Plato/Republic/Adam

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One of the oldest papyri (P.Oxy. 3157) containing fragment of Plato's Republic, 2nd century CE. [1]

The Republic (Περὶ πολιτείας; Peri politeias) is Plato (Πλάτων)'s best-known work and has proven to be one of the most intellectually and historically influential works of philosophy and political theory. In it, Socrates along with various Athenians and foreigners discuss the meaning of justice (δικαιοσύνη) and examine whether or not the just man is happier than the unjust man by considering a series of different cities coming into existence "in speech", culminating in a city (Kallipolis) ruled by philosopher-kings; and by examining the nature of existing regimes. The participants also discuss the theory of forms, the immortality of the soul, and the roles of the philosopher and of poetics in society. It was written sometime between 380 and 360 BCE.


The division of the Republic into ten books is due not to Plato but to his early editors and probably to the length of the papyrus rolls ("books") on which the dialogues were written. (Larson 1979:xx)

G.J. Boter in his book on the transmission history of the text (1989) recognizes its three primary witnesses: Parisinus gr. 1807 (A), Venetus Marcianus gr. 185 (coll. 576) (D) and Vindobonensis suppl. gr. 39 (F). Besides them, there are eleven papyri containing fragments of the Republic, all dating from the second and third century CE.

Passages

1.341d-342e

The interest of technê is in its subject rather than in itself; as can be shown by the example of medicine.

Edition: Adam 1903. Translations: Jowett 1871/88 EN, Grube/Reeve 1974/97 EN, Badiou/Spitzer 2013 EN.

Adam

οὐ καὶ ἡ τέχνη, ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ, ἐπὶ τούτῳ πέφυκεν, ἐπὶ τῷ τὸ συμφέρον ἑκάστῳ ζητεῖν τε καὶ ἐκπορίζειν;

ἐπὶ τούτῳ, ἔφη.

ἆρ᾽ οὖν καὶ ἑκάστῃ τῶν τεχνῶν ἔστιν τι συμφέρον ἄλλο ἢ ὅτι μάλιστα τελέαν εἶναι; [341ε]

πῶς τοῦτο ἐρωτᾷς;

ὥσπερ, ἔφην ἐγώ, εἴ με ἔροιο εἰ ἐξαρκεῖ σώματι εἶναι σώματι ἢ προσδεῖταί τινος, εἴποιμ᾽ ἂν ὅτι ‘παντάπασι μὲν οὖν προσδεῖται. διὰ ταῦτα καὶ ἡ τέχνη ἐστὶν ἡ ἰατρικὴ νῦν ηὑρημένη, ὅτι σῶμά ἐστιν πονηρὸν καὶ οὐκ ἐξαρκεῖ αὐτῷ τοιούτῳ εἶναι. τούτῳ οὖν ὅπως ἐκπορίζῃ τὰ συμφέροντα, ἐπὶ τούτῳ παρεσκευάσθη ἡ τέχνη.’ ἦ ὀρθῶς σοι δοκῶ, ἔφην, ἂν εἰπεῖν οὕτω λέγων, ἢ οὔ;

ὀρθῶς, ἔφη.

[342α] τί δὲ δή; αὐτὴ ἡ ἰατρική ἐστιν πονηρά, ἢ ἄλλη τις τέχνη ἔσθ᾽ ὅτι προσδεῖταί τινος ἀρετῆς—ὥσπερ ὀφθαλμοὶ ὄψεως καὶ ὦτα ἀκοῆς καὶ διὰ ταῦτα ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῖς δεῖ τινος τέχνης τῆς τὸ συμφέρον εἰς αὐτὰ ταῦτα σκεψομένης τε καὶ ἐκποριούσης— ἆρα καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ τέχνῃ ἔνι τις πονηρία, καὶ δεῖ ἑκάστῃ τέχνῃ ἄλλης τέχνης ἥτις αὐτῇ τὸ συμφέρον σκέψεται, καὶ τῇ σκοπουμένῃ ἑτέρας αὖ τοιαύτης, καὶ τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν ἀπέραντον; [342β] ἢ αὐτὴ αὑτῇ τὸ συμφέρον σκέψεται; ἢ οὔτε αὑτῆς οὔτε ἄλλης προσδεῖται ἐπὶ τὴν αὑτῆς πονηρίαν τὸ συμφέρον σκοπεῖν: οὔτε γὰρ πονηρία οὔτε ἁμαρτία οὐδεμία οὐδεμιᾷ τέχνῃ πάρεστιν, οὐδὲ προσήκει τέχνῃ ἄλλῳ τὸ συμφέρον ζητεῖν ἢ ἐκείνῳ οὗ τέχνη ἐστίν, αὐτὴ δὲ ἀβλαβὴς καὶ ἀκέραιός ἐστιν ὀρθὴ οὖσα, ἕωσπερ ἂν ᾖ ἑκάστη ἀκριβὴς ὅλη ἥπερ ἐστίν; καὶ σκόπει ἐκείνῳ τῷ ἀκριβεῖ λόγῳ: οὕτως ἢ ἄλλως ἔχει;

οὕτως, ἔφη, φαίνεται. [342ξ]

οὐκ ἄρα, ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ, ἰατρικὴ ἰατρικῇ τὸ συμφέρον σκοπεῖ ἀλλὰ σώματι.

