Kinetic art

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Collection of writings and publications on Kinetic art, Kineticism, Art cinétique, Kinetische Kunst.

Artists, collectives, curators[edit]

...with pages on the Monoskop wiki.

Vasarely, 'Manifeste jaune', 1955. From Le Mouvement catalogue.
Jean Tinguely, Für Statik, 1959.
Miriorama 1. Manifestazione del Gruppo T, 1960.
GRAV, Transformer l’actuelle situation de l'art plastique, 1961.

Artists' writings[edit]

Essays, statements, programmatic texts, manifestos[edit]

  • Vasarely, "Notes pour un Manifeste", in Le Mouvement, Paris: Galerie Denise René, 1955. Known as "Manifeste jaune" [The Yellow Manifesto]. (French)
  • George Rickey, "Kinetic Sculpture", in Art and Artist, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1956, pp 149-178. (English)
  • Jean Tinguely, Für Statik, Mar 1959; repr. in Vision in Motion / Motion in Vision, Antwerp: Hessenhuis, 1959. 150,000 flyers bearing the manifesto allegedly dropped onto the city of Düsseldorf from a small aeroplane on 14 March on the occasion of Concert of Seven Pictures.
  • Gruppo T, Miriorama 1. Manifestazione del Gruppo T, Jan 1960. Signed by Anceschi, Boriani, Colombo, Devecchi. (Italian)
  • Groupe de recherche d'art visuel [GRAV], Propositions sur le mouvement, Paris, Jan 1961. Manifesto signed by Morellet, Le Parc, Sobrino, Yvaral, Stein. (French)
  • Groupe de recherche d'art visuel [GRAV], Transformer l’actuelle situation de l'art plastique, Oct 1961, [1] p. (French)
  • George Rickey, "The Kinetic International", Arts 35:10, New York, Sep 1961, pp 16-21. Review of the Bewogen Beweging exhibition. (English)
  • Groupe de recherche d'art visuel: Paris 1962, Paris: Galerie Denise René, 1962, [16] pp. Catalogue containing manifesto and statements by the artists with an essay by Guy Habasque. Exh. held 4-18 Apr 1962. [4] (French)
  • Julio Le Parc, A propos de: art-spectacle, spectateur-actif, instabilité et programmation dans l'art visuel, Paris: G.R.A.V., 1962, 10 pp. Catalogue of exh. held in Sep 1962. (French)
  • GRAV, L'Instabilité, New York: The Contemporaries Gallery, 1962. Catalogue. Exh. held 27 Nov-15 Dec 1962. [5]
  • GRAV, L'Instabilité, ed. Charles Minvielle, Paris: Minvielle a Paris, 1963, [16] pp. Catalogue containing statements by the artists. [6]
  • George Rickey, "The Morphology of Movement: A Study of Kinetic Art", Arts Journal 22:4, Summer 1963, pp 220-231; rev. in The Nature and Art of Motion, ed. Gyorgy Kepes, New York: G. Braziller, 1965, pp 81-115. (English)
  • "Some Statements by Jean Tinguely", Signals, London: Signals, Sep 1964. (English)
  • Signals: "Takis Issue", London: Signals, Oct-Nov 1964. Special issue. (English)
  • "Program skupiny Dviženije" [1964], in Dušan Konečný, Hledání tvaru: moskevské a leningradské ateliéry, Prague: Svět sovětů, 1968, pp 21-22. (Czech)
  • GRAV, Labyrinthe III, New York: The Contemporaries, 1965, 16 pp. Catalogue. Exh. held 27 Feb-20 Mar 1965.
  • nul: negentienhonderd vijf en zestig: deel 1 teksten & deel 2 foto's, 2 vols., Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum, 1965. Catalogue containing statements by the artists. Exh. held 15 Apr-8 Jun 1965. (Dutch),(Italian),(French),(Spanish),(English),(German)
  • "The Takis Dialogues: 'Towards the Invisible,' Part One", Signals, London: Signals, Jun-Jul 1965. (English)
  • Signals: "Soto at Signals, London", London: Signals, Nov-Dec 1965. Special issue. (English)
  • George Rickey, "The New Tendency (Nouvelle Tendance--Recherche Continuelle)", Art Journal 23:4, Summer 1964, pp 272-279. (English)
  • George Rickey, "The Metier", in Contemporary Sculpture. Arts Yearbook 8, ed. James R. Mellow, New York: Art Digest, 1965, pp 164-166. (English)
  • George Rickey, "Kinesis Continued", Art in America 3:6, Dec 1965-Jan 1966, pp 45-55. (English)
  • Lev Nusberg, Manifest russkikh kinetov [Манифест русских кинетов], Moscow, 1966. (Russian)
  • George Rickey, "Origins of Kinetic Art", Studio International 173:886, Feb 1967, pp 65-69. (English)
  • Peter Selz, Harry Kramer, Len Lye, George Rickey, Takis, "The Berkeley Symposium of Kinetic Sculpture", Art and Artists Magazine, Feb-Mar 1967; repr. as Peter Selz, The Berkeley Symposium of Kinetic Sculpture. Illustrated transcript of symposium held at University of California at Berkeley, 18 Mar 1966. [7] (English)
  • Carlos Cruz-Diez, "Lumière et mouvement", in Lumière et mouvement: art cinétique à Paris, Paris: Musée d'art moderne de la ville de Paris, May 1967. (French)
    • "Light and Movement", in Color in Space and Time: Cruz-Diez, Houston: Museum of Fine Arts, and Cruz-Diez Foundation, 2011. (English)
  • "Programové prohlášení skupiny Syntéza" [1968], Architektura ČSSR 4, 1969, pp 250-251. (Czech)
  • Milan Dobeš, "Svetlo ako výtvarný materiál", 1973; repr. in Milan Dobeš, ed. Jozef Ruttkay, Bratislava, 1994, pp 183-187. (Slovak)
  • Vladimir Bonačić, "Kinetic Art: Application of Abstract Algebra to Objects with Computer-Controlled Flashing Lights and Sound Combinations", Leonardo 7:3 (Summer 1974), pp 193-200. (English)
  • Milan Dobeš, "Dynamický konštruktivizmus", Bratislava, 1988; repr. in Milan Dobeš, ed. Jozef Ruttkay, Bratislava, 1994, pp 193-194. (Slovak)
  • George Rickey, Technology / Technologie, Bielefeld: Kunsthalle Bielefeld, 1976; offprint, New York, 1992. Catalogue. (English)/(German)
  • George Rickey, "A Technology of Kinetic Art", Scientific American 268:2, Feb 1993, pp 74-79. (English)
Signals 1(8), 1965.


