Geert Lovink

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Geert Lovink (1959, Amsterdam) is a media theorist, internet critic and activist. Studied political science on the University of Amsterdam. Lives in Amsterdam.

Member of Adilkno, the Foundation for the Advancement of Illegal Knowledge (1983-1999), a free association of media-related intellectuals (Agentur Bilwet auf Deutsch). He is a radio program producer (for Radio Patapoe in Amsterdam and VPRO radio) and a co-founder of The Digital City, the Amsterdam-based Freenet and 'Press Now', the Dutch support campaign for independent media in Former Yugoslavia. Former editor of the media/art magazine Mediamatic (1989-1994). In 1991-1993 he lectured media theory in Bucharest and Budapest at the art academies there. Co-founder of the Amsterdam-based internet content providers (culture/arts) and '' (politics) and a 'cultural ambassador' for Waag Society for Old and New Media. Regular contributor of Andere Sinema (Antwerpen) and member of the editorial board of ARKzin (Zagreb). In the spring of 1995, together with Pit Schultz, he founded the international nettime circle which is promoting 'net criticism'. In 2001 co-founded Fibreculture list.

Co-organized the Wetware Convention (Amsterdam, 1991), Next 5 Minutes, a international conference on public access and camcorder activism (Amsterdam, 1993-1996-1999), Ex Oriente Lux (Bucharest 1993), the first Romanian media/art event, MetaForum I/II/III (Budapest, 1994-6), Interface 3 (Hamburg, 1995) on the culture of computer networks, Next 5 Minutes II on 'tactical media' (Amsterdam, 1996). and moderated the (net) symposium of Ars Electronica 96 on 'memesis'. He was the project coordinator of the Hybrid WorkSpace, which took place during the Documenta X (1997) in Kassel. Later on co-organised Browser Day (Amsterdam, 1998-2002), Net.Congestion event (Amsterdam, 2000), and conferences such as Tulipomania DotCom (Amsterdam/Frankfurt, 2000), Dark Markets (Vienna, 2002), Networks, Art, & Collaboration (Buffalo, 2004). From 2000-2004 he lived in Australia where he co-founded the Fibreculture network.

Among his early publications are Adilkno's Empire of Images (Amsterdam, 1985), Cracking the Movement (Amsterdam, 1990/Berlin, 1991/New York, 1994) on the history of the squatter movement in Amsterdam, Hoer zu oder Stirb (Berlin, 1992) on free radio, Media Archief (Amsterdam 1992/Mannheim 1993/New York 1997), Der Datendandy (Amsterdam/Mannheim, 1994) and Elektronische Einsamkeit (Cologne, 1997). In 2019 the Institute of Network Cultures published the Bilwet Fascismemap (in Dutch), a collection of unpublished essays on historical and contemporary fascism (1983-1993).

In June 2004 he founded Institute of Network Cultures in Amsterdam, a research unit of the Hogeschool van Amsterdam (Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences), also called INC.

In 2005-2006 he was a fellow at the Berlin Institute for Advanced Study (Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin), where he finished his third volume on critical Internet culture, Zero Comments (Routledge, New York, 2007).