ναί, ἔφη.

οὐδὲ ἱππικὴ ἱππικῇ ἀλλ᾽ ἵπποις: οὐδὲ ἄλλη τέχνη οὐδεμία ἑαυτῇ—οὐδὲ γὰρ προσδεῖται—ἀλλ᾽ ἐκείνῳ οὗ τέχνη ἐστίν.

φαίνεται, ἔφη, οὕτως.

ἀλλὰ μήν, ὦ Θρασύμαχε, ἄρχουσί γε αἱ τέχναι καὶ κρατοῦσιν ἐκείνου οὗπέρ εἰσιν τέχναι.

συνεχώρησεν ἐνταῦθα καὶ μάλα μόγις.

οὐκ ἄρα ἐπιστήμη γε οὐδεμία τὸ τοῦ κρείττονος συμφέρον σκοπεῖ οὐδ᾽ ἐπιτάττει, ἀλλὰ τὸ τοῦ ἥττονός τε καὶ ἀρχομένου [342δ] ὑπὸ ἑαυτῆς.

συνωμολόγησε μὲν καὶ ταῦτα τελευτῶν, ἐπεχείρει δὲ περὶ αὐτὰ μάχεσθαι: ἐπειδὴ δὲ ὡμολόγησεν, ἄλλο τι οὖν, ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ, οὐδὲ ἰατρὸς οὐδείς, καθ᾽ ὅσον ἰατρός, τὸ τῷ ἰατρῷ συμφέρον σκοπεῖ οὐδ᾽ ἐπιτάττει, ἀλλὰ τὸ τῷ κάμνοντι; ὡμολόγηται γὰρ ὁ ἀκριβὴς ἰατρὸς σωμάτων εἶναι ἄρχων ἀλλ᾽ οὐ χρηματιστής. ἢ οὐχ ὡμολόγηται;

συνέφη.

οὐκοῦν καὶ ὁ κυβερνήτης ὁ ἀκριβὴς ναυτῶν εἶναι ἄρχων ἀλλ᾽ οὐ ναύτης; [342ε]

ὡμολόγηται.

οὐκ ἄρα ὅ γε τοιοῦτος κυβερνήτης τε καὶ ἄρχων τὸ τῷ κυβερνήτῃ συμφέρον σκέψεταί τε καὶ προστάξει, ἀλλὰ τὸ τῷ ναύτῃ τε καὶ ἀρχομένῳ.

συνέφησε μόγις.

οὐκοῦν, ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ, ὦ Θρασύμαχε, οὐδὲ ἄλλος οὐδεὶς ἐν οὐδεμιᾷ ἀρχῇ, καθ᾽ ὅσον ἄρχων ἐστίν, τὸ αὑτῷ συμφέρον σκοπεῖ οὐδ᾽ ἐπιτάττει, ἀλλὰ τὸ τῷ ἀρχομένῳ καὶ ᾧ ἂν αὐτὸς δημιουργῇ, καὶ πρὸς ἐκεῖνο βλέπων καὶ τὸ ἐκείνῳ συμφέρον καὶ πρέπον, καὶ λέγει ἃ λέγει καὶ ποιεῖ ἃ ποιεῖ ἅπαντα. [3]

1.345e-347a

Technai are also differentiated according to their dunamis. The true ruler and artist seek not their own advantage, but the perfection of their technai.

Edition: Adam 1903. Translations: Jowett 1871/88 EN, Grube/Reeve 1974/97 EN, Badiou/Spitzer 2013 EN.

Adam

[...] τὰς ἄλλας ἀρχὰς οὐκ ἐννοεῖς ὅτι οὐδεὶς ἐθέλει ἄρχειν ἑκών, ἀλλὰ μισθὸν αἰτοῦσιν, ὡς οὐχὶ αὐτοῖσιν ὠφελίαν ἐσομένην ἐκ τοῦ ἄρχειν ἀλλὰ [346α] τοῖς ἀρχομένοις; ἐπεὶ τοσόνδε εἰπέ: οὐχὶ ἑκάστην μέντοι φαμὲν ἑκάστοτε τῶν τεχνῶν τούτῳ ἑτέραν εἶναι, τῷ ἑτέραν τὴν δύναμιν ἔχειν; καί, ὦ μακάριε, μὴ παρὰ δόξαν ἀποκρίνου, ἵνα τι καὶ περαίνωμεν.

ἀλλὰ τούτῳ, ἔφη, ἑτέρα.

οὐκοῦν καὶ ὠφελίαν ἑκάστη τούτων ἰδίαν τινὰ ἡμῖν παρέχεται ἀλλ᾽ οὐ κοινήν, οἷον ἰατρικὴ μὲν ὑγίειαν, κυβερνητικὴ δὲ σωτηρίαν ἐν τῷ πλεῖν, καὶ αἱ ἄλλαι οὕτω;

πάνυ γε. [346β]

οὐκοῦν καὶ μισθωτικὴ μισθόν; αὕτη γὰρ αὐτῆς ἡ δύναμις: ἢ τὴν ἰατρικὴν σὺ καὶ τὴν κυβερνητικὴν τὴν αὐτὴν καλεῖς; ἢ ἐάνπερ βούλῃ ἀκριβῶς διορίζειν, ὥσπερ ὑπέθου, οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον, ἐάν τις κυβερνῶν ὑγιὴς γίγνηται διὰ τὸ συμφέρον αὐτῷ πλεῖν ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ, ἕνεκα τούτου καλεῖς μᾶλλον αὐτὴν ἰατρικήν;

οὐ δῆτα, ἔφη.