  • Zero, eds. Heinz Mack and Otto Piene, 3 issues, 1958-1961; facs.repr., MIT Press, 1973.
  • nul = 0. Tijdschrift voor de nieuwe konseptie in de beeldende kunst / Revue pour la nouvelle conception artistique / Zeitschrift für die neue künstlerische Konzeption, 4 issues, eds. Armando (no 1), Henk Peeters (nos. 1-2), and Herman de Vries (nos. 1-4), Arnhem, Nov 1961-1964; repr. as single volume, Arnhem, 1965. [8] (Dutch),(French),(German)
  • Signals: Newsbulletin of the Centre for Advanced Creative Study, 10 issues, bi-monthly, ed. David Medalla, London: Centre for Advanced Creative Study, Aug 1964-Mar 1966; facsimile repr., index by Julian Zinovieff, London: Institute of International Visual Arts, 1995. Review: Overy (1997). [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] (English)


  • Vasarely: Plastic Arts of the 20th Century, intro. Marcel Joray, trans. Haakon Chevalier, Neuchâtel: Griffon, 1965, 194 pp. (English)
  • Nicolas Schöffer, Le nouvel esprit artistique, Paris: Denoël, 1970. [14] (French)
  • Katsuhiro Yamaguchi, ロボット・アヴァンギャルド―20世紀芸術と機械 [Robot Avant-Garde: 20th Century Art and the Machine], Tokyo: Parco, 1985, 257 pp. (Japanese)
Installation view of Mouvement, Denise René Gallery, Paris, 1955.
Installation view of Vision in Motion – Motion in Vision, Hessenhuis, Antwerpen, 1959.
Jean Tinguely with Méta-Matic no. 17 at the first Biennale de Paris, 1959. Photo: John R. Van Rolleghem.
Kinetische Kunst, Kunstgewerbemuseum Zürich, 1960.
Poster for the Bewogen Beweging show, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1961, by Dieter Roth. [1]
Rörelse i konsten, Moderna Museet, Stockholm, 1961. Photo: Herbert Lindgrén. [2]
The artists of Dylaby: dynamisch labyrinth (L-R): Per Olof Ultvedt, Robert Rauschenberg, Martial Raysse, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint Phalle, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1962. Photo: Christer Christian. Catalogue: Log, PDF.

Film from the Arte programmata show, Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, Milan, 1962.
Poster for Nove tendencije 2, Galerija suvremene umjetnosti, Zagreb, by Ivan Picelj.
Installation view of Lichtraum – Hommage à Fontana by Zero (Mack, Piene, Uecker) at documenta III, Kassel, 1964. [3]
The exterior of Signals Gallery on 39 Wigmore Street, London, 1966. Photo: Clay Perry.
Directions in Kinetic Sculpture, University Art Gallery, Berkeley, 1966.
Cinétisme spectacle environnement, Maison de la culture, Grenoble, 1968, PDF.
The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age, MoMA, New York, 1968, Log, PDF.
The Pepsi Pavilion designed by Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.) for Expo '70 in Osaka. Exterior view showing Fujiko Nakaya's Fog Sculpture, Robert Breer's Floats and one tower of Forrest Myer's Light Frame sculptures. Photo: Shunk-Kender.
Force Fields: Phases of the Kinetic, MACBA Barcelona & Hayward Gallery London, 2000, PDF.

Exhibition catalogues[edit]

See also catalogues of Zero, Nul, New Tendencies, GRAV, and of shows organised by Denise René Gallery, Paris and Signals Gallery, London. For catalogues on individual artists see their respective pages.


  • Le Mouvement, Paris: Galerie Denise René, 1955. A large sheet of yellow paper printed black, folded in four. Texts by Hultén ("Mouvement-Temps; ou les quatre dimensions de la plastique cinétique", "Petit memento des arts cinétiques"), Roger Bordier ("Cinéma", "L'Oeuvre transformable"); V. Vasarely ("Notes pour un manifeste", called "le Manifeste jaune" [The Yellow Manifesto]). Works by Agam, Bury, Calder, Duchamp, Jacobsen, Soto, Tinguely, Vasarely. Exh. curated by Denise René and Pontus Hultén; held 6-30 Apr 1955. [15] (French)
  • Vision in Motion – Motion in Vision, ed. Marc Cammewaert, Antwerp: Hessenhuis, 1959, [26] pp. Works by Robert Breer, Pol Bury, Yves Klein, Heinz Mack, Enzo Mari, Bruno Munari, Mecker, Dieter Rot, Jesus Raphael Soto, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely, Paul Van Hoeydonck. Exh. curated by Marc Cammewaert held on the top floor of the Hessenhuis (exhibition space operated by the artist group G58), Antwerp, 21 Mar-3 May 1959. [16] [17] [18] (Dutch),(French),(English)
  • Biennale de Paris, Paris: Biennale de Paris, 1959. Works by Tinguely, et al. Exh. held at Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 2-25 Oct 1959. [19]
  • Edition MAT: multiplication d'oeuvres d'art, ed. Daniel Spoerri, Paris: Galerie Edouard Loeb, 1959, [9] leaves. Sale exhibition catalogue; each of the "multiplied originals, primarily kinetic objects" was produced in an edition of 100 copies and offered for sale at a price of 20,000 francs. Works by Agam, Bury, Duchamp, Mari, Munari, Roth, Soto, Tinguely, Vasarely. Exh. held at Galerie Edouard Loeb, Paris, 27 Nov-19 Dec 1959; Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld, 10 Apr-8 May 1960. [20] [21] (French)
    • Multiplizierte Kunstwerke die sich bewegen oder bewegen lassen, Paris, 1960. Added works by Albers, Mack, Malina, Ray. (German)