  • with Eveline Lubbers, Bluf! 't moet kunnen..., Amsterdam, 1983, 250 pp. (Dutch)
  • Bilwet, Het Beeldenrijk: over stralingsangst en ruimteverlangen [Empire of Images: Radiation Fear and Space Desire], Amsterdam: Raket en Lont, 1985, 178 pp, PDF. (Dutch)
  • Bilwet, Bewegingsleer, Ravijn, 1990. (Dutch)
  • editor, with Rik Delhaas, Wetware, trans. Laura Martz, et al., Amsterdam: De Balie, 1991, 96 pp. (Dutch),(English)
  • Hör zu – oder stirb! Fragmente einer Theorie der souveränen Medien, trans. Axel Diederich, Berlin & Amsterdam: ID-Archiv, 1992, 89 pp. [1] (German)
  • Bilwet, Medienarchiv, trans. Gerrit Boer, Bensheim/Dusseldorf: Bollmann, 1993. (German)
    • Adilkno, The Media Archive, New York: Autonomedia, 1998.
    • Bilwet, Arhiv Medija, trans. Goran Vujasinović, et al., Zagreb: Arkzin, 1998, 272 pp. (Croatian)
  • Adilkno, Cracking the Movement: Squatting Beyond the Media, trans. Laura Martz, New York: Autonomedia, 1994. (English)
  • Bilwet, De Datadandy, Amsterdam: De Balie, 1994. Floppybook. (Dutch)
    • Der Datendandy, trans. Petra Ilyes, Mannheim: Bollmann, 1994. (German)
  • Bilwet, Elektronische Einsamkeit, Cologne: Suppose, 1997. Excerpt. (German)
  • editor, with Diana McCarty, Pit Schultz and Vuk Cosic, The Beauty and the East, Ljubljana: Nettime (ZKP4), 1997.
  • editor, with Pit Schultz (Nettime), Netzkritik. Materialien zur Internet-Debatte, trans. Bettina Seifried, Florian Rötzer and Thomas Atzert, Berlin: ID-Verlag, 1997, 220 pp. [2] (German)
  • editor, with Toshiya Ueno, Electronic Street Cultures, Osaka: Inter Medium Institute, 2001, 143 pp. (English)/(Japanese)
  • editor, et al., Metatag: 26 Hits on Technology and Culture / Metatag: 26 hits over technologie en cultuur, Amsterdam: The Waag, Society for Old and New Media, 2002, 119 pp. (English)/(Dutch)
  • Dark Fiber: Tracking Critical Internet Culture, MIT Press, 2002, 382 pp. Brings together texts about new media culture worldwide, with essays on The Digital City Amsterdam and nettime, data dandyism, tactical media strategies and early critiques of dotcommania.
    • Dark Fiber, intro. Franco Berardi Bifo, Rome: Luca Sossella, 2002, 286 pp. (Italian)
    • Dark Fiber: auf den Spuren einer kritischen Internetkultur, Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2003, 342 pp. (German)
    • Fibra oscura: rastreando la cultura crítica de internet, trans. Manuel Talens, Madrid: Tecnos: Alianza, 2004, 310 pp. (Spanish)
  • Uncanny Networks: In Dialogues with the Virtual Intelligentsia, MIT Press, 2002. Introduction. A collection of interviews with new media artists, theorists and critics from East and West-Europe, USA and Asia who reflect on their concepts and practices. It provides a critical context of ideas, networks and artworks that have shaped the past decade. [3] [4]
  • My First Recession: Critical Internet Culture in Transition, Rotterdam: V2_ & NAi, Rotterdam, 2003. Contains essays on Internet theory, dotcom literature, the issue of moderation, lists, blogs and open publishing and case studies of three list communities: Syndicate (Deep Europe), Xchange (streaming media) and Oekonux (GPL society debate). [5]
    • Internet non è il paradiso: reti sociali e critica della cibercultura, trans. Marco Deseriis, Milan: Apogeo, 2004, xxiv+328 pp. (Italian)
  • Cultura digitală: reflecţii critice, ed. Joanne Richardson, trans. Laura Bucur, Cluj-Napoca: Idea Design & Print, 2004, 205 pp. Selected texts. (Romanian)
  • Networks without a Cause: A Critique of Social Media, Polity, 2011, 220 pp. [10] [11]
    • Das halbwegs Soziale: Eine Kritik der Vernetzungskultur, trans. Andreas Kallfelz, Bielefeld: transcript, 2012, 240 pp. [12] (German)
    • Ossessioni collettive: critica dei social media, intro. Vito Campanelli, Milan: Università Bocconi: EGEA, 2016, xxv+227 pp. (Italian)
    • Redes sin causa: una crítica a las redes sociales, trans. Luingüics Comunicació, Barcelona: UOC, 2016, 308 pp. (Spanish)
  • Sad by Design: On Platform Nihilism, Polity, 2019, 192 pp, ARG. Essay. [17] [18]
    • Nichilismo digitale: l'atra faccia delle piattaforme, trans. Marco Cupellaro and Giuseppe Barile, Milan: Bocconi, 2019, xxvi+197 pp. (Italian)
    • Digitaler Nihilismus. Thesen zur dunklen Seite der Plattformen, trans. Petra Ilyes and Andreas Kallfelz, Bielefeld: transcript, 2019, 240 pp. [19] (German)
    • Tristes por diseño: las redes sociales como ideologia, trans. Matheus Calderón Torres, Bilbao: Consonni, 2019, 256 pp. [20] [21] (Spanish)
  • Kriticheskaya teoriya interneta [Критическая теория интернета], ed. Anton Gumensky (Антон Гуменский), trans. Dmitry Lebedev (Дмитрий Лебедев) and Petr Torkanovsky (Петр Торкановский), Moscow: Ad Marginem, and Garage, 2019, 304 pp. Selected essays. [23] (Russian)
  • with Mieke Gerritzen, Made in China, Designed in California, Criticised in Europe: Design Manifesto, Amsterdam: BIS Publishers, 2020, 109 pp. [24]
  • with Mieke Gerritzen, Help Your Self: The Rise of Self-Design, Amsterdam: Valiz, 2020. [25]


Selected articles[edit]