οὐδέ γ᾽, οἶμαι, τὴν μισθωτικήν, ἐὰν ὑγιαίνῃ τις μισθαρνῶν.

οὐ δῆτα.

τί δέ; τὴν ἰατρικὴν μισθαρνητικήν, ἐὰν ἰώμενός τις μισθαρνῇ; [346ξ]

οὐκ ἔφη.

οὐκοῦν τήν γε ὠφελίαν ἑκάστης τῆς τέχνης ἰδίαν ὡμολογήσαμεν εἶναι;

ἔστω, ἔφη.

ἥντινα ἄρα ὠφελίαν κοινῇ ὠφελοῦνται πάντες οἱ δημιουργοί, δῆλον ὅτι κοινῇ τινι τῷ αὐτῷ προσχρώμενοι ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνου ὠφελοῦνται.

ἔοικεν, ἔφη.

φαμὲν δέ γε τὸ μισθὸν ἀρνυμένους ὠφελεῖσθαι τοὺς δημιουργοὺς ἀπὸ τοῦ προσχρῆσθαι τῇ μισθωτικῇ τέχνῃ γίγνεσθαι αὐτοῖς.

συνέφη μόγις. [346δ]

οὐκ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς αὑτοῦ τέχνης ἑκάστῳ αὕτη ἡ ὠφελία ἐστίν, ἡ τοῦ μισθοῦ λῆψις, ἀλλ᾽, εἰ δεῖ ἀκριβῶς σκοπεῖσθαι, ἡ μὲν ἰατρικὴ ὑγίειαν ποιεῖ, ἡ δὲ μισθαρνητικὴ μισθόν, καὶ ἡ μὲν οἰκοδομικὴ οἰκίαν, ἡ δὲ μισθαρνητικὴ αὐτῇ ἑπομένη μισθόν, καὶ αἱ ἄλλαι πᾶσαι οὕτως τὸ αὑτῆς ἑκάστη ἔργον ἐργάζεται καὶ ὠφελεῖ ἐκεῖνο ἐφ᾽ ᾧ τέτακται. ἐὰν δὲ μὴ μισθὸς αὐτῇ προσγίγνηται, ἔσθ᾽ ὅτι ὠφελεῖται ὁ δημιουργὸς ἀπὸ τῆς τέχνης;

οὐ φαίνεται, ἔφη. [346ε]

ἆρ᾽ οὖν οὐδ᾽ ὠφελεῖ τότε, ὅταν προῖκα ἐργάζηται;

οἶμαι ἔγωγε.

οὐκοῦν, ὦ Θρασύμαχε, τοῦτο ἤδη δῆλον, ὅτι οὐδεμία τέχνη οὐδὲ ἀρχὴ τὸ αὑτῇ ὠφέλιμον παρασκευάζει, ἀλλ᾽, ὅπερ πάλαι ἐλέγομεν, τὸ τῷ ἀρχομένῳ καὶ παρασκευάζει καὶ ἐπιτάττει, τὸ ἐκείνου συμφέρον ἥττονος ὄντος σκοποῦσα, ἀλλ᾽ οὐ τὸ τοῦ κρείττονος. διὰ δὴ ταῦτα ἔγωγε, ὦ φίλε Θρασύμαχε, καὶ ἄρτι ἔλεγον μηδένα ἐθέλειν ἑκόντα ἄρχειν καὶ τὰ ἀλλότρια κακὰ μεταχειρίζεσθαι ἀνορθοῦντα, [347α] ἀλλὰ μισθὸν αἰτεῖν, ὅτι ὁ μέλλων καλῶς τῇ τέχνῃ πράξειν οὐδέποτε αὑτῷ τὸ βέλτιστον πράττει οὐδ᾽ ἐπιτάττει κατὰ τὴν τέχνην ἐπιτάττων, ἀλλὰ τῷ ἀρχομένῳ: ὧν δὴ ἕνεκα, ὡς ἔοικε, μισθὸν δεῖν ὑπάρχειν τοῖς μέλλουσιν ἐθελήσειν ἄρχειν, ἢ ἀργύριον ἢ τιμήν, ἢ ζημίαν ἐὰν μὴ ἄρχῃ. [4]

7.533a-c

Only the science of dialectic goes directly to the first principle, while art not (being dependent on the senses).

Edition: Adam 1903. Translations: Jowett 1871/88 EN, Grube/Reeve 1974/97 EN, Badiou/Spitzer 2013 EN.

