moving Image, London: Whitechapel Gallery, 2015, 239 pp.
  • Mathieu Copeland, Lore Gablier (eds.), L'Exposition d'un film, Dijon: Les Presses du réel, and Geneva: HEAD, 2015, 456 pp. [16] (French)
  • Bertrand Bacqué, et al. (eds.), Jeux sérieux: cinéma et art contemporains transforment l’essai, pref. Jean-Pierre Greff, Genève: Mamco: Haute école d’art et de design-Genève, 2015, 576 pp. Review: Venturi (Critique d'art). (French)
  • Natacha Pugnet (ed.), Temps exposés: histoire et mémoire dans l'art récent, Nîmes: Ecole supérieure des beaux-arts de Nîmes, 2015, 125 pp. Review: Venturi (Critique d'art). [17] (French)
  • Mike Sperlinger (ed.), Here is Information. Mobilise. Selected writings by Ian White, afterw. Josephine Pryde, London: LUX, 2016, 352 pp. [18]
  • François Bovier, Adeena Mey (eds.), Cinema in the Expanded Field, Dijon: Presses du reél, and Zurich: JRP|Ringier, 2016, 184 pp. [19]
  • Érik Bullot, Le film et son double. Boniment, ventriloquie, performativité, Dijon: Les Presses du réel, 2017, 208 pp. Introduction. [20] (French)
  • Érik Bullot (ed.), Du film performatif, Dijon: Les Presses du réel, 2018, 265 pp. [21] (French)
  • Jonathan Walley, Cinema Expanded: Avant-Garde Film in the Age of Intermedia, Oxford University Press, 2020, 432 pp. [22]

Journal issues[edit]

Essays, book chapters[edit]

See also[edit]

Experimental film, Video