Jacqueline de Jong
Photo: Rob Bogaerts, 1982. (Source)
February 3, 1939|
Hengelo, The Netherlands
Jacqueline Beatrice de Jong (1939) is a Dutch painter, sculptor and graphic artist. She was a member of the Situationist International (1960-1962), and went on to create The Situationist Times (1962-1967), an experimental, international, English-language review concerned with Situationist ideas like détournement as well as other concepts such as topology.
De Jong was born in the Dutch town of Hengelo to Jewish parents. Her father’s company made seamless stockings for Dior. When the Nazis invaded Holland, two-year-old Jacqueline crossed over the Jura mountains with her mother, while her father hid out in Amsterdam. After the war De Jong went to school in Hengelo and Enschede (Gemeentelijk Lyceum), and later moved to Paris, where her father found a position for her at Dior. She met Asger Jorn in the company of her father, when he bought one of Jorn’s pictures. The family collection included works by several CoBrA artists, a Franz Kline, and many other fine contemporary works. In 1958 De Jong was in Holland, working as an assistant in the Applied Arts department at the Stedelijk Museum (until the end of 1960). The Situationists were involved in a somewhat fraught collaboration with the Stedelijk, which brought De Jong into contact with them.
She joined the Situationist International in 1960, and started to participate in conferences and the Central committee. After the expulsion of Constant Nieuwenhuys, she became the Dutch Section of the organisation. In 1962, she did not accept the way the German section, also known as Gruppe SPUR, had been expelled and resigned. The cleft between the Debordists and the Second Situationist International grew, however she refused to join either faction, instead stating that people should act as situationists. Between 1962 and 1967 she edited and published The Situationist Times. In 1968 she was in Paris, printing and distributing revolutionary posters.
In 1970 De Jong left Asger Jorn and moved to Amsterdam with Hans Brinkman, a gallerist. They divorced in 1989. In 1990 she became the companion of lawyer Thomas H. Weyland (1931-2009). Together they started The Weyland de Jong Foundation in the early 2009 to support avant-garde artists aged 50+.
In 2003 a retrospective exhibition of her work was shown at the Cobra Museum in Amstelveen, the Netherlands, and the KunstCentret Silkeborg Bad, Denmark, whereas a monography was published under the title Undercover in de Kunst/Undercover in Art. In 2019, Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam staged a new retrospective of hers (see accompanying video, 6 min).
De Jong's archive was acquired by Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University in 2011-2013.
- with Guy Debord and Asger Jorn, Hands off Alexander Trocchi!, Paris: Internationale Situationniste, 7 Oct 1960,  p, HTML, HTML.   (English)
- with Jørgen Nash and Ansgar Elde, Nicht Hinauslehnen! Ne pas se pencher au dèhors! E pericoloso sporgesi! Danger! Do not lean out! Det är livsfarligt att luta sig ut! Niet naar buiten hangen!, Paris, 13 Feb 1962,  p; repr. in The Situationist Times 1, Hengelo, May 1962.   (English)
- editor, The Situationist Times, 6 numbers, Hengelo (1-3), Copenhagen (4-5), and Paris (6), May 1962-Dec 1967. (English)
- "Critique on the Political Practise of Détournement", The Situationist Times 1, Hengelo, May 1962, pp [43-59], HTML, HTML. (English)
- with Jørgen Nash, Jens Jorgen Thorsen, Gordon Fazakerley, Hardy Strid, Staffan Larsson, and Ansgar Elde, "The Struggle of the Situcratic Society: A Situationist Manifesto", 1962. Written at Drakabygget in August 1962 by Asger Jorn, Guy Atkins, Jørgen Nash, et al. Originally appeared, with different titles, in Situationist Times 2 (Sep 1962) and Drakabygget 2-3 (1962). (English)
- "Luxury or Martyrdom", The Situationist Times 3, Hengelo, Jan 1963, pp 94-95, HTML. Originally appeared as "Gog and Magog" in Drakabygget 2-3 (1962) in an edited version by Jorn and Nash, unapproved by De Jong. (English)
- with Asger Jorn, You or Not You Who Else?, 1964. Artists' book of pencil drawings. 
