Der Sturm

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Der Sturm [The Storm] was a magazine covering the expressionism movement founded in Berlin in 1910 by Herwarth Walden. It ran weekly until monthly in 1914, and became a quarterly in 1924 until it ceased publication in 1932.

Among the literary contributors were Peter Altenberg, Max Brod, Richard Dehmel, Alfred Döblin, Anatole France, Knut Hamsun, Arno Holz, Karl Kraus, Selma Lagerlöf, Adolf Loos, Heinrich Mann, Paul Scheerbart, and René Schickele. Der Sturm consisted of pieces such as expressionistic dramas (i.e. from Hermann Essig and August Stramm), artistic portfolios (Oskar Kokoschka), essays from artists (the Kandinsky Album), and theoretical writings on art from Herwarth Walden. The most well-known publications resulting from the magazine were the Sturmbücher (storm-books), (e.g. Sturmbücher 1 and 2 were works of August Stramm – Sancta Susanna and Rudimentär). Postcards were also created featuring the expressionistic, cubist, and abstract art of Franz Marc, Wassily Kandinsky, Oskar Kokoschka, August Macke, Gabriele Münter, Georg Schrimpf, Maria Uhden, Rudolf Bauer and others. The term Sturm was branded by Walden to represent the way in which modern art was penetrating Germany at the time.

Particularly in the time before outbreak of the World War I, Der Sturm played a crucial role in the French-German exchange of expressionist artists, which led to a special relationship between Berlin and Paris. Regularly, poems and other texts of French and/or French-speaking expressionists were published (Guillaume Apollinaire, Blaise Cendrars, etc.). This relationship was renewed after the war despite the hostilities between the two countries caused by the fighting.


Der Sturm 7:9 (Dec 1916). View online.
Der Sturm 13:4 (Apr 1922). View online.
Der Sturm 14:1 (Jan 1923). View online.


The magazine also fostered the Galerie Der Sturm, started by Walden to celebrate its 100th edition, in 1912. The gallery became the focus for Berlin's modern art scene for a decade. Starting with an exhibition of Fauves and Der Blaue Reiter, followed by the introduction in Germany of the Italian Futurists, Cubists and Orphists, the gallery was to exhibit Edvard Munch, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Jean Metzinger, Gino Severini, Jean Arp, Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, and Kurt Schwitters.

After the war, Walden expanded Der Sturm into "Sturmabende", lectures and discussions on modern art, and "Die Sturmbühne", an expressionist theatre, as well as publishing books and portfolios by leading artists such as Oskar Kokoschka. Despite this, the gallery declined in importance after the war and closed in 1924, leaving the magazine to carry on as a quarterly until it too closed in 1932.

Publishing house[edit]




  • August Stramm, Sancta Susanna, Sturm-Bücher 1, 1914; 2nd ed., 1917.
  • August Stramm, Rudimentär, Sturm-Bücher 2, 1914.
  • Mynona, Für Hunde und andere Menschen, Sturm-Bücher 3, 1914.
  • August Stramm, Die Haidebraut, Sturm-Bücher 4, 1914.
  • August Stramm, Erwachen, Sturm-Bücher 5, 1915.
  • Aage von Kohl, Die Hängematte des Rigué, Sturm-Bücher 6, 1915.
  • Adolf Behne, Zur neuen Kunst, Sturm-Bücher 7, 1915; 2nd ed., 1917.
  • August Stramm, Kräfte, Sturm-Bücher 8, 1915.
  • Aage von Kohl, Die rote Sonne, trans. Nell Walden, Sturm-Bücher 9, 1915.
  • Aaga von Kohl, Der tierische Augenblick, Sturm-Bücher 10, 1915.
  • August Stramm, Geschehen, Sturm-Bücher 11, 1916.
  • August Stramm, Die Unfruchtbaren, Sturm-Bücher 12, 1916.
  • Peter Baum, Kyland, Roman, Sturm-Bücher 13, 1916.
  • Lothar Schreyer, Jungfrau, Sturm-Bücher 14, 1917.


Full list

Picture books (Sturm Bilderbücher)[edit]

  • I. Marc Chagall. 1917.
  • II. Alexander Archipenko, Text Roland Schacht, 1917.
  • III. Paul Klee, [1918], [24] pp. 22 works from 1913-16.
  • IV. Kurt Schwitters, 15 Stempelzeichnungen und 15 Gedichte mit einer Einleitung, 1920.
  • V. Maler des Expressionismus. Erste Folge, 1921.
  • VI. Maler des Expressionismus. Zweite Folge, 1921. Jacoba van Heemskerck. Mit 7 Orig.-Holzschnitten und 28 Abbildungen, 1924.


  • Nell Walden (ed.), Der Sturm: ein Erinnerungsbuch an Herwarth Walden und die Künstler aus dem Sturmkreis, Baden-Baden: Klein, 1954, 275 pp. (German)
  • Peter Howard Selz, "Der Sturm", in German Expressionist Painting, University of California Press, 1974.
  • Douglas Brent McBride, "A Critical Mass for Modernism in Berlin: Der Sturm (1910-32); Die Aktion (1911-32); and Sturm-Bühne (1918-1919)", in The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines. Vol. 3: Europe 1880-1940, Oxford University Press, 2013. [3]
  • Sturm-Frauen. Künstlerinnen der Avantgarde in Berlin 1910-1932 / Storm Women: Women Artists of the Avant-Garde in Berlin 1910–1932, eds. Ingrid Pfeiffer and Max Hollein, Cologne: Wienand, and Frankfurt: Schirn Kunsthalle, 2015, 400 pp. [4] (German)/(English)
  • Jenny Anger, Four Metaphors of Modernism: From Der Sturm to the Société Anonyme, University of Minnesota Press, 2018, 320 pp.


Avant-garde and modernist magazines

Poesia (1905-09, 1920), Der Sturm (1910-32), Blast (1914-15), The Egoist (1914-19), The Little Review (1914-29), 291 (1915-16), MA (1916-25), De Stijl (1917-20, 1921-32), Dada (1917-21), Noi (1917-25), 391 (1917-24), Zenit (1921-26), Broom (1921-24), Veshch/Gegenstand/Objet (1922), Die Form (1922, 1925-35), Contimporanul (1922-32), Secession (1922-24), Klaxon (1922-23), Merz (1923-32), LEF (1923-25), G (1923-26), Irradiador (1923), Sovremennaya architektura (1926-30), Novyi LEF (1927-29), ReD (1927-31), Close Up (1927-33), transition (1927-38).