Central and Eastern Europe

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Czech Republic




former GDR (Eastern Germany)

  • Hermann Glöckner, a very active artist almost till the end of his very long live (died in 1987), i.e. till the eighties, however, his influences among young East-German artists were not very significant


  • 111, neo-constructivist group
  • Sigma, neo-constructivist group

former Soviet Union (Russia)

Electro-acoustic music studios and societies

  • Polish Radio Experimental Studio Warszawa - SEPR, *1957 (director: Marek Zwyrzykowski)
  • Studio of Experimental Music Plzeň, *1965
  • Experimental Studio of Slovak Radio & CECM Bratislava, *1965
  • Budapest New Music Studio *1970
  • Electro-acoustic Music Studio at the Academy of Music in Krakow - SME, *1973 (director: Marek Choloniewski)
  • Electroacoustic Music Studio Katowice, *1992
  • Studio of Electroacoustic Music of the Hungarian Radio (HEAR Studio), Budapest (co-ordinator: Itsvan Szigeti)
  • Studio for Computer Music at the Academy of Music in Warsaw (coordinator: Krzysztof Czaja)
  • Studio for Computer Composition at the Academy of Music in Wroclaw - SCC (director: Stanislaw Krupowicz)
  • Studio for Computer Music at the Academy of Music in Poznan (director: Lidia Zielinska)
  • Studio for Computer Music at the Academy of Music in Lodz (director: Krzysztof Knittel)
  • Studio for Computer Music at the Academy of Music in Katowice (director: Jaroslaw Mamczarski)
  • Studio for Computer Music at the Academy of Music in Gdansk (director: Krzysztof Olczak)
  • Studio for Computer Music at the Academy of Music in Bydgoszcz (coordinator: Dobromila Jaskot)
  • Studio for Computer Music at the Silesian University in Cieszyn (director: Krzysztof Gawlas)
  • Society for Electroacoustic Music Prague+Brno *1990
  • Polish Society for Electroacoustic Music, Krakow *2005


All neo-constructivists favored the discourse of freedom expressed in a more or less orthodox language of geometry. The crucial question, however, to repeat after Rosalind Krauss, is: how was the expression of freedom possible in that way, if the "grid," a system of intersecting lines, allegedly discovered anew again and again, is one of the most stereotypical visual devices? Furthermore, as the American art historian suggests, all the artists who started using "grid" as their "own" means of expression brought their artistic evolution to an end, since in many respects (structural, logical, as well as commonsensical) that particular figure can only be repeated.2 What was then the justification of the discourse of freedom or, more precisely, of its mythologization in the artistic practice of the Central European neo-constructivists? Most likely, it was the negative function of that art; the fact that under the specific historical circumstances it was directed against the socialist realism, absolutizing "form" (or even "pure form") while the authorities, particularly in the early fifties, were conducting a campaign against the so-called "formalism" identified with the bourgeois culture. According to the doctrine of the socialist realism, the form was supposed to be "national" ("narodnaya"), and the content "socialist." On the contrary, the neo-constructivists preferred the form to be universal, whereas the so-called content did not exist for then at all. [1]