- A Table, La Louvière, BE: Daily-Bul, 1966,  pp. Artist's book. (French)
- with Tom Weyland, "Moral Rights: The Artist's Perspective", in Copyright: Is Your Copying Right? A Seminar Held on Tuesday 7th April 1998 at ISVA Headquarters, London, Leicester: Institute of Art and Law, 1998. (English)
- "The Times of the Situationists", in In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni: The Situationist International, 1957-1972, eds. Stefan Zweifel, Juri Steiner, and Heinz Stahlhut, Zürich: JRP/Ringier, 2006. Catalogue text. (English)
- "Expect Anything. Fear nothing", De Nieuwe 11:15, Amsterdam: Arti et Amicitiae, May 2007, p 6. Report from a Situationist conference in Copenhagen, 2007. (English)
- "Asger Jorn og vores forhold 1958-1970 / Asger Jorn and Our relationship 1958-1970", in Jorn International, ed. Jørgen Sørensen, Aarhus: ARoS Kunstmuseum, 2011, pp 223-230. Catalogue text. (Danish)/(English)
- Mourning into the Morning / Lamenti alla mattina, Livorno: Peccolo, 2012. Artist's book. (English)/(Italian)
- with Asger Jorn, The Case of the Ascetic Satyr: Snapshots from Eternity, New York: JdJ/D.A.P., 2015, +56 pp. Artists' book. A companion volume includes essays on the piece by Kevin Repp, Marc Lenot, Roberto Ohrt, Karen Kurszinsky and Axel Heil. Review: Marcus (Artforum).   (English)
- Potato Blues: la psychogéographie des pommes de terre, Paris: Onestar Press, 2016,  pp. (English)
- Folie endormie, Paris: Jorn, and Munich: Bleicher, 1962. 17 etchings.
- Accidental Paintings, 1964, 12 pp. Exh. held at the Galerie Westing, Odense, 19 Sep-12 Oct 1964.
- Jacqueline de Jong, Amsterdam: Kunsthandel Krikhaar, 1965. Exh. held at the Kunsthandel Krikhaar, 21 Dec 1965-16 Jan 1966.
- Jacqueline de Jong. Billiard Paintings, Amsterdam: Galerie Brinkman, 1977,  pp. Text by Ed Wingen and Jean Clarence Lambert. Exh. held at the Galerie Brinkman, Amsterdam, 24 Sep 9 Nov 1977.
- Jacqueline de Jong. Serie Noir, Hengelo: Kunstzaal Hengelo, 1982. Exh. held 10 Jul-22 Aug 1982. (Dutch)
- Jacqueline de Jong: Dramatische Landschappen, Amsterdam: Galerie Brinkman, 1987, 28 pp. Text by William Rothuizen. (Dutch)
- Jacqueline de Jong. Arbeiten 1960-1963, forew. Roberto Ohrt, Munich: Galerie Helmut Leger, 1990,  pp. Exh. held at the Galerie Helmut Leger, Munich.
- Jacqueline de Jong. Malerei 1964/65-1991, Munich: Leger, 1991, 38 pp. Exh. held at the Galerie Helmut Leger, Munich.
- Jacqueline de Jong. Harvest, schilderijen, Amsterdam: Suzanne Biederberg Gallery, 2000,  pp, PDF. Text by Geurt Imantse. (Dutch)
- Jacqueline De Jong: Undercover in de Kunst / Undercover in Art, eds. Ed Wingen, et al., Amsterdam and Ghent: Ludion, 2003, 167 pp. Catalog of an exhibition held at the Cobra Museum voor Moderne Kunst, Amstelveen, 2 May-23 Jun 2003, and the Kunstcentret Silkeborg Bad in Denmark, 12 Jul-7 Sep 2003. (Dutch)/(English),(French),(German)
- Ed Wingen, "Jacqueline de Jong undercover in de Kunst / Jacqueline de Jong undercover in the World of Art". (Dutch)/(English)
- "Werken 1961-2002 / Works 1961-2002"
- Max van Rooy, "Upstairs, downstairs, vice versa in het Stadhuis van Amsterdam / Upstairs, downstairs, vice versa in Amsterdam Town Hall". (Dutch)/(English)
- Doeschka Meijsing, "Jacqueline".