Adam

καὶ τοῦτ᾽, ἔφη, ἄξιον διισχυρίζεσθαι. [533β]

τόδε γοῦν, ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ, οὐδεὶς ἡμῖν ἀμφισβητήσει λέγουσιν, ὡς αὐτοῦ γε ἑκάστου πέρι ὃ ἔστιν ἕκαστον ἄλλη τις ἐπιχειρεῖ μέθοδος ὁδῷ περὶ παντὸς λαμβάνειν. ἀλλ᾽ αἱ μὲν ἄλλαι πᾶσαι τέχναι ἢ πρὸς δόξας ἀνθρώπων καὶ ἐπιθυμίας εἰσὶν ἢ πρὸς γενέσεις τε καὶ συνθέσεις, ἢ πρὸς θεραπείαν τῶν φυομένων τε καὶ συντιθεμένων ἅπασαι τετράφαται: αἱ δὲ λοιπαί, ἃς τοῦ ὄντος τι ἔφαμεν ἐπιλαμβάνεσθαι, γεωμετρίας τε καὶ τὰς ταύτῃ ἑπομένας, ὁρῶμεν ὡς ὀνειρώττουσι μὲν [533ξ] περὶ τὸ ὄν, ὕπαρ δὲ ἀδύνατον αὐταῖς ἰδεῖν, ἕως ἂν ὑποθέσεσι χρώμεναι ταύτας ἀκινήτους ἐῶσι, μὴ δυνάμεναι λόγον διδόναι αὐτῶν. ᾧ γὰρ ἀρχὴ μὲν ὃ μὴ οἶδε, τελευτὴ δὲ καὶ τὰ μεταξὺ ἐξ οὗ μὴ οἶδεν συμπέπλεκται, τίς μηχανὴ τὴν τοιαύτην ὁμολογίαν ποτὲ ἐπιστήμην γενέσθαι;

οὐδεμία, ἦ δ᾽ ὅς. [5]

Manuscripts

The first page of Peri politeias in Parisinus graecus 1807, 9th c., Gallica.

Primary manuscripts

  • Parisinus graecus 1807 [A], 9th c., Gallica. Both A1 and A2 are identical with the scribe; A2 indicates the readings he added after the whole text had been written, as can be seen from the different colour of the ink. Kept at Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. For more, see Boter 1989:81-6.
  • Venetus Marcianus graecus 185 [D] (numero di collocazione 576), 12th c. For more, see Boter 1989:92-4 and Slings 2005:154. Parts are absent (507e3–515d7 and 612e8–621d5).
  • Vindobonensis suppl. gr. 39 [F], 13-14th c. For more, see Boter 1989:101-4.

Sourced from Slings 2005:195.

Secondary manuscripts

  • Bononiensis 3630, 13-14th c. (Bon). A gemellus of Vind.phil.gr. 89, deriving from Dac.
  • Caesenas D 28,4 (Malatestianus), 15th c. (M). A gemellus of Laur.CS.42 (see below), deriving from A.
  • Laurentianus 80.7, 15th c. (α). A heavily contaminated MS, deriving indirectly from Laur.CS.42 (see below).
  • Laurentianus 80.19, 14-15th c. (β). An indirect copy of Parisinus gr. 1810 (see below), corrected (sometimes from its exemplar) by a highly intelligent scribe (see Boter 1989:203-14).
  • Laurentianus 85.7, 15th c. (x). A copy of F.
  • Laurentianus Conventi Soppressi 42, 12-13th c. (γ). A gemellus of Caes.D.28.4 (see above), deriving from A.
  • Monacensis graecus 237, 15th c. (q). A copy of Laur.80.19 (see above).
  • Parisinus graecus 1642, 14th c. (K). A gemellus of Laur.80.19 (see above) in books I–III.
  • Parisinus graecus 1810, 14th c. (Par). Derives from D as corrected by D2 and D3.
  • Pragensis Radnice VI.F.a.1 (Lobc[ovicianus]), 14-15th c.. Derives from Scor. y.1.13 (see below).
  • Scorialensis y.1.13, 13-14th c. (Sc). Derives from Ven.Marc.App.Cl. IV,1 up to 389d7, from Dac from 389d7 on.
  • Scorialensis Ψ.1.1, dated 1462 (Ψ). Derives from D as corrected by D2 and D3.
  • Vaticanus graecus 229, 14th c.. An indirect copy of Parisinus gr. 1810 (see above).
  • Venetus Marcianus gr. 184 (coll. 326), c1450 (E); written by Johannes Rhosus for Bessarion. A direct copy of Marc.187.
  • Venetus Marcianus gr. 187 (coll. 742), c1450 (N). An indirect copy of Venetus Marcianus App. Cl. IV,1 (T) in books I–II; an indirect copy of Laur.85.9 (which derives from A) in books III–X. Written for, and heavily corrected by, Bessarion.
  • Venetus Marcianus App. Cl. IV,1 (coll. 542), c950 (up to 389d7), s. xv (the remainder) (T). A, indirect copy of A until 389d7; an indirect copy of Dac after 389d7.
  • Vindobonensis phil. gr. 1, 16th c. (V). An indirect copy of Laur.85.9, which derives from A.
  • Vindobonensis phil. gr. 89, c1500 (Vind). A gemellus of Bonon.3630, deriving from Dac.
  • Vindobonensis suppl. gr. 7, 14th c. (the part containing R.) (W). An indirect copy of D.

Sourced from Slings 2005:195-6.