  • Kinetische Kunst, eds. Hans Fischli and Willy Rotzler, Zürich: Kunstgewerbemuseum Zürich, 1960, 62 pp. First comprehensive museum show of kinetic sculpture. Works by Calder, Agam, Albers, Bury, Duchamp, Bo Ek, Gerstner, Mack, Mari, Malina, Munari, Ray, Rot, Soto, Tinguely, Vasarely. Exh. held May-Jun 1960. [22] [23] (German)
  • Bewogen beweging [Moving Movement], ed. Pontus Hultén, Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum, 1961, 25 pp. 233 works by 83 artists from 18 countries, incl. kinetic works by Tinguely (28 works), Calder, Takis, Schöffer, and Bury. Exh. curated by Pontus Hultén in collaboration with Billy Klüver and Daniel Spoerri; held at Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 10 Mar-17 Apr 1961; Moderna Museet, Stockholm, 17 May-3 Sep 1961; Louisiana, Humlebæk, 1961-62. [24] [25] (Dutch)
    • Rörelse i konsten [Movement in Art], ed. Pontus Hultén, intro. Poul Henningsen, Stockholm: Moderna Museet, 1961, 33+[21] pp. Special issue of Mobilia. [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] (Swedish),(English),(French),(German)
  • Dylaby: dynamisch labyrinth, intro. Willem Sandberg, Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum, 1962, [21] pp. Works by Daniel Spoerri, Per Olof Ultveldt, Niki de Saint Phalle, Jean Tinguely, Martial Raysse, Robert Rauschenberg. Exh. held 30 Aug-30 Sep 1962. (English)
  • Arte programmata: arte cinetica, opere moltiplicate, opera aperta [Programmed Art: Kinetic Art, Multiplied Works, Open Works], Milan: Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, 1962, 32 pp. Text by Umberto Eco. Works by Bruno Munari, Enzo Mari, Gruppo T, Gruppo N, Getulio Alviani, GRAV, et al. Organised by Bruno Munari and Giorgio Soavi; sponsored by Olivetti. Exh. held in Milan, May 1962; Piazza S. Marco, Venice, Jul-Aug 1962; Genova, 1962; Piazza Barberini, Rome, Oct 1962; Galleria La Cavana, Trieste, 1962; Tokyo, 1962; Goppinger Galerie, Düsseldorf, 1963; Royal College of Art, London, Jul 1964; Loeb Student Center, New York, 1964; and circulated across other venues in the US by the Smithsonian Institution. Video documentation (10 min). [31] (Italian),(French),(English)
  • Oltre la pittura, oltre la scultura: mostra di ricerca di arte visiva, Milan: Galleria Cadario, 1963, [6] pp. Exh. held 26 Apr-17 May 1963. (Italian)
  • Nove tendencije 2, Zagreb: Galerija suvremene umjetnosti, 1963, [68] pp. Texts by Matko Meštrović and Radoslav Putar. Exh. held 1 Aug-15 Sep 1963. (Serbo-Croatian)
  • Nuova tendenza 2, ed. Giovanni Marangoni, Venice: Lombroso, 1963, [29] pp. Texts by Sergio Bettini, Matko Meštrovic, Umbro Apollonio. Works by Adrian, Boriani, Castellani, Equipe 57, Gruppo Enne, Gruppo t, a.o. Exh. held 14 Dec 1963-15 Jan 1964. (Italian)
  • Bewegte Bereiche der Kunst. Kinetik. Objekte. Plastik, ed. Paul Wember, Krefeld: Scherpe, 1963, 171 pp. Collection catalogue of Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld. Incl. works by Agam, Albers, Arman, Bury, Calder, Constant, Duchamp, Klein, Kricke, Mack, Manzoni, Rot, Spoerri, Tinguely, Uecker, Vasarely, a.o. (German)
  • On the Move: Kinetic Sculpture, New York: Howard Wise Gallery, 1964, [6] pp. 29 works by 17 artists: Agam, Bury, Calder, Castellani, Chermayeff, Equipo 57, Goodyear, Kobashi, Le Parc, Lye, Ortman, Rickey, De Rivera, Takis, Tinguely, Uecker, Yvaral. Exh. held 9 Jan-1 Feb 1964. (English)
  • Neue Tendenzen, ed. Udo Kultermann, Leverkusen: Stadtisches Museum, 1964. Texts by Udo Kultermann, Umbro Apollonio, and Matko Meštrović. Works by Adrian, Bleckert, Castellani, Christen, Dorazio, Gerstner, Graevenitz, Hacker, Müller, Mavignier, Morellet, Piene, Reinhardt, (Vjenceslav) Richter, Sobrino, Stein. Exh. held Mar-May 1964. (German)
  • Nouvelle tendance: propositions visuelles du mouvement international, pref. Michel Faré, Paris: Musée des arts décoratifs, 1964, 105 pp. Exh. held at Palais du Louvre Pavillon de Marsan, Musée des arts décoratifs, Paris, Apr-May 1964. Artists. (French)
  • XXXII Biennale Internazionale d'Arte di Venezia, ed. G.A. Dell'Acqua, Venice: La Biennale di Venezia, 1964, xlii+314 pp. Incl. works by Bury, Le Parc, Soto, Gruppo N, Gruppo T; parallel projects include an exhibition on Kinetic art at the Villa la Malcontenta; Soto won the David Bright Prize for painting. Exh. held 20 Jun-18 Oct 1964. (Italian)
  • documenta III. Internationale Ausstellung, Cologne: M. DuMont Schauberg, 1964. Incl. the Licht und Bewegung section at the attic of Museum Fridericianum with light-kinetic works by Agam, Goepfert, GRAV, Haese, Kramer, Schöffer, Soto, Tinguely, and Zero. Exh. held 27 Jun-5 Oct 1964. (German)
  • Bewegung / Mouvement. Movement / Bewengung, Zürich: Gimpel & Hanover Galerie, 1964, [42] pp. Works by Agam, Boto, Calder, Demarco, Gerstner, Kramer, Le Parc, Uli, Pohl, Salvadori, Schoeffer, Sobrino, Stein, Takis, Tinguely, Tomasello, Vardanega, Vasarely, Yvaral. Exh. held 3 Jul-22 Aug 1964, [40] pp. (German),(English),(French)
  • Mouvement 2, Paris: Galerie Denise René, 1964, [19] pp. Text by Jean Cassou. Works by 60 artists living in 10 countries: S. de Camargo, M. Boto, P. Talman, W. Zehringer, M. Seuphor, L. Greenham, A. Virduzzo, F. Sobrino, F.R. Hewitt, Anuszkiewicz, E. Benker, R. Mortensen, G. Uecker, H. Mack, R. Lohse, N. Schöffer, G. Rickey, F. Morellet, J. Stein, G. Fruhtrunk, K. Potts, J. Le Parc, I. Picelj, B. Lassus, V. Vasarely, T. Costa, H. Kramer, J.R. Soto, C. Gerstner, G. Novak, J. Agam, L. Florsheim, Yvaral, A. Calder, J. Tinguely, L. Clark, E. Mari, A. Getulio, A. Palatnik, G. von Graevenitz, J. Albers, Equipo 57 (Duart, Ibarrola, Serrano), U. Pohl, G. Vardanega, E. Mieczkowski, H. Garcia-Rossi, L. Tomasello, C. Cruz-Diez. Exh. held 15 Dec 1964-28 Feb 1965. [32] [33] (French)
  • Integration 1, ed. Herman de Vries, Arnhem, 1965, 18 pp. Essay by De Vries ("Visual Information: Aktuell '65"). The inaugural issue of the magazine published as the catalogue of Aktuell 65: neue tendenzen, arte programmata, anti-peinture, ZERO, null, recherche d'art visuelle, recherche continuelle held at Galerie Aktuell, Bern, Jan 1965. [34] [35] (German),(Dutch),(English),(French)
  • Kinetische kunst uit Krefeld, The Hague: Gemeentemuseum, 1965, [6] pp. Works from the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum collection. Exh. held at Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 3 Feb-14 Mar 1965; Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, 20 Mar-2 May 1965. (Dutch)
  • Art and Movement, Edinburgh: Arts Council of Great Britain Scottish Committee, 1965, [16] pp. Texts by Frank Popper, Guy Brett. Works by Yaacov Agam, Roy Ascot, Antonio Asis, Pol Bury, Alexander Calder, Sergio de Camargo, Lygia Clark, Cruz-Diez, Lucio Fontana, Naum Gabo, Alberto Guzman, Gyula Kosice, Harry Kramer, Julio le Parc, Liliane Lijn, Frank J. Malina, Kenneth Martin, David Medalla, Marta Pan, Otto Piene, Keith Potts, Marcello Salvadori, J.R. Soto, Takis, Vasarely. Exh. held at Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, 6-28 Feb 1965; Art Gallery and Museum Kelvingrove, Glasgow, 8-28 Mar 1965. [36] (English)
  • Kinetik und Objekte, intro. Johannes Cladders, Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, 1965, [23] pp. Works by Josef Beuys, Wilhelm Cassel, Caesar, Siegfried Cremer, Karl Gerstner, Raoul Hausmann, Heinz Mack, Christian Megert, Günther Uecker, a.o. Exh. held at Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, 21 Feb-21 Mar 1965; Badischer Kunstverein Karlsruhe, 11 Apr-16 May 1965. [37] (German)
  • Kinetic and Optic Art Today, Buffalo: Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, 1965, [15] pp. 84 kinetic and optic sculptures and paintings by 48 artists, incl. Lye, Schöffer, Bury, Kramer, Mack, Rickey, Takis, Tinguely, et al. Exh. organised by Gordon M. Smith in conjuction with The Buffalo Festival of the Arts Today, held at Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 27 Feb-11 Apr 1965. [38] [39] (English)
  • ʼOmanut utenu'a: 'omanut optit veqintit / Art et mouevement: art optique et cinétique / Art and Movement, Tel Aviv: Musée de Tal-Aviv, 1965, [48] pp. 100 works by 58 artists. Text by Frank Popper. Exh. organised in collaboration with Galerie Denise René, Paris; held May-Jul 1965. (Hebrew)/(French)/(English)
  • Licht und Bewegung / Lumière et mouvement / Luce e movimento / Light and Movement: kinetische Kunst, Bern: Kunsthalle Bern, 1965, [52] pp. Works by Agam, Martha Boto, Bury, Calder, Lygia Clark, Cremer, Cruz-Diez, Demarco, Duchamp, Equipo 57, Goepfert, GRAV, Gruppo N, Gruppo T, Haacke, Kowalski, Kramer, Lacey, Leblanc, Lick, Mack, Malina, Mari, Megert, Munari, Olson, Palatnik, Piene, Ratz, Ray, Rickey, Salvadori, Schoffer, Soto, Takis, Talman, van Thiemen, Tinguely, Uecker, Vardanega, Vasarely, Maria Vieira, de Vries, Weber, Freres Brachet. Exh. curated by Harald Szeemann, held at Kunsthalle Bern, 3 Jul-5 Sep 1965; Palais de Beaux Arts, Brussels, 14 Oct-14 Nov 1965; Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden, 3 Dec 1965-9 Jan 1966. [40] (German)
  • Arte cinetica, Trieste: Azienda Autonoma di Soggiorna e Turismo di Trieste, 1965, [13+13] pp. Works by works by Alviani, Biasi, Gianni Colombo, Costa, Maino, Enzo Mari, Gruppo Mid, Bruno Munari, a.o. Exh. organised by Luciano Budigna, Gillo Dorfles, Garibaldo Marussi and Marcello Mascherini; held Jul-Aug 1965. [41] (Italian)
  • Nova tendencija 3, ed. Božo Bek, Zagreb: Galerija suvremene umjetnosti, 1965, [177] pp. Texts by Matko Meštrović, Rudi Supek, Giulio Carlo Argan, Umbro Aplonio, Palma Bucarelli, Maifredo Massironi, Giuseppe Gatt, Elisa Debenedetti, Rolf Wedewer, Ed Sommer, Vjenceslav Richter, Karl Gerstner, Emilio Vedova, Waldemar Cordeiro, Frank Popper, Miša Bašičević, Herman De Vries, Lev Nusberg, Francis Hewitt, Edwin Mieczkiovski, Paolo Bonaiuto, François Molnar, Abraham Moles. Works by 78 artists, incl. lumino-kinetic objects by Vjenceslav Richter, Aleksandar Srnec, and Ivan Picelj. Exh. held 13 Aug-19 Sep 1965. [42] (Serbo-Croatian)/(French),(German),(Italian),(English)
  • 2 Kinetic Sculptors: Nicolas Schöffer and Jean Tinguely, ed. Sam Hunter, New York: Jewish Museum & October House, 1966, [66] pp. Essays by Jean Cassou, K.G. Hulten, and Sam Hunter. Exh. held Nov 1965-Jan 1966; Washington Gallery of Modern Art, Washington, 14 Jan-20 Feb 1966; Walker Art Center, Mineapolis, 7 Mar-10 Apr 1966; Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, 28 Apr-29 May 1966; Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, 27 Jun-31 Jul 1966. (English)
