- 1 Scientists
- 2 Literature
- 2.1 Wiener's cybernetics (1948)
- 2.2 Macy Conferences on Cybernetics (1946-53)
- 2.3 Information theory and cybernetics in France (1950s)
- 2.4 Information theory and cybernetics in the Soviet Union (1950s)
- 2.5 Information theory and cybernetics in Germany (1950s)
- 2.6 Historical analysis and review of the impact of cybernetics
- 2.7 Indirectly related prior work
- 2.8 Resources
- 2.9 Bibliographies
- 3 See also
Wiener's cybernetics (1948)
- Norbert Wiener, The Extrapolation, Interpolation, and Smoothing of Stationary Time Series, NDRC Report, MIT, February 1942. Classified (ordered by Warren Weaver, then the head of Section D-2), printed in 300 copies. Nicknamed "Yellow Peril". Published in 1949 (see below). Shannon 1948 mentions it as containing "the first clear-cut formulation of communication theory as a statistical problem, the study of operations on time series. This work, although chiefly concerned with the linear prediction and filtering problem, is an important collateral reference in connection with the present paper" (p 626-7). , Commentary.
- Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, Paris: Hermann & Cie, Cambridge, MA: Technology Press, and New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1948, 194 pp; MIT Press and Wiley, 2nd ed., 1961, 212 pp; 1965; 1980. Reviews: Dubarle (1948, FR), Littauer (1949), MacColl (1950). In the spring of 1947, Wiener was invited to a congress on harmonic analysis, held in Nancy, France and organized by the bourbakist mathematician, Szolem Mandelbrojt. During this stay in France Wiener received the offer to write a manuscript on the unifying character of this part of applied mathematics, which is found in the study of Brownian motion and in telecommunication engineering. The following summer, back in the United States, Wiener decided to introduce the neologism ‘cybernetics’ into his scientific theory. According to Pierre De Latil, MIT Press tried their best to prevent the publication of the book in France, since Wiener, then professor at MIT, was bound to them by contract. As a representative of Hermann Editions, M. Freymann managed to find a compromise and the French publisher won the rights to the book. Having lived together in Mexico, Freymann and Wiener were friends and it is Freymann who is supposed to have suggested that Wiener write this book. Benoît Mandelbrot and Walter Pitts proofread the manuscript. Then forthcoming, the book is mentioned in Shannon 1948 as being related to his paper while "dealing with the general problems of communication and control" (p 627). In contrast to Shannon who did not see the use of information theory for other than engineers and mathematicians, Wiener seeked to create new interdisciplinary science: "The thought of every age is reflected in its technique. [..] If the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries are the age of clocks, and the later eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries constitute the age of steam engines, the present time is the age of communication and control." 
- Cibernetica. Controllo e comunicazione nell’animale e nella macchina, Milan: Bompiani, 1953. (Italian)
- N. Viner (Н. Винер), Kibernetika, ili upravlenie i svyaz v zhivotnom i mashine [Кибернетика, или Управление и связь в животном и машине], Moscow: Sovetskoe radio [Советское радио], trans. G.N. Povarov, Moscow: Sovetskoe radio, 1958, 216 pp; 1963; 2nd ed., 1968. (Russian)
- Cibernética, trans. Miguel Mora Hidalgo, Madrid: Guadiana, 1960, 314 pp; 1971. (Spanish)
- Kybernetik. Regelung und Nachrichtenübertragung in Lebewesen und Maschine, rororo, 1968; Econ, 1992. (German)
- Cybernetyka, czyli sterowanie i komunikacja w zwierzęciu i maszynie, Warsaw: PWN, 1971, 261 pp. (Polish)
- Cibernética ou controle e comunicação no animal e na maquina, São Paulo: Poligono, 1970. (Portuguese)
- Cibernética o el control y comunicación en animales y máquinas, trans. Francisco Martín, Barcelona: Tusquets, 1985, 266 pp; 1998; 2002, 150 pp. (Spanish)
- La cybernétique. Information et régulation dans le vivant et la machine, trans. Ronan Le Roux, Robert Vallée and Nicole Vallée-Lévi, Paris: Seuil, 2014, 376 pp. (French) 
- Norbert Wiener, The Extrapolation, Interpolation, and Smoothing of Stationary Time Series with Engineering Applications, Cambridge, MA: Technology Press, New York: John Wiley & Sons, and London: Chapman & Hill, 1949; MIT Press, 1964. Earlier printed as a classified NDRC "yellow peril" Report, MIT, 1942. Reviews: Tukey (1952). Uses Gauss's method of shaping the characteristic of a detector to allow for the maximal recognition of signals in the presence of noise; later known as the "Wiener filter."
