Bauhaus

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Walter Gropius, Programm des Staatlichen Bauhauses in Weimar, Apr 1919. 4 p., 32 cm. Cover by Lyonel Feininger. Download (22 MB). Source.
Walter Gropius, Schema zum Aufbau der Lehre am Bauhaus, 1922.
Louis Held, Bauhaus Party at the Gaststätte Ilmschlösschen Tavern near Weimar, 29 November 1924. [1]

The Bauhaus was founded in 1919 in the city of Weimar by German architect Walter Gropius. Its core objective was a radical concept: to reimagine the material world to reflect the unity of all the arts. Gropius explained this vision for a union of crafts, art and technology in the Programm des Staatlichen Bauhauses Weimar (1919), which described a utopian craft guild combining architecture, sculpture, and painting into a single creative expression [Gesamtkunstwerk]. Gropius developed a curriculum that would turn out artisans and designers capable of creating useful and beautiful objects appropriate to this new system of living.

The Bauhaus combined elements of both fine arts and design education. The curriculum commenced with a preliminary course that immersed the students, who came from a diverse range of social and educational backgrounds, in the study of materials, colour theory, and formal relationships in preparation for more specialized studies. This preliminary course was often taught by visual artists, including Johannes Itten, László Moholy-Nagy, Josef Albers, Paul Klee, and Wassily Kandinsky, among others.

The workshops included metalworking, weaving, ceramics, carpentry, graphic printing, printing and advertising, photography, glass and wall painting, stone and wood sculpture, and theatre. Among the teachers were also Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, Hinnerk Scheper, Joost Schmidt, Gunta Stölzl, and Walter Peterhans. (More about the workshops, classes, and teachers and students.)

In 1925, the Bauhaus moved from Weimar to Dessau. Gropius stepped down as director of the Bauhaus in April 1928, succeeded by the architect Hannes Meyer. Under pressure from an increasingly right-wing municipal government, Meyer resigned as director of the Bauhaus in 1930. He was replaced by architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The political situation in Germany, combined with the perilous financial condition of the Bauhaus, caused Mies to relocate the school to Berlin in September 1932, where it operated on a reduced scale. The Bauhaus eventually dissolved itself under pressure from the Nazis in 1933.

During the years of World War II, many of the key figures of the Bauhaus emigrated to the United States, where their work and their teaching philosophies influenced generations of young architects and designers. Marcel Breuer and Joseph Albers taught at Yale, Walter Gropius went to Harvard, and Moholy-Nagy established the New Bauhaus in Chicago in 1937. [2] [3]

Books[edit]


1. Walter Gropius (ed.), Internationale Architektur, 1925. 111 p., 23 cm. Download (111 MB).
2. Paul Klee, Pädagogisches Skizzenbuch, 1925. 50 p., 23 cm. Download (33 MB).
4. Die Bühne im Bauhaus, 1924. 84 p., 23 cm. Download (72 MB).
7. Neue Arbeiten der Bauhauswerkstätten, 1925. 115 p., 23 cm. Download (118 MB).
8. L. Moholy-Nagy, Malerei, Fotografie, Film, 2nd ed., 1927. 140 p., 23 cm. Download (131 MB).
9. Kandinsky, Punkt und Linie zu Fläche: Beitrag zur Analyse der malerischen Elemente, 1926. 190 p., 23 cm. Download (134 MB).
10. J.J.P. Oud, Holländische Architektur, 1929. 107 p., 23 cm. Download (89 MB).
11. Kasimir Malewitsch, Die gegenstandslose Welt, 1927. 104 p., 24 cm. Download (84 MB).
12. Walter Gropius, Bauhausbauten Dessau, 1930. 221 p., 23 cm. Download (222 MB).


Journal[edit]

bauhaus 1 (1926). 5 pages, 42 cm. Download (23 MB).
bauhaus: zeitschrift für bau und gestaltung 2:1 (Feb 1928). Download (17 MB).
bauhaus: zeitschrift für gestaltung 2 (Jul 1931). Download (15 MB).

The above PDFs are sourced from Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (1) and Baunet Reader (2-3).

  • bauhaus, zeitschrift für gestaltung, eds. Walter Gropius and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1926-28, Ernst Kallai, 1928-30, 14 issues, Dessau, 1926-31; repr., Nendeln: Klaus Reprint, 1977.