  • Directions in Kinetic Sculpture, ed. Peter Selz, intro. George Rickey, University of California Press, 1966, 78 pp. Works by Fletchor Benton, Davide Boriani, Robert Breer, Pol Bury, Gianni Colombo, Gerhard von Graevenitz, Hans Haacke, Harry Kramer, Len Lye, Heinz Mack, Charles Mattox, George Rickey, Takis, Jean Tinguely, Yvaral. Exh. curated by Peter Selz; held at University Art Gallery, Berkeley, Mar-May 1966; Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Jun-Jul 1966. [43] (English)
  • Indications One, London: Indica, 1966, [6] pp. The inaugural exhibition of the Indica gallery; held May 1966. Works by Lygia Clark, a.o. [44] (English)
  • Kunst-licht-kunst, ed. Frank Popper, Eindhoven: Van Abbemuseum, 1966, 150 pp. Exh. held 25 Sep-4 Dec 1966. Artists. Photographs. (Dutch),(German),(English),(French),(Italian)
  • In Motion: an Arts Council Exhibition of Kinetic Art, London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1966, [20] pp. Works by Bury, Lygia Clark, Colombo, von Graevenitz, Lijn, Medalla, Soto, Takis, Tinguely. Exh. curated by Guy Brett; held at Bear Lane Gallery, Oxford, Oct 1966; Arts Council Gallery, Cambridge, Nov 1966; Art Gallery, Oldham, Dec 1966; City Art Gallery, Leeds, Jan 1967; University, Leicester, Jan-Feb 1967. (English)
  • Kinetic and Programmed Art, Providence: Rhode Island School of Design, 1966, [6] pp. Works by Davide Boriani, Robert Breer, Hans Haacke, Joe Jones, Len Lye, Julio Le Parc, Sheldon Machlin, Nam June Paik, Otto Piene, George Rickey, Thomas Tadlock, Takis. Exh. curated by Willoughby Sharp; held 25 Nov-4 Dec 1966. (English)
  • Kineticism, New York, 1966, 6 pp. Text by by Willoughby Sharp ("Kineticism"). Works by Yaacov Agam, Pol Bury, Davide Boriani, Martha Boto, Alexander Calder, Hans Haacke, Julio Le Parc, Heinz Mack, Otto Piene, Earl Reiback, Jesus Rafael Soto, Takis, Jean Tinguely, Gunther Uecker. Exh. curated by Willoughby Sharp; held at American Abstract Artists, New York, 1966 (1-day exhibition). (English)
  • Nuova tendenza: arte programmata italiana, ed. Umbro Apollonio, Modena: Istituti Culturali, 1967, [64] pp. Exh. held at Galleria della Sala di Cultura del Comune di Modena, 5 Jan-10 Feb 1967. (Italian)
  • Slow-Motion: An Exhibition of Kinetic Art, New Jersey: Rutgers University, 1967, 6 pp. Text by Willoughby Sharp ("Kineticism and Slow-Motion"). Works by Asis, Boriani, Breer, Bury, Calder, Colombo, Duchamp, Haacke, Mack, Munari, Ray, Rickey, Salvadori, Sonnier, Soto, Takis, Tinguely, Uecker, USCO, Van Saun, de Vecchi. Exh. curated by Willoughby Sharp; held at Art Department, Douglas College, Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, 25 Jan-10 Feb 1967. (English)
  • Light/Motion/Space, Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, 1967, 36 pp. Text by Willoughby Sharp ("Luminism: Notes Toward an Understanding Of Light Art"). 60+ works by 42 artists, incl. Antonakis, Berns, Boriani, Boto, Chryssa, Goodyear, Le Parc, Mack, McClanahan, Mefferd, Paik, Palatnick, Piene, Raysse, Tadlock, Takis, Uecker, Van Saun, Larrain. Exh. curated by Willoughby Sharp; held at Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Apr-May 1967; Milwaukee Art Center, Milwaukee, Jun-Jul 1967. [45] (English)
  • Lumière et mouvement: art cinétique à Paris, ed. & pref. Frank Popper, Paris: Musée d'art moderne de la ville de Paris, 1967, [108] pp. Exh. held May-Aug 1967. [46] (French)
  • Focus on Light, eds. Richard Bellamy, Lucy R. Lippard, and Leah P. Sloshberg, Trenton: New Jersey State Museum, 1967, [70] pp. 114 paintings and sculptures by 90 19th- and 20th-c. artists, with light as a unifying agent, as reflected in Luminist and Impressionist painting, kinetic works, Op Art, light constructions, neons, etc. Text by Lucy R. Lippard ("Notes on a Total Light"). Exh. held 20 May-10 Sep 1967. (English)
  • Vom Konstruktivismus zur Kinetik, 1917 bis 1967, Krefeld: Galerie Denise René/Hans Mayer, 1967. The inaugural exhibition of Denise René Gallery in Krefeld, Germany. Exh. held 10 Jun-25 Oct 1967. (German)
  • Kinetika, ed. Otto Antonia Graf, Vienna: Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts, 1967, 88 pp. Works by Adrian, Asis, Boto, Colombo, Toni Costa, Demarco, Fruhtrunk, García-Rossi, Gerstner, von Graevenitz, Greenham, Kriesche, Le Parc, Mack, Mari, Koloman Novak, Painitz, Philipp, Schöffer, Sommer, Stein, Tinguely, Vardanega, Vasarely, Yvaral. Exh. held 7 Jul-15 Oct 1967. [47] (German)
  • Art et mouvement: art constructif, art visuel, art cinétique, Montréal: Musée d'art contemporain, 1967, 100 pp. Exh. held at Musée d'art contemporain, Montréal, Aug-Sep 1967. (French)
  • Kinetik. Kunstwerke, die sich bewegen oder bewegen lassen, Cologne: Volkshochschule Köln, 1967. Exh. held 14 Sep-17 Nov 1967. (German)
  • Nona Bienal de São Paulo, São Paulo, 1967. Featured op art, kinetic art from Europe, and pop art from North America. Exh. held 22 Sep 1967-8 Jan 1968. Review: Flávio Motta (J do Brasil). (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Luce movimento in Europa, Milan: Galleria dell'Ariete, 1967, [12] pp. Works by works by Calos, Demarco, Duarte, Durante, Garcia Rossi, Schoffer, Vardanega, Boto, Tomasello, Yvaral, Sobrino, Stein, Morellet, Le Parc, Piene, Manuelli, Mari, Marotta, Biasi, Gerstner, Von Graevenitz, Fontana, Munari, Varisco, Boriani, De Vecchi, Colombo, Mack, Vigo. Exh. held Nov 1967. [48] (Italian)
  • Przestrzeń-ruch-światło, ed. Mariusz Hermansdorfer; Wrocław: Muzeum Sztuki Aktualnej, 1967, [52] pp. Exh. organised by Jerzy Ludwiński and Mariusz Hermansdorfer at the Muzeum Architektury, Wrocław, Dec 1967-Jan 1968. (Polish)
  • Air Art, ed. Willoughby Sharp, New York: Kineticism Press, 1968, 40 pp. Text by by Willoughby Sharp ("Air Art"). Works by Hans Haacke, Kanayama, Les Levine, Preston McClanahan, David Medalla, Robert Morris, Marcello Salvadori, Graham Stevens, John Van Saun, Andy Warhol. Exh. held at Arts Council, YM/YWHA, Philadelphia, 13-31 Mar 1968; Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, 25 Apr-19 May 1968; Lakeview Center for the Arts and Sciences, Peoria, Illinois, 7-28 Jun 1968; University Art Museum, University of California, Berkeley, 13 Jan-16 Feb 1969; Lamont Gallery, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, NH, 25 Feb-18 Mar 1969; Edmonton Art Gallery, Edmonton, Alberta, 4 Sep-26 Oct 1969. (English)
  • Art cinétique et espace, Le Havre: Maison de la Culture, 1968, [26] pp. Text by by Frank Popper. Exh. held at Maison de la Culture, Le Havre, 27 Jan-11 Mar 1968; Musée de Louviers, Louviers, 30 Mar-20 May 1968; Musée Municipale des Sable- d'Olonne, Sable- d'Olonne, 9 Jun-15 Sep 1968. (French)
  • Valo ja liike: kineettinen näyttely / Ljus och rörelse: kinetisk utställning, Helsinki: Amos Andersonin taidemuseo, 1968, [16] pp. Works by Julio Le Parc, Sam Vanni. Exh. held 7-14 Feb 1968. (Finnish)/(Swedish)
  • Cinétisme spectacle environnement, ed. Frank Popper, Grenoble: Maison de la culture, 1968, 28 pp. Works by 67 artists. Text by Frank Popper. Exh. held at Maison de la culture, Grenoble, May-Jun 1968; Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, 22 Mar-20 Apr 1969. (French)
    • Visuelt miljø 1: lys og bevegelse, Oslo: Kunstnernes Hus, 1969, 44 pp. (Norwegian)
  • XXXIV Biennale Venezia 1968, Venice: Biennale di Venezia, and Alfieri, 1968, 187 pp. The special exhibition "Linea della ricerca: dall'informale alle nuove strutture" includes works by Calder, Duchamp, Fontana, Malevich, and Soto; "Stimolazione percettiva, analisi del verder" includes work by Soto, Le Parc, Albers, Man Ray, Munari, Fontana, Schendel; Schendel and Clark represent Brazil (next to 3 other artists); Le Parc represents Argentina and wins Grand Prize for Painting; Schöffer wins Grand Prize for Sculpture. Exh. held 20 Jun-20 Oct 1968. [49] (Italian)
  • Kineticism: Systems Sculpture in Environmental Situations / Cinetismo: esculturas electrónicas en situaciones ambientales (Official Olympic Games Exhibition), Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, 1968, 55 pp. Text by Willoughby Sharp. Works by Yaacov Agam, Hans Breder, Lucio Fontana, Hans Haacke, Julio Le Parc, Les Levine, Len Lye, Heinz Mack, Preston McClanahan, David Medalla, Robert Morris, Otto Piene, Jesus Rafael Soto, Takis, Jean Tinguely, Gunther Uecker, John Van Saun, Robert Whitman. Exh. curated by Willoughby Sharp; held Jul-Aug 1968. (English)/(Spanish)
  • From Constructivism to Kinetic Art, Detroit: London Arts Gallery, 1968, [73] pp. Exh. held Sep-Nov 1968. (English)
  • Kinetische objektenshow, eds. D. Schwagermann and Cor Blok, Amsterdam: Drukkerij van Soest, 1969, 64 pp. Works by Woody van Amen, Frans de Boer Lichtveld, Marja de Boer Lichtveld, Peter Cornelisse, Huub Dröge, E.R.G. Eventstructure Research Group, Jeroen Henneman, Frans Hermes, Arie Jansma, Leendert Janzee, Martin Klaeszen, Livinius (van de Bundt), Karel Martens, Willem Marijs, H.J. Mengels, Jan Van Munster, Henk Peeters, Kees Roest, Gust Romijn, Wim T. Schippers, Sikke, Jan Spit, Ray Staakman, Frans Verpoorten, Jos Wong, Johan van Zutphen. Exh. held at De Hallen, Haarlem, 28 Jun-25 Aug 1969; Stedelijk Museum, Schiedam, 6 Sep-6 Oct 1969; Groninger Museum, Groningen, 18 Oct-24 Nov 1969. [50] (Dutch),(English)
  • Public eye: kinetik, konstruktivismus, environments, eds. Peter Kuttner and Peter Rautmann, Hamburg: Kunsthaus Hamburg, 1968, [78] pp. Exh. held 1 Nov-1 Dec 1968. [51] (German)
  • The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age, ed. Pontus Hultén, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1968, 218 pp. Exh. held at MoMA, New York, 25 Nov 1968-9 Feb 1969; University of St. Thomas, Houston, 25 Mar-18 May 1969; San Francisco Museum of Art, 23 Jun-24 Aug 1969. (English)
  • Valo ja liike 2: kansainvälinen kineettisen taiteen näyttely / Ljus och rörelse 2: internationell utställning av kinetisk konst / Light and Movement 2: International Exhibition of Kinetic Art, Helsinki: Amos Andersonin taidemuseo, 1969, 60 pp. Exh. held 10 May-8 Jun 1969. (Finnish),(Swedish),(English)
  • Neue Tendenz: Ausstellung jugoslawischer Künstler, ed. Boris Kelemen, Gelsenkirchen: Künstlersiedlung Halfmannshof, 1969, 8 pp. Exh. held 13 Dec 1969-10 Jan 1970. (German)