- Norbert Wiener, "The Machine Age", . Unpublished. Written for The New York Times.
- Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1950; 2nd ed., 1954; London: Eyre and Spottiswode, 1954; New York: Avon Books, 1967; New York: Da Capo Press, 1988; London: Free Association Books, 1989.
- Cybernétique et société, l'usage humain des êtres humains, Paris: Deux-Rives, 1952; 2nd ed., Paris: 10-18, 1962; 1971. (French)
- Mensch und Menschmaschine, Frankfurt am Main: Metzner, 1952; 4th ed., 1972. (German)
- Cibernética e sociedade: o uso humano de seres humanos, trans. José Paulo Paes, São Paulo: Cultrix, 1954; 2nd ed., 1968, 190 pp. (Portuguese)
- Kibernetika i obshchestvo [Кибернетика и общество], trans. E.G. Panfilov, Moscow: IIL, 1958, 200 pp. (Russian)
- Cybernetyka i społeczeństwo, Warsaw: KiW, Warszawa 1960, 236 pp; Cybernetyka a społeczeństwo, 2nd ed., Warsaw: KiW, 1961, 217 pp. (Polish)
- Introduzione alla cibernetica. L’uso umano degli esseri umani, trans. Dario Persiani, Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 1966, 229 pp; 3rd ed., 1970, 240 pp; 1982; 2012, 234 pp. (Italian). Review.
- Ihmisestä, koneista, kielestä, trans. Pertti Jotuni, Helsinki: WS, 1969. (Finnish)
- Cybernética y sociedad, Buenos Aires: Sudamericana, 1969. (Spanish)
- Ningen kikairon, 2nd ed., trans. Y. Shizume, Misuzu Shobo, 1979. (Japanese)
- Cybernética y sociedad, México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1984. (Spanish)
Macy Conferences on Cybernetics (1946-53)
- Cybernetics: Transactions of the Sixth Conference, New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1949.
- Cybernetics: Transactions of the Seventh Conference, eds. Heinz von Foerster, Margaret Mead, and Hans Lukas Teuber, New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1950.
- Cybernetics: Transactions of the Eighth Conference, eds. Heinz von Foerster, Margaret Mead, and Hans Lukas Teuber, New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1952.
- Cybernetics: Transactions of the Ninth Conference, eds. Heinz von Foerster, Margaret Mead, and Hans Lukas Teuber, New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1953.
- Cybernetics: Transactions of the Tenth Conference, eds. Heinz von Foerster, Margaret Mead, and Hans Lukas Teuber, New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1955.
- Claus Pias (ed.), Cybernetics | Kybernetik 1: The Macy-Conferences 1946–1953. Band 1. Transactions/Protokolle, Zürich/Berlin: Diaphanes, 2003, 736 pp.  
- Claus Pias (ed.), Cybernetics | Kybernetik 2: The Macy-Conferences 1946–1953. Band 2. Documents/Dokumente, Zürich: diaphanes, 2004, 512 pp. (in German/English). Introduction. 
Information theory and cybernetics in France (1950s)
- Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, Paris: Hermann & Cie, Cambridge, MA: Technology Press, and New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1948, 194 pp. Review: Dubarle (1948, FR). (see details and other editions above)
- Dominique Dubarle, "Idées scientifiques actuelles et domination des faits humains", Esprit 9:18 (1950), pp 296-317. (French)
- Louis de Broglie (ed.), La Cybernétique: théorie du signal et de l'information, Paris: Éditions de la Revue d'optique théorique et instrumentale, 1951, 318 pp. (French). Contributors include physicists and mathematicians Robert Fortet, M.D. Indjoudjian, A. Blanc-Lapierre, P. Aigrain, J. Oswald, Dennis Gabor, Jean Ville, Pierre Chavasse, Serge Colombo, Yvon Delbord, Jean Icole, Pierre Marcou, and Edouard Picault. 