- Roberto Ohrt, "Situationen, unauffindbar oder überall (Eine Ausnahme im Kreis der Männer) / Situations: everywhere or nowhere (an exception among men)". (German)/(Dutch)
- Christophe Bourseiller, "Une femme au pays des situationists / A Woman in the Country of the Situationists". (French)/(English)
- Christophe Bourseiller, "Une encyclopédie des formes the situationist times / An Encyclopedia of Forms: The Situationist Times". (French)/(English)
- Riki Simons, "Biografie / Biography". (Dutch)/(English)
- Jacqueline de Jong, ed. Sandro Ricaldone, Livorno: Peccolo, 2010, 39 pp. Exh. held at the Galleria Peccolo in Livorno, Italy. (Italian),(French)
- Sandro Ricaldone, "Jacqueline de Jong". (Italian)
- "Jacqueline de Jong", Massachusetts Review 58:1, Spring 2017, pp 49-64.  (English)
- Pinball Wizard: A Work and Life of Jacqueline De Jong, Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum, 7 Feb 2019. Online dossier accompanying an exhibition held 9 Feb-18 Aug 2019. (English)
- Margriet Schavemaker, "Pinball Wizard: An Introduction", Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam.
- Ellef Prestsæter, "How to Read The Situationist Times".
- "Pinball Wizard: A Conversation between Margriet Schavemaker and Jacqueline de Jong".
- Karen Kurczynski, "Ladies and Gentlemen: New Morphologies in The Situationist Times".
- Laurie Cluitmans, "From Place to Situation and Back Again: Jaqueline de Jong in the 1970s and 1980s".
- "Walk through the exhibition". Audio.
- Jacqueline De Jong: The Ultimate Kiss, Mercatorfonds, WIELS, MOSTYN, Les Abattoirs Musée and Kunstmuseum Ravensberg, 2021, 224 pp.  (English)
- Dieter Schrage, "Jacqueline De Jong: dine Frau in der Situationistischen Internationale", in Situationistische Internationale 1957-1972, ed. Dieter Schrage, Vienna: MUMOK and Triton, 1998, pp 68-71. (German)
- "Les temps situationnistes. Entretien avec Jacqueline De Jong", Archives et Documents situationnistes 1, ed. Christophe Bourseiller, Paris: Denoël, Autumn 2001, pp 13-35. (French)
- "Undercover in de kunst. Interview met Jacqueline de Jong", De Nieuwe 11:15, Amsterdam: Arti et Amicitiae, May 2007, p 6. (Dutch)
- Drakabygget: A Situationist Utopia or Meeting Place for Displaced Persons. Gordon Fazakerley and Jacqueline de Jong in conversation with Jakob Jakobsen", in Expect Anything Fear Nothing: The Situationist Movement in Scandinavia and Elsewhere, eds. Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen and Jakob Jakobsen, Copenhagen: Nebula, and New York: Autonomedia, 2011, pp 114-128, HTML. (English)
- "A Maximum of Openness: Jacqueline de Jong in Conversation with Karen Kurczynski", in Expect Anything Fear Nothing: The Situationist Movement in Scandinavia and Elsewhere, eds. Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen and Jakob Jakobsen, Copenhagen: Nebula, and New York: Autonomedia, 2011, pp 183-204. (English)
- Xandra Schutte, "Jacqueline de Jong: Avant-garde-diva. ‘Ik was onaangepast’", De Groene Amsterdammer 39, Amsterdam, 26 Sep 2012. (Dutch)
- in How Buildings Kill, ed. Gareth Proskourine-Barnett, London: Tombstone Press, 2012.   (English)
- Ellef Prestsæter, "A Trip to Gotland 1964/2014", Kunstkritikk, 3 Jul 2015. (English)
- "En tur til Gotland 1964/2014", Kunstkritikk, 3 Jul 2015. (Norwegian)
- Amy Sherlock, "The Life and Times of Jacqueline de Jong", Frieze, London, 19 Mar 2017. Interview. (English)
- Margriet Schavemaker, L'imagination à rebours: An Interview with Jacqueline de Jong, The Hague: Dürst Britt & Mayhew, 2017, 4 pp.