  • Tendencije 4 / Tendencies 4: Zagreb, 1968-1969, eds. Boris Kelemen and Radoslav Putar, Zagreb: Galerija suvremene umjetnosti, 1970, [146] pp. Texts and statements by Radoslav Putar, Almir Mavignier, Matko Meštrović, Enzo Mari, Alessandro Carlini, Bernhard Schneider, Alberto Biasi, Gianni Colombo, Milan Dobeš, Herbert W. Franke, Karl Gerstner, Rolf Glasmeier, Rolf Gravenhorst, Hein Gravenhorst, Dieter Hacker, John Gabriel Harries, Gottfried Jäger, Richard Kriesche, Max H. Mahlmann, Marcello Morandini, Zoran Radović, Bernhard Sandfort, Paolo Scheggi, Klaus Staudt, Josef Hermann Stiegler, Jorrit Tornquist, Gabriele de Vecchi, Herman de Vries. Three different exhibitions held at Center for Culture and Information, Zagreb, 2-8 Aug 1968; Museum of Art and Work, Zagreb, 5 May-30 Jun 1969; Gallery of Contemporary Art, Zagreb, 5 May-30 Aug 1969. (Serbo-Croatian)/(French),(German),(Italian),(English)
  • World without Boundaries, Pepsi-Cola Pavilion, Expo '70, Osaka, [Osaka], 1970, [16+5] pp. Exh. organised by Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.); held at Expo '70, Osaka, 15 Mar-13 Sep 1970. Commentary: Dyson, Bertrand. [52] [53] (English),(Japanese)
  • Kinetics, London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1970, [76] pp. Exh. held at Hayward Gallery, London, Sep-Nov 1970. Works by Tinguely, Schoeffer, Paik, Malina, Lijn, Leonelli, a.o. (English)
  • Pavilion, eds. Billy Klüver, Julie Martin, and Barbara Rose, New York: Dutton, 1972, 346 pp. On the Pepsi-Cola Pavilion for the Japan World Exhibition 1970, Osaka. [54] (English)
  • Movement, Optical Phenomena and Light: Kinetic and Optic Painting and Sculpture in the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY: Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 1972. Exh. held 4 Mar-9 Apr 1972. [55] (English)
  • Le Mouvement. The Movement. Paris: Avril 1955. Agam, Bury, Calder, Duchamp, Jacobsen, Soto, Tinguely, Vasarely, Paris: Denise René, 1975, 44 pp. Texts by Roger Bordier, Denise René, Louis Paul Favre, Yaccov Agam, Dore Ashton (on Pol Bury), Pol Bury, Jean Paul Sartre (on Calder's mobiles), Robert Lebel (on Duchamp), Claude-Louis Bernard (on Jacobsen), Alfred Boulton (on Soto), Hulten (on Tinguely) and Vasarely. [56] (French)
  • Neue Tendenzen 1: Licht & Bewegung, Gelsenkirchen: Städtisches Museum Kunstsammlung, 1976, 18 pp. (German)


