Jacqueline de Jong

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Photo: Rob Bogaerts, 1982. (Source)
Born February 3, 1939(1939-02-03)
Hengelo, The Netherlands
Web Wikipedia
Collections Stedelijk, Pompidou
Jacqueline de Jong in Amsterdam City Hall, 1989. Photo: Rineke Dijkstra. (Source)
Jacqueline de Jong and Michèle Bernstein, Moderna Museet, 25 February 2012. Photo: Åsa Lundén/Moderna Museet.
Installation view (wallpaper detail), Jacqueline de Jong & The Situationist Times: Same Player Shoots Again, Torpedo, Oslo, Norway, 2018. Photo: Øivind Bakken. (Source).

Jacqueline Beatrice de Jong (1939) is a Dutch painter, sculptor and graphic artist. She was a member of the Situationist International (1960-1962), and went on to create The Situationist Times (1962-1967), an experimental, international, English-language review concerned with Situationist ideas like détournement as well as other concepts such as topology.

De Jong was born in the Dutch town of Hengelo to Jewish parents. Her father’s company made seamless stockings for Dior. When the Nazis invaded Holland, two-year-old Jacqueline crossed over the Jura mountains with her mother, while her father hid out in Amsterdam. After the war De Jong went to school in Hengelo and Enschede (Gemeentelijk Lyceum), and later moved to Paris, where her father found a position for her at Dior. She met Asger Jorn in the company of her father, when he bought one of Jorn’s pictures. The family collection included works by several CoBrA artists, a Franz Kline, and many other fine contemporary works. In 1958 De Jong was in Holland, working as an assistant in the Applied Arts department at the Stedelijk Museum (until the end of 1960). The Situationists were involved in a somewhat fraught collaboration with the Stedelijk, which brought De Jong into contact with them.[1]

She joined the Situationist International in 1960, and started to participate in conferences and the Central committee. After the expulsion of Constant Nieuwenhuys, she became the Dutch Section of the organisation. In 1962, she did not accept the way the German section, also known as Gruppe SPUR, had been expelled and resigned. The cleft between the Debordists and the Second Situationist International grew, however she refused to join either faction, instead stating that people should act as situationists. Between 1962 and 1967 she edited and published The Situationist Times. In 1968 she was in Paris, printing and distributing revolutionary posters.

In 1970 De Jong left Asger Jorn and moved to Amsterdam with Hans Brinkman, a gallerist. They divorced in 1989. In 1990 she became the companion of lawyer Thomas H. Weyland (1931-2009). Together they started The Weyland de Jong Foundation in the early 2009 to support avant-garde artists aged 50+.

In 2003 a retrospective exhibition of her work was shown at the Cobra Museum in Amstelveen, the Netherlands, and the KunstCentret Silkeborg Bad, Denmark, whereas a monography was published under the title Undercover in de Kunst/Undercover in Art. In 2019, Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam staged a new retrospective of hers (see accompanying video, 6 min).

De Jong's archive was acquired by Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University in 2011-2013.


  • with Guy Debord and Asger Jorn, Hands off Alexander Trocchi!, Paris: Internationale Situationniste, 7 Oct 1960, [1] p, HTML, HTML. [2] [3] (English)
  • with Jørgen Nash and Ansgar Elde, Nicht Hinauslehnen! Ne pas se pencher au dèhors! E pericoloso sporgesi! Danger! Do not lean out! Det är livsfarligt att luta sig ut! Niet naar buiten hangen!, Paris, 13 Feb 1962, [1] p; repr. in The Situationist Times 1, Hengelo, May 1962. [4] [5] (English)
  • editor, The Situationist Times, 6 numbers, Hengelo (1-3), Copenhagen (4-5), and Paris (6), May 1962-Dec 1967. (English)
  • "Critique on the Political Practise of Détournement", The Situationist Times 1, Hengelo, May 1962, pp [43-59], HTML, HTML. (English)
  • with Jørgen Nash, Jens Jorgen Thorsen, Gordon Fazakerley, Hardy Strid, Staffan Larsson, and Ansgar Elde, "The Struggle of the Situcratic Society: A Situationist Manifesto", 1962. Written at Drakabygget in August 1962 by Asger Jorn, Guy Atkins, Jørgen Nash, et al. Originally appeared, with different titles, in Situationist Times 2 (Sep 1962) and Drakabygget 2-3 (1962). (English)
  • "Luxury or Martyrdom", The Situationist Times 3, Hengelo, Jan 1963, pp 94-95, HTML. Originally appeared as "Gog and Magog" in Drakabygget 2-3 (1962) in an edited version by Jorn and Nash, unapproved by De Jong. (English)
  • with Asger Jorn, You or Not You Who Else?, 1964. Artists' book of pencil drawings. [6]
  • A Table, La Louvière, BE: Daily-Bul, 1966, [24] pp. Artist's book. (French)
  • with Tom Weyland, "Moral Rights: The Artist's Perspective", in Copyright: Is Your Copying Right? A Seminar Held on Tuesday 7th April 1998 at ISVA Headquarters, London, Leicester: Institute of Art and Law, 1998. (English)
  • "The Times of the Situationists", in In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni: The Situationist International, 1957-1972, eds. Stefan Zweifel, Juri Steiner, and Heinz Stahlhut, Zürich: JRP/Ringier, 2006. Catalogue text. (English)
  • "Expect Anything. Fear nothing", De Nieuwe 11:15, Amsterdam: Arti et Amicitiae, May 2007, p 6. Report from a Situationist conference in Copenhagen, 2007. (English)
  • "Asger Jorn og vores forhold 1958-1970 / Asger Jorn and Our relationship 1958-1970", in Jorn International, ed. Jørgen Sørensen, Aarhus: ARoS Kunstmuseum, 2011, pp 223-230. Catalogue text. (Danish)/(English)
  • Mourning into the Morning / Lamenti alla mattina, Livorno: Peccolo, 2012. Artist's book. (English)/(Italian)
  • with Asger Jorn, The Case of the Ascetic Satyr: Snapshots from Eternity, New York: JdJ/D.A.P., 2015, [48]+56 pp. Artists' book. A companion volume includes essays on the piece by Kevin Repp, Marc Lenot, Roberto Ohrt, Karen Kurszinsky and Axel Heil. Review: Marcus (Artforum). [7] [8] (English)
  • Potato Blues: la psychogéographie des pommes de terre, Paris: Onestar Press, 2016, [60] pp. (English)