P.Oxy. 3509, 3rd c. [2]

Papyri

  • P.Oxy. 35091], third century CE, Image. Contains fragments from 330a2–b4; many gaps at the beginning of the lines.
  • P.Flor. inv. 19942], second-third century CE. Contains fragments from 399d10–e3; only the ends of the lines are preserved.
  • P.Oxy. 4553], third century CE. Contains fragments from 406a5–b4; some gaps at the beginnings of the lines. [6]
  • P.Oxy. 27514], late second or early third century CE, Image. Contains fragments from 412c–414b; many gaps.
  • P.Oxy. 4565], late second or early third century CE. Contains fragments from 422c8–d2; gaps at the beginnings and ends of the lines. [7]
  • P.Oxy. 36796], third century CE, Image. Contains fragments from 472e4–473a5, some gaps; and 473d1–d5, only the beginnings of the lines are preserved.
  • PRIMI I 107], third century CE. Contains fragments from 485c10–d6 and 486b10–c3; gaps at the beginnings and ends of the lines.
  • P.Oxy. 33268], second century CE, Image. Contains fragments from 545c1–546a3; parts missing.
  • P.Oxy. 18089], late second century CE, Image. Contains fragments from 546b–547d; some corrections in a later hand; some gaps.
  • P.Oxy. 2410], third century CE. Contains fragments from 607e4–608a1; some gaps. [8]
  • P.Oxy. 315711], second century CE, Images. Contains fragments from 610c7–611a7, 611c5–d2, 611e1–612c7 and 613a1–7; many gaps at the beginnings and ends of the lines.

Sourced from Boter 1989:252-7 (see for more details), which also establishes the Π sygla, Google.

Editions, commentaries

The first page of the 1513 edition, BSB.
  • Aldus Manutius, and Marcus Musurus, "Politeion", Omnia Platonis opera, [Venice]: Aldus, 1513, BSB. Editio princeps.
  • Oporinus, Johannes, and Simon Grynaeus, Platonis Omnia Opera Cum Commentariis Procli in Timaeum & Politica, thesauro veteris Philosophiae maximo, Basle [Basel]: Johannes Walder, 1534. Also contains a commentary of Proclus on the Republic. [9]
  • Stephanus, Henricus, Platonis opera quae exstant omnia, [Geneva], 1578.
  • Fr. Ast, Platonis Politia sive de Republica libri decem, Ienae [Jena], 1804; Ienae [Jena], 1820; 2nd ed., Lipsiae [Leipzig], 1814; 3rd ed. as Platonis quae exstant opera, IV–V, Lipsiae [Leipzig], 1822.
  • Bekker, I., Platonis dialogi, III 1, Berolini [Berlin], 1817. Critical notes in Commentaria critica in Platonem a se editum, Berolini [Berlin], 1823.
  • Stallbaum, G., Platonis quae supersunt opera, Leipzig, 1821-25 (R. 1823).
  • Stallbaum, G., Platonis dialogos selectos, III, 1–2, Gothae [Gotha] and Erfordiae [Erfurt], 1829-30.
  • Schneider, C.E.C., Platonis opera Graece, Lipsiae [Leipzig], 1830-33. Supplemented by his Additamenta ad Civitatis Platonis libros X, Lipsiae [Leipzig], 1854.
  • Baiter, J.G., J.C. Orelli, and A.W. Winckelmann, Platonis opera omnia, XIII, 1840; Turici [Zürich], 1874; Londini [London], 1881.
  • Hermann, Karl Friedrich, Platonis dialogi, IV, Leipzig: Teubner, 1852; Platonis: Rei Publicae libri decem, Lipsiae [Leipzig]: Teubner, 1880, IA.
  • Jowett, Benjamin, and Lewis Campbell, Plato's Republic: The Greek Text. Edited, with Notes and Essays in Three Volumes. Vol I. Text, Vol III. Notes, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1894, IA, IA, 3.
  • Adam, James, The Republic of Plato, edited, with critical notes, commentary, and appendices, University Press, 1897, IA; 1899; 1900, IA, 1900, IA, IA; 1902, IA, vol 1; repr. in Platonis Opera, ed. John Burnet, 1903, Perseus; 1905, IA/1; 1907, IA/2; 1921, IA, vol. 2; 1929, IA/2; 2nd ed., 2 vols., co-ed. D.A. Rees, Cambridge University Press, 1963; 1965; 1969; 1975; 1980; 2010.
  • Tucker, T.G., The Proem to the Ideal Commonwealth of Plato [Books I–II 368c], London: George Bell, 1900, IA.
  • Burnet, John, "Republic", in Platonis Opera, IV, Oxford University Press, 1903, Perseus.
  • Shorey, P., Plato, the Republic, London and Cambridge/MA: Loeb, 1930-35.
  • Chambry, Émile, Platon, Oeuvres complètes, VI–VII, Paris: Budé, 1932-34. The first editor who could make use of papyri; four of them were known at the time.
  • Allan, D.J., Plato’s Republic, Book I, London, 1955.
  • Slings, S.R., Platonis Rempublicam, Oxford: Oxford Classical Texts, 2003. The critical notes supporting Slings’ edition have been collected as Slings, S.R., Critical Notes on Plato’s Politeia, eds. Gerard Boter and Jan van Ophuijsen, Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005, PDF.