  • Arte programmata e cinetica, 1953-1963: l'ultima avanguardia, ed. Lea Vergine, Milan: Mazzotta, 1984, 213 pp. Exh. held at Palazzo Reale, Milan, Nov 1983-Feb 1984. (Italian)
  • Le Cinétisme. Mouvement réel - Mouvement suggéré 1955-1984, Meymac: Abbaye Saint-André Centre d'art Contemporain, 1984, 28 pp. Vasarely's 1955 manifesto, text by Jean-Paul Blanchet. Exh. held Jul-Dec 1984. [57] (French)
  • Als Bewegung in die Kunst kam, Krefeld: Museum Haus Lange, 1984. 80 kinetic works from the 1950s-60s. Exh. held 9 Sep-25 Nov 1984. (German)
  • Modern Machines: Recent Kinetic Sculpture, ed. Susan Lubowsky, New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1985, [6] pp. Exh. held 11 Oct-5 Dec 1985.
  • Wiener Kinetismus: E.G. Klien und 10 Künstler des Wiener Kinetismus, Munich: Galerie Pabst, 1986, [168] pp. [58] (German)


  • Poesie durch Material - Licht und Bewegung. 26 Objekt-Künstler aus der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Marl: Skulpturenmuseum Glaskasten, 1990, 94 pp. Works by Hermann Goepfert, Gerhard von Gravenitz, Günther Haese, Erwin Heerich, Alfonso Hüppi, Harry Kramer, Adolf Luther, Heinz Mack, Otto Piene, Uli Pohl, Günther Uecker, Ludwig Wilding, a.o. Exh. held 28 Jan-4 Mar 1990. (German)
  • Constructivism and Kinetic Art: Exat 51, New Tendencies / Konstruktivizam i kinetička umjetnost, ed. Marijan Susovski, Zagreb: City Gallery, 1995, 154 pp. Texts by Leonida Kovac, Marijan Susovski. Exh. curated by Marijan Susovski; held at City Gallery, Zagreb, Apr-Jul 1995; Moderna galerija, Rijeka, Jun-Jul 1996. (English)/(Croatian)
  • Lumière et mouvement, Paris: Galerie Denise René, 1996, [30] pp. Exh. held Oct-Nov 1996. (French)
  • Akce, slovo, pohyb, prostor. Experimenty v umění šedesátých let, ed. Vít Havránek, Prague: Galerie hl. města Prahy, 1999, 508 pp. TOC. Exh. held 24 Nov 1999-26 Mar 2000. [59] (Czech)