- Norbert Wiener, Cybernétique et société, l'usage humain des êtres humains , Paris: Deux-Rives, 1952; 2nd ed., Paris: 10-18, 1962; 1971. (French) (see other editions above)
- Louis Couffignal, Les machines à penser, Paris: Minuit, 1952, 153 pp; 2nd ed., 1964, 133 pp. (French)
- Denkmaschinen, trans. Elisabeth Walther with Max Bense, intro. Max Bense, Stuttgart: Klipper, 1955, 186 pp; 1965. (German)
- Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 47 (1953). (French). Proceedings of a congress held in Paris in January 1951. Paul Chauchard: the congress was "the first manifestation in France of the young cybernetics, with the participation of N. Wiener, the father of this science." For this congress, organised by the French scientists Louis Couffignal and Pérès, both of whom had visited the U.S. laboratories, and sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, a number of foreigners were invited, including Howard Aiken, Warren McCulloch, Maurice Wilkes, Grey Walter, Donald MacKay and Ross Ashby, along with Wiener who was staying in Paris for a couple of months at the Collège de France. 300 people attended; 38 papers were presented; 14 machines from six different countries were demonstrated. 
- Pierre de Latil, La Pensée artificielle, Paris: Gallimard, 1953. (French)
- Benoît Mandelbrot, Contributions à la théorie mathématique des jeux de communications, Institut de Statistiques de l'Université de Paris 2, 1953. (French). Ph.D. dissertation in mathematics making a connection between game theory and information theory. He showed for instance that both thermodynamics and statistical structures of language can be explained as results of minimax games between ‘nature’ and ‘emitter’. He also made the connection between the definitions of information given by the British statistician Ronald A. Fisher in the 1920s, by the physicist Dennis Gabor in 1946 and the already well-known definition proposed by Shannon. Mandelbrot was at MIT from 1952-1954 and later at the IAS in Princeton. 
- Raymond Ruyer, La cybernétique et l'origine de l'information, Paris: Flammarion, 1954. (French)
- G.-th. Guilbaud, La Cybernetique, PUF, 1954. (French)
- Marcel-Paul Schützenberg, "Contributions aux applications statistiques de la théorie de l’information", Publications de l'Institut de Statistique de l'Université de Paris 3:1-2 (1954), pp 3-117; repr. in Œuvres complètes, Tome 3: 1953-1955, Paris: Institut Gaspard-Monge, Université Paris-Est, 2009, pp 56-161. (French). Ph.D. Dissertation defended at the Faculté des Sciences in Paris in June 1953.
- Marcel-Paul Schützenberg, "La théorie de l'information", in Cahiers d'actualité et de synthèse, Encyclopédie française, Paris: Société Nouvelle de l'Encyclopédie Française, 1957, pp 9-21. (French)
Information theory and cybernetics in the Soviet Union (1950s)
- Klod Shennon (Клод Шеннон), "Statisticheskaia teoriia peredachi elektricheskikh signalov" [Статистическая теория передачи электрических сигналов; The Statistical Theory of Electrical Signal Transmission] , in Teoriya peredakhi elektrikheskikh signalov pri nalikhii pomekh [Теория передачи электрических сигналов при наличии помех], ed. Nikolai A. Zheleznov (А. Н. Железнов), Moscow: Izdatelstvo inostrannoi literatury (ИИЛ), 1953. (Russian). The editor rid the work of the words information, communication, and mathematical entirely, put entropy in quotation marks, and substituted data for information throughout the text. He also assured the reader that Shannon’s concept of entropy had nothing to do with physical entropy and was called such only on the basis of "purely superficial similarity of mathematical formulae". 
- "Matematicheskaya teoriya svyazi" [Математическая теория связи] , trans. S. Karpov, in Raboty po teorii informatsii i kibernetike [Работы по теории информации и кибернетике], Moscow: Izdatelstvo inostrannoi literatury (ИИЛ), 1963, pp 243-332. (Russian)
- Aleksei Liapunov, Anatolii Kitov, Sergei Sobolev, "Osnovnye cherty kibernetiki" [Основные черты кибернетики; Basic Features of Cybernetics], Voprosy filosofii [Вопросы философии; Problems of Philosophy] 141:4 (August 1955). (Russian). The first Soviet article speaking positively about cybernetics and non-technical applications of information theory, authored by three specialists in military computing—Liapunov, a noted mathematician and the creator of the first Soviet programming language; Kitov, an organizer of the first military computing centers; and Sobolev, the deputy head of the Soviet nuclear weapons program in charge of the mathematical support. They presented cybernetics as a general "doctrine of information", of which Shannon’s theory of communication was but one part. The three authors interpreted the notion of information very broadly, defining it as "all sorts of external data, which can be received and transmitted by a system, as well as the data that can be produced within the system." Under the rubric of "information" fell any environmental influence on living organisms, any knowledge acquired by man in the process of learning, any signals received by a control device via feedback, and any data processed by a computer.  