Translations

Medieval Latin

The first page of the translation by Chrysoloras and Uberto, 1403.
  • Chrysoloras, Manuel, and Uberto Decembrio, 1403. Made in a close collaboration of Chrysoloras with his pupil Uberto in the years 1400-03. (Boter 1989:261-4)
  • Pier Candido Decembrio, 1441. Made by Uberto's son between 1437 and 1441; reworking of the Chrysoloras-Uberto translation. (Boter 1989:265-8)
  • Cassarino, Antonio, 1447. Made in the years 1438-47. (Boter 1989:268-70)
  • Ficino, Marsilio, 1484. Ficino relied at first on Latin translations of Plato; he studied Greek beginning in 1458-59 and in 1462 Cosimo the Elder and Amerigo Benci gave Ficino the gift of a Platonic Codex that Ficino began to translate into Latin. (Garin, Commentaries on Plato, 1, 2008:xxii; Boter 1989:270-8)

For a survey of the 15th-century Latin translations of the Republic, see Eugenio Garin, "Richerche sulle traduzioni di Platone nella prima metà del sec. XV", in Medioevo e rinascimento. Studi in onore di Bruno Nardi, I., Florence, 1955, pp 339-374; Paul Oskar Kristeller, "The first printed edition of Plato’s works and the date of its publication (1484)", in Science and History. Studies in Honour of Edward Rosen, 1978, pp 25-35; and Boter 1989:261-78, [10].

French

  • Grou, Jean Nicolas, La Republique de Platon ou Dialogue sur la justice], 2 vols., Paris: Brocas & Humblot, 1762, IA/1, IA/1, IA/2.
  • La République de Platon, 2 vols., Dresde [Dresden]: Les frères Walther, 1787, BSB/1, BSB/1, BSB/2.
  • Baccou, Robert, "La République. Traduction nouvelle avec introduction et notes", in Platon, Oeuvres complètes, tome 4, Paris: Garnier Frères, 1945.
  • Chambry, Émile, Platon: République, intro. Auguste Dies, Gonthier, 1963, 366 pp.
  • Leroux, G., Platon: La République, Paris, 2002.
  • Badiou, Alain, La République de Platon, Fayard, 2012.

English

  • Spens, H., The Republic of Plato in Ten Books, Glasgow: Robert and Andrew Foulis, 1763, IA; new ed., intro. Richard Garnett, London and Toronto: J.M. Dent, and New York: E.P. Dutton, 1906, IA.
  • Sydenham, Floyer, and Thomas Taylor, "The Republic", in The Works of Plato, Vol. 1, London, 1804, IA.
  • Davies, John Llewelyn, and David James Vaughan, The Republic of Plato. Translated into English, with an Analysis, and Notes, 1852, Google; 2nd ed., 1858; 1860; 3rd ed., Cambridge and London: Macmillan, 1866; 2 Vols, 1898; 1921, IA; London: Macmillan, 1927. [11] [12]
  • Burges, George, Plato: The Republic, Timaeus and Critias. New and literal version, London: H.G. Bohn, 1854.
  • Jowett, Benjamin, The Republic of Plato. Translated into English with Introduction, Analysis, Marginal Analysis and Index, 1871; 3rd ed., 1888, IA; rev. ed., Colonial Press, 1901, IA; 1907, IA; Roslyn, New York: Walter J. Black, 1942, OL; Vintage, 1955, OL; Doubleday, 1960, OL; 2008, PG. Repr. as "The Republic", in The Dialogues of Plato, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1952, OL.
  • Wells, G.H., The Republic of Plato. Books I. and II. With an Introduction, Notes, and the Argument of the Dialogue, London: George Bell, 1882, IA; repr. 1888, IA.
  • Warren, T. Herbert, The Republic of Plato. Books I.-V. With Introduction and Notes, London: Macmillan, 1892, IA; repr. 1901, IA.
  • Taylor, Thomas, The Republic of Plato, ed. Theodore Wratislaw, London: Walter Scott, 1894, IA.
  • Bosanquet, Bernard, The Education of the Young in The Republic of Plato. Translated into English with Notes and Introduction, Cambridge: University Press, 1900, IA; repr. 1908, IA. Trans. of Book II (366 to end), Book III, and Book IV.
  • Davis, Henry, "Plato: The Republic", in The Republic. The Statesman, New York and London: M. Walter Dunne, 1901.
  • Lindsay, A.D., Plato: The Republic, London: J.M. Dent, 1906; 3rd ed. with Revised Text and Enlarged Introduction, 1923, IA; New York: Dutton, 1957, OL; intro. A. Nehamas, notes R. Bambrough, New York, 1992.
  • Sydenham, Floyer, and Thomas Taylor, The Republic of Plato, rev. by W.H.D. Rouse, intro. Ernest Barker, London: Methuen, 1906, IA.
  • Kerr, Alexander, Book III, Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1903, IA; Book VI, 1909, IA; The Republic of Plato. Book VII, 1911, IA; Book VIII, 1914, IA.
  • Shorey, Paul, Plato: Republic. Edited, translated, with notes and an introduction, London: W. Heinemann, 1930; repr. as Plato: The Republic. With an English Translation in Two Volumes, I: Books I-V, and II, Harvard University Press, and London: Heinemann, 1937, IA/1. Loeb Classical Library. [text, tr.]
  • Cornford, Francis MacDonald, The Republic of Plato. Translated with Introdution and Notes, Oxford University Press, 2 vols., 1941; 1945, OL; 1951, 400 pp; 1964, 366 pp; 1972; 1981.
  • Lee, Desmond, Plato: The Republic. Translated with an Introduction, Penguin, 1955; 2nd ed., 1974, OL; 1987; 2003, with a new bibliography by R. Kamtekar.
  • Rouse, W.H.D., "The Republic", in Great Dialogues of Plato, eds. Eric H. Warmington and Philip G. Rouse, New York and Toronto: New American Library, 1956, OL; 2008.
  • Bloom, Allan, The Republic of Plato. Translated, with notes and an interpretive essay, New York: Basic Books, 1968; 2nd ed., 1991, ARG, PDF. Contains long interpretive essay.
  • Shorey, Paul, Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vols. 5 & 6, Harvard University Press, and London: W. Heinemann, 1969, Perseus.
  • Grube, G.M.A., Plato: The Republic, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1974, OL; rev. by C.D.C. Reeve, 1992; repr. in Plato: Complete Works, ed. J. Cooper, Indianapolis, 1997.
  • Larson, Raymond, Plato: The Republic, intro. Eva T.H. Brann, Wheeling: Harlan Davidson, 1979.
  • Sterling, Richard W., and William C. Scott, Plato: The Republic: A New Translation, London: Norton, 1985, 320 pp; 1996.
  • Waterfield, Robin, Plato: Republic. Translated, with notes and an introduction, Oxford: Oxford World's Classics, 1993.
  • Blair, George A., Plato's Republic for Readers: A Constitution, University Press of America, 1998, 440 pp.
  • Griffith, Tom, Plato: The Republic, ed. G. R. F. Ferrari, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Reeve, C.D.C., Plato: The Republic. Translated from the New Standard Greek Text, with Introduction, Indianapolis: Hackett, 2004, ARG. Based on 2003 Slings edition.
  • Allen, R.E., Plato: The Republic, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
  • Sachs, Joe, Plato: Republic, Newburyport: Focus, 2007.
  • Tschemplik, Andrea, The Republic: The Comprehensive Student Edition, 2006.
  • Emlyn-Jones, Chris, and William Preddy, Plato V: Republic, Volume I. Books 1-5 and Plato VI: Republic, Volume II. Books 6-10, Harvard University Press, 2013, 567 and 503 pp. Loeb Classical Library edition. Review.
  • Spitzer, Susan, Plato's Republic: A Dialogue in 16 Chapters, intro. Kenneth Reinhard, Polity Press, 2013, 400 pp, ARG. English translation of a translation by Alain Badiou.
  • More.