  • Force Fields: Phases of the Kinetic, eds. Guy Brett and Suzanne Cotter, London: Hayward Gallery, and Barcelona: ACTAR and MACBA, 2000, 334 pp, IA, IA. Exh. curated by Guy Brett; held at MACBA, Barcelona, 19 Apr-18 Jun 2000; Hayward Gallery, London, 13 Jul-17 Sep 2000. [60] [61] (English)
    • Campos de fuerzas: un ensayo sobre lo cinético, ed. Guy Brett, Barcelona: ACTAR and MACBA, 2000, 333 pp. (Spanish)
  • Arte Programmata 1962, ed. Marco Meneguzzo, Galliate: Museo Angelo Bozzola, 2000. Works by Munari, Mari, Anceschi, De Vecchi, a.o. Exh. held 6 May-2 Jul 2000. (Italian)
  • Arte programmata e cinetica in Italia 1958-1968, ed. Marco Meneguzzo, Parma: La Galleria, 2000, 277 pp. Exh. held at Galleria d'arte Niccoli, Parma, 16 Dec 2000-19 Mar 2001; Museo d'arte Nuoro, Nuoro, 11 May-1 Jul 2001. (Italian)/(English)
    • Luce, movimento & programmazione: kinetische Kunst aus Italien, 1958-1968, eds. Volker W. Feierabend and Marco Meneguzzo, Milan: Silvana, 2001, 304 pp. Exh. held at Ulmer Museum, 8 Sep-4 Nov 2001; Städtische Kunsthalle Mannheim, 17 Nov 2001-10 Feb 2002; Städtisches Museum Gelsenkirchen, 27 Feb-14 Apr 2002; Stadtgalerie im Sophienhof, Kiel, 14 Jun-11 Aug 2002; Staatliches Museum Schwerin, 23 Aug-24 Nov 2002; Alpen-Adria-Galerie, Klagenfurt, 11 Dec 2002-17 Mar 2003. (German)
  • Denise René, l'intrépide: une galerie dans l'aventure de l'art abstrait, Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, 2001, 191 pp. Exh. held 4 Apr-4 Jun 2001. (French)
  • L'art abstrait et la Galerie Denise René, ed. Serge Fauchereau, Paris: Cercle d'art, and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: Centro atlántico de arte moderno, 2001, 547 pp. Exh. held at Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, Centro atlántico de arte moderno, 18 Sep-18 Nov 2001. (French)
  • Geométricos e cinéticos, ed. Marli Matsumoto, São Paulo: Gabinete de Arte Raquel Arnaud, 2002, 24 pp. Text by Raquel Arnaud. Exh. held 19 Mar-24 Apr 2002. (Brazilian Portuguese),(English)
  • Lanterna magika: nouvelles technologies dans l'art tchèque du XXe siècle, Paris: Paris musées, and Prague: Kant, 2002, 261 pp. Exh. held at Espace EDF Electra, Paris, 26 Oct 2002-19 Jan 2003. (French)
  • Le Parc, Garcia Rossi, Demarco: e altre testimonianze del cinetismo in Francia e in Italia, ed. Giovanni Granzotto, Cerrina (Alessandria): Verso l'arte, 2002, 159 pp. Exh. held at Complesso monumentale di San Salvatore in Lauro, Rome, 18 Dec 2002-6 Feb 2003. [62] [63] (Italian),(French)
  • Beyond Geometry: Experiments in Form, 1940s-1970s, ed. Lynn Zelevansky, MIT Press, 2004, 239 pp. Exh. held at Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), 13 Jun-3 Oct 2004; Miami Art Museum, Florida, 18 Nov 2004-1 May 2005. (English)
  • Bewegliche Teile. Formen des Kinetischen / Moving Parts: Forms of the Kinetic, eds. Peter Pakesch and Guido Magnaguagno, Cologne: König, 2004, 287 pp. Exh. held at Graz Kunsthaus am Landesmuseum Joanneum, 9 Oct 2004-16 Jan 2005; Museum Tinguely, Basel, 8 Mar-26 Jun 2005. (German)/(English)
  • L'oeil moteur: art optique et cinétique 1950-1975, ed. Emmanuel Guigon, Strasbourg: Musées de Strasbourg, 2005, 301 pp. Exh. held at Musée d'art moderne et contemporain, Strasbourg, 13 May-25 Sep 2005. (French)
  • Kinetismus: Wien entdeckt die Avantgarde, eds. Monika Platzer and Ursula Storch, Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2006, 215 pp. Exh. held at Wien Museum, Vienna, 25 May-1 Oct 2006. (German)
  • Alberto Byazi. Kineticheskoye i kompyuternoe iskusstvo v Italii i Rossii [Альберто Бьязи. Кинетическое и компьютерное искусство в Италии и России], St Petersburg: State Hermitage Museum, 2006. 49 works by Le Parc, Garcia Rossi, DeMarco, Sobrino, Stein, Morellet, Vasarely, Varisco, Costalonga, Yvaral, Massironi, Boriani, Colombo, Landi, Infante, Koleichuk, Stuchebryukov. Exh. held 25 May-25 Jul 2006. (Russian)
  • Die neuen Tendenzen. Eine Europäische Künstleberwegung 1961-1973, ed. Tobias Hoffmann, Heidelberg: Braus, 2006, 324 pp. Exh. held at Museums für Konkrete Kunst Ingolstadt, 29 Sep 2006-7 Jan 2007; Leopold-Hoesch-Museum, Düren, 28 Jan-25 Mar 2007. [64] (German),(Croatian),(English)
  • Lo(s) cinético(s), eds. Osbel Suárez and Eugenio Fontaneda, Madrid: Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, 2007, 280 pp. Texts by William Jeffett, Miguel Ángel García Hernández, Mathieu Poirier, Alexandre Quoi, Orestes Hurtado, Teresa Lanceta Aragonés. 80 works by 45 artists. Exh. curated by Osbel Suárez; held at Reina Sofia, Madrid, 27 Mar-20 Aug 2007; Instituto Tomie Ohtake, São Paulo, 14 Nov 2007-10 Feb 2008. [65] (Spanish)/(English)
  • Il cinetismo sub-cisalpino: arte programmata ieri e oggi, ed. Giovanni Granzotto, Cerrina (Alessandria): Verso l'arte, 2007, 159 pp. Exh. held at Istituto nazionale d'arte contemporanea, Ivrea (Turin), 14 Sep-4 Nov 2007. [66] (Italian)/(English)
  • Kinetizam od pocetaka do danas / Il cinetismo dalle origini ad oggi, eds. Giovanni Granzotto and Radovan Vukovic, Cerrina (Alessandria): Verso l'arte, 2007, 175 pp. TOC. Exh. held at Umjetnicki paviljon u Zagrebu, 9 Oct-11 Nov 2007. [67] (Croatian)/(Italian)/(English)
  • Revolucão cinética, Lisbon: Museu do Chiado, 2008, 151 pp. Texts by Emmanuel Guigon, Pedro Lapa, Arnauld Pierre. Works by Nadir Afonso, René Bertholo, Eduardo Nery, António Pedro, Artur Rosa. Exh. held 14 Mar-15 Jun 2008. [68] (Portuguese)
  • Razumsko oko: geometrična, optična, kinetična in programirana umetnost, Ljubljana: Mednarodni grafični likovni center (MGLC), 2008, 77 pp. Exh. held at International Centre of Graphic Arts, Ljubljana, 23 Apr-25 May 2008. (Slovenian)
  • Movement as a Message / Pohyb jako poselství / Movimento come messagio: International Triennale of Contemporary Art, Cerrina (Alessandria): Verso l'arte, 2008, 215 pp. Exh. held at National Gallery in Prague, 3 Jun-14 Sep 2008. [69] (English),(Czech),(Italian)
  • Revolutions—Forms that Turn: 2008 Biennale of Sydney, ed. Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev, Fishermans Bend, Vic.: Biennale of Sydney, with Thames & Hudson Australia, 2008, 304 pp. Incl. kinetic works by Duchamp, Ray, Rodchenko, Calder, Tinguely, Medalla, Lye, Olafur Eliasson, Rebecca Horn, Michael Snow. Exh. held at venues in Sydney including the Art Gallery of New South Wales and the Museum of Contemporary Art, 18 Jun-7 Sep 2008. (English)