  • Folie endormie, Paris: Jorn, and Munich: Bleicher, 1962. 17 etchings.
  • Accidental Paintings, 1964, 12 pp. Exh. held at the Galerie Westing, Odense, 19 Sep-12 Oct 1964.
  • Jacqueline de Jong, Amsterdam: Kunsthandel Krikhaar, 1965. Exh. held at the Kunsthandel Krikhaar, 21 Dec 1965-16 Jan 1966.
  • Jacqueline de Jong. Billiard Paintings, Amsterdam: Galerie Brinkman, 1977, [8] pp. Text by Ed Wingen and Jean Clarence Lambert. Exh. held at the Galerie Brinkman, Amsterdam, 24 Sep 9 Nov 1977.
  • Jacqueline de Jong. Serie Noir, Hengelo: Kunstzaal Hengelo, 1982. Exh. held 10 Jul-22 Aug 1982. (Dutch)
  • Jacqueline de Jong: Dramatische Landschappen, Amsterdam: Galerie Brinkman, 1987, 28 pp. Text by William Rothuizen. (Dutch)
  • Jacqueline de Jong. Arbeiten 1960-1963, forew. Roberto Ohrt, Munich: Galerie Helmut Leger, 1990, [28] pp. Exh. held at the Galerie Helmut Leger, Munich.
  • Jacqueline de Jong. Malerei 1964/65-1991, Munich: Leger, 1991, 38 pp. Exh. held at the Galerie Helmut Leger, Munich.
  • Jacqueline de Jong. Harvest, schilderijen, Amsterdam: Suzanne Biederberg Gallery, 2000, [17] pp, PDF. Text by Geurt Imantse. (Dutch)
  • Jacqueline De Jong: Undercover in de Kunst / Undercover in Art, eds. Ed Wingen, et al., Amsterdam and Ghent: Ludion, 2003, 167 pp. Catalog of an exhibition held at the Cobra Museum voor Moderne Kunst, Amstelveen, 2 May-23 Jun 2003, and the Kunstcentret Silkeborg Bad in Denmark, 12 Jul-7 Sep 2003. (Dutch)/(English),(French),(German)
    • Ed Wingen, "Jacqueline de Jong undercover in de Kunst / Jacqueline de Jong undercover in the World of Art". (Dutch)/(English)
    • "Werken 1961-2002 / Works 1961-2002"
    • Max van Rooy, "Upstairs, downstairs, vice versa in het Stadhuis van Amsterdam / Upstairs, downstairs, vice versa in Amsterdam Town Hall". (Dutch)/(English)
    • Doeschka Meijsing, "Jacqueline".
    • Roberto Ohrt, "Situationen, unauffindbar oder überall (Eine Ausnahme im Kreis der Männer) / Situations: everywhere or nowhere (an exception among men)". (German)/(Dutch)
    • Christophe Bourseiller, "Une femme au pays des situationists / A Woman in the Country of the Situationists". (French)/(English)
    • Christophe Bourseiller, "Une encyclopédie des formes the situationist times / An Encyclopedia of Forms: The Situationist Times". (French)/(English)
    • Riki Simons, "Biografie / Biography". (Dutch)/(English)
  • Jacqueline de Jong, ed. Sandro Ricaldone, Livorno: Peccolo, 2010, 39 pp. Exh. held at the Galleria Peccolo in Livorno, Italy. (Italian),(French)
  • "Jacqueline de Jong", Massachusetts Review 58:1, Spring 2017, pp 49-64. [9] (English)
  • Jacqueline De Jong: The Ultimate Kiss, Mercatorfonds, WIELS, MOSTYN, Les Abattoirs Musée and Kunstmuseum Ravensberg, 2021, 224 pp. [10] (English)