- A.N. Kolmogorov (А. Н. Колмогоров), Teoriya peredachi informatsii [Теория передачи информации], Мoscow, 1956. (Russian)
- Igor’ A. Poletaev, Signal: O nekotorykh poniatiiakh kibernetiki, Moscow: Sovetskoe radio, 1958. (Russian). The first Soviet book on cybernetics.
Information theory and cybernetics in Germany (1950s)
- Nobert Wiener, Mensch und Menschmaschine , trans. Gertrud Walther, Frankfurt am Main: Metzner, 1952, 211 pp; 4th ed., 1972. (German) (see details and other editions above)
- Louis Couffignal, Denkmaschinen , trans. Elisabeth Walther with Max Bense, intro. Max Bense, Stuttgart: Klipper, 1955, 186 pp; 1965. (German) (see details above)
- Werner Meyer-Eppler, Grundlagen und Anwendungen der Informationstheorie, Berlin: Springer, 1959, xviii+446 pp; 2nd ed., eds. Georg Heike and K. Löhn, Berlin: Springer, 1969. (German). Reviews: Tamm (1960), Billingsley (1961, EN), Adam (1965).
Historical analysis and review of the impact of cybernetics
In mathematics, engineering and computing
- Written by engineers and mathematicians
- Ya.I. Fet (ed.), Iz istorii kibernetiki, Novosibirsk: Geo, 2006, 339 pp. (Russian)
- Written by historians and theorists
- James R. Beniger, The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society, Cambridge University Press, 1986. Book-inspired website.
- Geof Bowker, "How to be Universal: Some Cybernetic Strategies, 1943–1970", Social Studies of Science 23:1 (1993), pp 107-127. 
- Peter Galison, "The Ontology of the Enemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetic Vision", Critical Inquiry 21:1 (Autumn 1994), pp 228-266. Demonstrates the significance of the war effort of devising a servomechanical shooting device, in which Wiener participated, as a defining moment in the elaboration of the cybernetic model.
- N. Katherine Hayles, How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics, University of Chicago Press, 1999, 350 pp.
- Jean-Pierre Dupuy, The Mechanization of the Mind: On the Origins of Cognitive Science, trans. M. B. Debevoise, Princeton University Press, 2000, 240 pp. A survey of the Macy conferences. Review, .
- David A. Mindell, Between Human and Machine: Feedback, Control, and Computing before Cybernetics, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002, 439 pp. 
- Slava Gerovitch, "'Russian Scandals': Soviet Readings of American Cybernetics in the Early Years of the Cold War", The Russian Review 60 (October 2001), pp 545-568.
- David Mindell, Jérôme Segal, Slava Gerovitch, "From Communications Engineering to Communications Science: Cybernetics and Information Theory in the United States, France, and the Soviet Union", in Science and Ideology: A Comparative History, ed. Mark Walker, London and New York: Routledge, 2002, pp 66-96. 
- Slava Gerovitch, From Newspeak to Cyberspeak: A History of Soviet Cybernetics, MIT Press, 2004, 383 pp.
- Yongdong Peng, "The Early Diffusion of Cybernetics in China (1929-1960)", Studies in the History of the Natural Sciences, vol. 23, 2004, pp. 299-318. (Chinese)  
- Bernard Dionysius Geoghegan, "The Historiographic Conception of Information: A Critical Survey", The IEEE Annals on the History of Computing 30:1 (2008), pp 66-81.
- Mathieu Triclot, Le moment cybernétique: la constitution de la notion d’information, Seyssel: Champ Callon, 2008. (French)
- Andrew Pickering, The Cybernetic Brain: Sketches of Another Future, Chicago University Press, 2010, 526 pp. Renders a history of British cybernetics with only brief excursions into information theory.