Other publications[edit]

Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar, 1919-1923, 1923. Download (325 MB). Source.

(in German unless noted)

  • Walter Gropius, Programm des Staatlichen Bauhauses Weimar, Weimar, April 1919, 4 pp.
  • Satzungen des Staatlichen Bauhauses zu Weimar, Weimar, 1921.
  • Bruno Adler (ed.), Utopia. Dokumente der Wirklichkeit, 2 vols., Weimar, 1921, 85 pp. [4]
  • Die Bauhausbühne. Leitung: Lothar Schreyer. Erste Mitteilung, Weimar, 1922.
  • Neue Europäische Graphik 1921-1923, Potsdam: Müller 8, 1923.
  • Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar, 1919-1923, Weimar and Munich: Bauhausverlag, 1923, 225 pp. [5]
  • Pressestimmen für das Staatliche Bauhaus Weimar, Weimar, 1924; repr., Nendeln: Klaus Reprint, 1980.
  • Walter Gropius, Die bisherige und zukünftige Arbeit des Staatlichen Bauhauses Weimar, Weimar, 1924.
  • A. Bodenthal, bauhaus dessau - hochschule für gestaltung, Dessau, 1928.

Literature[edit]

  • Walter Gropius, The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, trans. P. Morton Shand, London: Faber and Faber, 1935; MIT Press, 1965. (in English). Translated from the manuscript in German entitled Die neue Architektur und das Bauhaus. Grundzüge und Entwicklung einer Konzeption.
  • Herbert Bayer, Walter Gropius, Ise Gropius (eds.), Bauhaus 1919–1928, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1938, 224 pp. (in English)
  • Éva Forgács, The Bauhaus Idea and Bauhaus Politics, Central European University Press, 1995. (in English)
  • Margret Kentgens-Craig, The Bauhaus and America: First Contacts, 1919-1936, MIT Press, 1999, 283 pp. (in English)
  • Tom Wolfe, From Bauhaus to Our House, Picador, 2009. (in English)
  • Peder Anker, From Bauhaus to Eco-House: A History of Ecological Design, 2010. (in English)
  • Bibliography

Weimar symposia[edit]

  • 1. Bauhaus-Kolloquium Weimar vom 27. - 29.10. 1976, "50 Jahre Bauhaus Dessau". [6]
  • 2. Bauhaus-Kolloquium Weimar vom 27. - 29.06. 1979, "60 Jahre Gründung Bauhaus". [7]
  • 3. Bauhaus-Kolloquium Weimar vom 5. bis 7. Juli 1983, "Das Bauhauserbe und die gegenwärtige Entwicklung der Architektur : zum 100. Geburtstag von Walter Gropius [8]
  • 4. Bauhaus-Kolloquium Weimar vom 24. - 26. Juni 1986, "Der wissenschaftlich-technische Fortschritt und die sozial-kulturellen Funktionen von Architektur und industrieller Formgestaltung in unserer Epoche". [9]
  • later editions: [10]

Documentaries[edit]

See also[edit]

Links[edit]


Avant-garde art and design schools

Bauhaus (Weimar, Dessau, Berlin, 1919-33), Vitebsk Popular Art Institute (Vitebsk, 1919-22), VkHUTEMAS (Moscow, 1920-26), School of Arts and Crafts (Bratislava, 1928-39), Black Mountain College (Black Mountain/NC, 1933-57), Ulm School of Design (Ulm, 1953-68), Academy of Media Arts (Cologne, est. 1990), Piet Zwart Institute (Rotterdam, est. 2001)


Avant-garde and modernist magazines

Poesia (1905-09, 1920), Der Sturm (1910-32), Blast (1914-15), The Little Review (1914-29), 291 (1915-16), MA (1916-25), De Stijl (1917-20, 1921-32), Dada (1917-21), Noi (1917-25), 391 (1917-24), Zenit (1921-26), Broom (1921-24), Veshch/Gegenstand/Objet (1922), Die Form (1922, 1925-35), Contimporanul (1922-32), Secession (1922-24), Klaxon (1922-23), Merz (1923-32), LEF (1923-25), G (1923-26), Irradiador (1923), Sovremennaya architektura (1926-30), Novyi LEF (1927-29), ReD (1927-31), Close Up (1927-33), transition (1927-38).