- Pierre-Alexandre Mateos, Charles Teyssou, "The Thousand Lifes of Jacqueline de Jong", L'Officiel art 22, 2017, 130-137. (French)/(English)
- Laurie Cluitmans, "‘Mijn werk is volstrekt niet autobiografisch’ - in gesprek met Jacqueline de Jong", Metropolis M, Utrecht, 3 Apr 2018. (Dutch)
- Hanne Hagenaars, "Hengelo est à vous!", Mister Motley, 12 Dec 2018. (Dutch)
- Ellef Prestsæter, "The Situationist Times", Feb 2019. Video interviews about the six issues of The Situationist Times; recorded Dec 2017. With transcripts.
- McKenzie Wark, " McKenzie Wark Podcast series: The Artist-Publisher. In conversation with Jacqueline de Jong", MOSTYN, May 2022, 49 min. Audio.
- Betty van Garrel, "Jacqueline de Jong", in van Garrel, Een liefde van..., Amsterdam/Brussels: Thomas Rap, 1986. (Dutch)
- William Rothuizen, "Upstairs-Downstairs. Ein Porträt der holländischen Künstlerin Jacqueline de Jong", trans. M. Erdt-Hertog, Du: die Zeitschrift der Kultur 46:6, 1986, pp 86-91.  (German)
- Ruud Meijer, "Nederlandse kunstenaars in Parijs (1950-1970)", De Gids 150, 1987. (Dutch)
- Iris Wijnoogst, "Je moet je wel weten te gedragen! Nederlandse kunstenaressen en internationale avant-gardes", in Beroep Kunstenares: de beroepspraktijk van beeldend kunstenaressen in Nederland 1898-1998, ed. Marlite Halbersma, Nijmegen: Sun, 1998, pp 108-129. (Dutch)
- J.U.P. [Jane Heiss, Ulrike Müller, Patricia Reschenbach], Situationistinnen und andere..., afterw. Renée Green, Berlin: b_books, 2001, 77 pp.    (German)
- Yan Ciret, "Jacqueline De Jong. Peindre in situ", in Figures de la négation: avant-gardes du dépassement de l'art, Saint-Étienne: Musée d'art moderne, 2004. Catalogue text. (French)
- McKenzie Wark, "The détournement of détournement", in Wark, 50 Years of Recuperation: The Situationist International 1957-2007, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2008, pp 40-44. (English)
- Adrian Dannatt, "Undercover Agent: Painter, publisher, revolutionary and provocateur - Dutch artist Jacqueline de Jong has done it all", The Guardian, London, 7 Jun 2003. Review of De Jong's retrospective at Cobra Museum.
- "Autodidaktin: Die Niederländerin Jacqueline de Jong", Welt, 7 Feb 2009. Review of De Jong's exhibition at Galerie Helmut Leger, Munich. (German)
- McKenzie Wark, "Divided We Stand", ch 9 in Wark, The Beach Beneath the Street: The Everyday Life and Glorious Times of the Situationist International, London: Verso, 2011, pp 109-123. (English)
- Diederik Stevens, "Jacqueline De Jong", in Stevens, Hoogtij langs de Seine: nederlandse schrijvers en kunstenaars in Parijs, Atlas, 2012.  (Dutch)
- Daniel Spaulding, "Situating Jacqueline de Jong", X-TRA 20:2, Winter 2018. Review of the exhibition Jacqueline de Jong: Imaginary Disobedience. (English)
- Herman Haverkate, "Hengelose kunstenares Jacqueline de Jong: ‘We wilden de wereld veranderen’", Tubantia, Hengelo, 10 Feb 2019. (Dutch)
- Greil Marcus, "Missive Giving: Asger Jorn and Jacqueline De Jong", Artforum, Jan 2016, pp 81-82. Review of The Case of the Ascetic Satyr (2015). Excerpt. (English)
- Paula Burleigh, "Ludic Labyrinths: Strategies of Disruption", Stedelijk Studies 7: "Lose Yourself!", Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum, 2018. (English)
- Ellef Prestsæter (ed.), These are Situationist Times! An Inventory of Reproductions, Deformations, Modifications, Derivations, and Transformations, Oslo: Torpedo Press, 2019. TOC, Introduction.    (English)