- Ronan Le Roux, Une histoire de la cybernétique en France, 1948-1970, Paris: Classiques Garnier, 2013. (French)
- Steve J. Heims, Constructing a Social Science for Postwar America: The Cybernetics Group (1946–1953), MIT Press, 1993. A survey of the Macy conferences and dissemination of information theory outside the natural sciences. Review, .
- Céline Lafontaine, L’Empire cybernétique: des machines à penser à la pensée machine [The Cybernetic Empire: From Machines for Thinking to the Thinking Machine], Paris: Seuil, 2004. (French). Review.
- Céline Lafontaine, "The Cybernetic Matrix of 'French Theory'", Theory, Culture & Society 24:5 (2007), pp 27-46. On the influence of cybernetics on the development of French structuralism, post-structuralism and postmodern philosophy after WWII.
- Michael Hagner, Erich Hörl (eds.), Die Transformationen des Humanen, Suhrkamp, 2008, 450 pp. (German). Contents and Introduction, .
- Jürgen Van de Walle, "Roman Jakobson, Cybernetics and Information Theory: A Critical Assessment", Folia Linguistica Historica 29 (December 2008), pp 87-123.
- Ronan Le Roux, "Lévi-Strauss, une reception paradoxale de la cybernétique", L’Homme 189 (January-March 2009), pp 165-190. (French)
- Lydia H. Liu, "The Cybernetic Unconscious: Rethinking Lacan, Poe, and French Theory", Critical Inquiry 36:2 (Winter 2010), pp 288-320. 
- Bernard Dionysus Geoghegan, "From Information Theory to French Theory: Jakobson, Levi-Strauss, and the Cybernetic Apparatus", Critical Inquiry 38 (Autumn 2011), pp 96-126.
- Bernard Dionysus Geoghegan, The Cybernetic Apparatus: Media, Liberalism, and the Reform of the Human Sciences, Northwestern University and Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, 2012, 262 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation.
In other fields
- Donna Haraway, "Signs of Dominance: From a Physiology to a Cybernetics of Primate Society, C.R. Carpenter, 1930-1970", in Studies in History of Biology, Vol. 6, eds. William Coleman and Camille Limoges, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982, pp 129-219.
- Lily E. Kay, "Cybernetics, Information, Life: The Emergence of Scriptural Representations of Heredity", Configurations 5:1 (Winter 1997), pp 23-91. Cybernetics in genetics. 
- Philip Mirowski, "Cyborg Agonistes: Economics Meets Operations Research in Mid-Century", Social Studies of Science 29:5 (1999), pp. 685-718. Cybernetics in economics.
- Lily E. Kay, "From Logical Neurons to Poetic Embodiments of Mind: Warren S. McCulloch’s Project in Neuroscience", Science in Context 14:15 (2001), pp 591-614. Cybernetics in neuroscience.
- Jennifer S. Light, From Warfare to Welfare: Defense Intellectuals and Urban Problems in Cold War, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. Cybernetics in urban planning.
- Jacques Lafitte, Réflexions sur la science des machines [Reflections on the Science of Machines], 1911-32.
- Marian Smoluchowski, "Experimentell nachweisbare, der Ublichen Thermodynamik widersprechende Molekularphenomene", Phys. Zeitshur. 13, 1912. Connecting the problem of Maxwell's Demon with that of Brownian motion, Smoluchowski wrote that in order to violate the second principle of thermodynamics, the Demon had to be "taught" [unterrichtet] regarding the speed of molecules. Wiener mentions him in passing in his Cybernetics (1948) .
- Ştefan Odobleja, Psychologie consonantiste, 2 vols., Paris: Maloine, 1938-39.
- Hermann Schmidt, general regulatory theory [Allgemeine Regelungskunde], 1941-54.
Fields and theories: Classics, Art history, History of architecture, Anthropology, Semiotics, Philosophy of technology, Marxist aesthetics, Design research, Humanities computing, Structuralism, Poststructuralism, Mediology, Media archaeology, Cyberfeminism, Cultural techniques, Neuroaesthetics, Posthumanities, Sensory ethnography, Media ecology, Digital humanities, Software studies, Modern periodical studies, Accelerationism.