Dutch

  • D. D. Burger, De Republiek van Plato, Amsterdam: P.N. van Kampen, 1849, IA.

German

  • Teuffel, Wilhelm Sigismund, and Wilhelm Wiegand, Platon's Werke. Zehn Bücher vom Staate, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1855/56, HTML, HTML; 8th ed.; repr. as "Der Staat", in Platon: Sämtliche Werke in drei Bänden, vol. 2, ed. Erich Loewenthal, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2004, pp 5-407.
  • Schleiermacher, Friedrich, Plato's Staat, notes J.H. v. Kirchmann, Berlin: Heimann, 1870, IA.
  • Apelt, Otto, Platon: Der Staat, 3rd ed., Leipzig, 1923; repr. in Platon: Sämtliche Dialoge, vol. 5, ed. Otto Apelt, Hamburg: Meiner, 2004.
  • Horneffer, August, Platon: Der Staat, Stuttgart: Kröner, 1955.
  • Vretska, Karl, Platon: Der Staat, 1982; repr., Stuttgart: Reclam, 2004.

Czech

  • Peroutka, Emanuel. [unfinished]
  • Novotný, František, Platón: Ústava. S užitím překladu Emanuele Peroutky, Prague: Jan Laichter, 1921, 402 pp, IA, HTML; 2nd ed., Prague, 1996; 3rd ed., Prague: Oikoymenh, 2001, PDFs; 4th ed., 2005, 428 pp; 5th ed., 2014, 428 pp.
  • Hošek, Radislav, Platón: Ústava, Prague: Svoboda-Libertas, 1993, 524 pp.

