Raymond Ruyer

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Raymond Ruyer (13 January 1902, Plainfaing, Vosges - 22 June 1987, Nancy) was a French philosopher in the late 20th century. Author of many important works, he covered several topics such as the philosophy of biology, the philosophy of informatics, the philosophy of value and others. His most popular book is The Gnosis of Princeton in which he presents his own philosophic views under the pretence that he was representing the views of an imaginary group of American scientists. He developed a theory of consciousness of all living matter, named panpsychism, which was a major influence on philosophers such as Simondon, Deleuze and Guattari.


(in French unless noted otherwise)

  • La conscience et le corps, Paris: Alcan, 1937.
  • Néo-finalisme, Paris: PUF, 1952, ARG; new ed., 2012.
    • Neofinalism, intro. Mark B.N. Hansen, trans. Alyosha Edlebi, University of Minnesota Press, 2016, xxi+300 pp. [1]. Review: Smith (Parrhesia). (English)
  • Dieu des religions, Dieu de la science, Paris: Flammarion, 1970.
  • Les nuisances idéologiques, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1972.
  • La gnose de Princeton, Paris: Fayard, 1974.
  • Les nourritures psychiques. La politique du bonheur, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1975.
  • Les cent prochains siècles, Paris: Fayard, 1977.
  • L'art d'être toujours content. Introduction à la vie gnostique, Paris: Fayard, 1978.
  • Le sceptique résolu, Paris: Robert Laffont, 1979.
  • Souvenirs -1- Ma famille alsacienne et ma vallée vosgienne, Paris: Vent d'Est, 1985.


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