Modern Greek

  • Papatheodorou, A. (Α. Παπαθεοδώρου), F. Pappas (Φιλ. Παππά), and Alexandros Galinos (Αλέξανδρος Γαληνού), Πλάτωνος. Πολιτεία. Ή περί δικαίου πολιτικός, intro. Adamantios Diamandopoulos, 2 vols., Athens: Papyros Editions, 1936; Papyros Academic Society of Greek Letters (Πάπυρος Εκδοτικός Οργανισμός), 1975, 640 pp. Books I-V trans., comm. and annot. by Papatheodorou and Pappas, Books VI-X by Galinos. (Fragkou 2012:82-6) [13]
  • Skouteropoulos, Ioannis (Ιωάννης Σκουτερόπουλος), Athens: Andreas Sideris, 1948; new ed., exp., 1962. (Fragkou 2012:87-93)
  • Georgoulis, Konstantinos (Κωνσταντίνος Γεωργούλη), Πλάτωνος. Πολιτεία. Ή περί δικαίου πολιτικός, 1939; Φεβρουάριος, 2009, 592 pp. [tr., comm.]. Canonical translation (along with the ones by Georgoulis and N. Skouteropoulos). (Fragkou 2012:99-100)
  • Gryparis, Ioannis (Ιωάννης Γρυπάρης), and Evangelos Papanoutsos (Ευάγγελος Παπανούτσος), Πλάτων. Πολιτεία, intro. Evangelos Papanoutsos, Athens: Zaharopoulos (Ζαχαρόπουλος), c1945, HTML; repr., Chalandri: 4π Ειδικές Εκδόσεις, 2011. [tr., comm.] The most poetic rendition of the retranslations of the Republic; written in demotiki (the people’s natural language); one of the two or three canonical translations (the others being Georgoulis’ and N. Skouteropoulos’ ones). Reworking of his 1911 translation written in katharevoussa and published by Phexis Editions; Gryparis died in 1942 before being able to finish the work; Books VII to X were subsequently transliterated into demotiki by Papanoutsos using Gryparis' katharevoussa version. (Fragkou 2012:94-8)
  • Hatzopoulos, Odysseas, Πλάτων. Πολιτεία, 5 vols., Athens: Kaktos (Κάκτος), 1992. [text, tr.] (Fragkou 2012:101-3)
  • Memmos, Nikolaos (Νικολαος Μεμμος), Η Πολιτεία του Πλάτωνα, Thessaloniki: Pournaras, 1994, 786 pp. (Fragkou 2012:104-5)
  • Mavropoulos, Theodoros (Θεόδωρος Γ. Μαυρόπουλος), Πλάτων. Πολιτεία, 2 vols., Thessaloniki: Zitros (Ζήτρος), 2006, 1611 pp. [tr., comm.] (Fragkou 2012:106-8) [14] [15]
  • Nikolaos Skouteropoulos (Νικολαος Μ. Σκουτερόπουλος), Πλάτων. Πολιτεία, Athens: Polis (Πόλις), 2002, HTML. [tr., comm.]. Standard translation (along with the ones by Georgoulis and Gryparis). (Fragkou 2012:109-11)

Italian

  • Sartori, Franco, Platone: La Repubblica, 1966; new ed., intro. Mario Vegetti, notes Bruno Centrone, Rome: Laterza, 1997; Rome: Laterza, 2011.
  • Adorno, F., "Platone, La Repubblica", in Tutti i dialoghi, Turin: Utet, 1988.
  • Lozza, G., Platone, La Repubblica, Milan: Mondadori, 1990.
  • Vegetti, Mario, Platone, La Repubblica, 7 vols., Naples: Bibliopolis, 1998-2007.
  • Albertella, Marta, Alain Badiou. La Repubblica di Platone, intro. Livio Boni, Milan: Adriano Salani, 2013, EPUB.

Portuguese

  • Nunes, Carlos Alberto, A República - Platão, 1973; 2nd ed., 1988; 3rd ed., Belem: EDUFPA, 2000, PDF.
  • Pereira, Maria Helena da Rocha, A República - Platão, Lisbon: Calouste Gulbenkian, 9th ed., 2001, PDF. [tr., notes]
  • Telles, André, A República de Platão. Recontada Por Alain Badiou, Zahar, 2014, EPUB.

Lithuanian

  • Dumčius, J., Platonas. Valstybė, Vilnius: Mintis, 1981, Scribd; 2nd ed., Pradai, 2000. [16] [17]

Spanish

  • Lan, Conrado Eggers, Platón. Dialógos IV: República, Madrid: Gredos, 1986; 1988, PDF, Scribd. [tr., notes]

Romanian

  • Cornea, Andrei, "Republica", in Platon, Opere V, Bucharest: Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, 1986, IA; 2nd ed., Bucharest: Teora, 1998. [tr., comm.]

Studies

  • Jowett, Benjamin, and Lewis Campbell, Plato's Republic: The Greek Text. Edited, with Notes and Essays in Three Volumes. Vol II. Essays, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1894, IA, IA.
  • Bosanquet, Bernard, A Companion to Plato's Republic for English Readers. Being a Commentary adapted to Davies and Vaughan's Translation, New York: Macmillan, 1895, IA.
  • Adam, Joseph, The Republic of Plato, Cambridge, 1902.
  • Cross, R.C., and Woozley, A.D., Plato's Republic. A Philosophical Commentary, London, 1964. A detailed commentary, with special emphasis on logic and politics.
  • Boter, Gerard, The Textual Tradition of Plato’s Republic, Leiden, 1989. Revised Ph.D. dissertation, Free University, Amsterdam, 1986. On the transmission history of the text. [18]
  • Brown, Eric, "Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic", in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2003; 2009, HTML.
  • Ferrari, G.R.F. (ed.), Cambridge Companion to Plato's Republic, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Fragkou, Effrossyni, Retranslating Philosophy: The Role of Plato’s Republic in Shaping and Understanding Politics and Philosophy in Modern Greece, Ottawa: University of Ottawa, 2012, 335 pp, PDF. Ph.D. Dissertation.
  • Plato's Republic entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

See also bibliographies in Slings 2005:197-9 and Ferrari 2007:477-510.

Bibliographies online