  • Le mouvement: vom Kino zur Kinetik, Basel: Museum Tinguely, 2010, 160 pp. Exh. held 10 Feb-16 May 2010. Incl. reconstruction of the Le Mouvement exhibition of 1955. (German),(English)
  • Luce e movimento / Lumière et mouvement, ed. Grzegorz Musiał, Venice: Marsilio, and Signum Foundation, 2010, 117 pp. Exh. held at Signum Foundation Palazzo Donà, Venice, 21 May-16 Oct 2010. (Italian),(French),(Polish)
  • Under Destruction, ed. Gianni Jetzer, Basel: Museum Tinguely, New York: Swiss Institute, and Berlin: Distanz, 2010, 152 pp. Works by Nina Beier & Marie Lund, Monica Bonvicini, Pavel Büchler, Nina Canell, Jimmie Durham, Alex Hubbard, Alexander Gutke, Martin Kersels, Michael Landy, Liz Larner, Christian Marclay, Kris Martin, Ariel Orozco, Michael Sailstorfer, Arcangelo Sassolino, Jonathan Schipper, Ariel Schlesinger, Roman Signer, Johannes Vogl. Exh. curated by Chris Sharp and Gianni Jetzer; held at Museum Tinguely, Basel, 15 Oct 2010-23 Jan 2011; Swiss Institute Contemporary Art, New York, 6 Apr-4 Jun 2011. Video report. (German),(English)
  • Points of Contact: Jim Allen, Len Lye, Hélio Oiticica, eds. Christina Barton, Tyler Cann, and Mercedes Vicente, New Plymouth, NZ: Govett-Brewster Art Gallery & Adam Art Gallery, 2011, 79 pp. Exh. held at Govett-Brewster Art Gallery, New Plymouth, NZ, 11 Dec 2010-27 Feb 2011; Adam Art Gallery Te Pātaka Toi, Victoria University of Wellington, 18 Mar-22 May 2011. [70] [71] (English)
  • Kinetik - Kunst in Bewegung: von Tinguely über Soto bis Vasarely, ed. Messmer Foundation, Riegel am Kaiserstuhl: Kunsthalle Messmer, 2011, 112 pp. Exh. held 26 Feb-26 Jun 2011. (German)
  • Za aktivnu umjetnost: nove tendencije 50 godina poslije, 1961-1973, Zagreb: Muzej suvremene umjetnosti, 2011. Exh. held 14 Apr-29 May 2011. (Croatian)
  • Arte programmata e cinetica: da Munari a Biasi a Colombo e ..., eds. Giovanni Granzotto and Mariastella Margozzi, Rome: Il Cigno, 2012, 231 pp. Exhibition held at the Galleria nazionale d'arte moderna, Rome, Mar-May 2012. (Italian)
  • Ghosts in the Machine, eds. Massimiliano Ginoi and Gary Carrion-Murayari, New York: Skira Rizzoli, with New York: New Museum, 2012, 360 pp. "‘An unsystematic archive’ that displayed a ‘cabinet of curiosities’ made by artists of past technological ages, predominantly mechanical sculptures that move." Texts by Massimiliano Gioni, Gary Carrion-Murayari, Megan Heuer. Exh. held at 18 Jul-7 Oct 2012. Review: Smith (NYT). [72] [73] (English)
  • Programmare l'arte: Olivetti e la neoavanguardia cinetica, eds. Marco Meneguzzo, Enrico Morteo, and Alberto Saibene, Monza: Johan & Levi, 2012. Exh. held within 13th International Architecture Exhibition at La Biennale di Venezia at Negozio Olivetti, Venice, 30 Aug-14 Oct 2012; Museo del Novecento, Milan, 26 Oct 2012-17 Feb 2013. [74] (Italian)
  • Vibration, Vibração, Vibración: Latin American Kinetic Art of the 1960s and '70s, Sydney: University of Sydney, 2012, 8 pp. Exh. curated by Susan Best; held at University Art Gallery, Sydney, Jul-Sep 2012. (English)
  • Real/Virtual, arte cinético argentino en los años sesenta, ed. María José Herrera, Buenos Aires: Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, 2012. (Spanish)
  • Dynamo: un siècle de lumière et de mouvement dans l'art, 1913-2013, ed. Serge Lemoine, Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 2013, 368 pp. Texts by Markus Brüderlin, Marianne Le Pommeré, Domitille d’Orgeval, Matthieu Poirier, Pascal Rousseau. Exh. held at Grand Palais, Galeries nationales, Paris 10 Apr-22 Jul 2013. Reviews: Grangeorge (Critique d'art), Brigaudiot (Teheran). [75] (French)
  • Percezione e illusione: arte programmata e cinetica italiana, eds. Giovanni Granzotto and Micol Di Veroli, Buenos Aires: Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Buenos Aires, 2013, 203 pp. Exh. held 11 Oct-8 Dec 2013. [76] (Spanish)
  • Le Nuove Tendenze. Rivelazioni di un'arte percettiva e sensoriale, costruttiva e interattiva, ed. Giovanni Anceschi, Milan: 10 A.M. Art, 2013, 119 pp. Exh. held at 10 A.M. Art, Milan, 18 Jan-15 Mar 2014. (Italian),(English)
  • Turn Me On: European and Latin American Kinetic Art 1948-1979, London: Christie's International, 2014, 171 pp. Private selling exh. held at Christie's Mayfair, London, 24 Feb-7 Apr 2014. [77] (English)
  • Italian Zero/Cross Reference: italica ars ab ovo incipit, Brescia: Kanalidarte, 2014, 250 pp. Works by Fontana, Manzoni, Castellani, Bonalumi, Dadamaino, Lo Savio, Scheggi, Simeti, Munari, Alviani, Biasi, Chiggio, Costa, Landi, Massironi, Anceschi, Boriani, Colombo, Devecchi, Varisco, Vigo, Apollonio, Scaccabarozzi. Exh. held 4 Oct-15 Nov 2014. (English)/(Italian)
  • Around Zero, eds. Luca Beatrice and Willy Montini, Milan: Silvana, 2014, 203 pp. Exh. held at Padiglione delle arti, Marcon (Venice), Italy, 10 Oct-30 Nov 2014. (Italian),(English),(German)
  • Eye Attack: Op Art and Kinetic Art 1950-1970, eds. Lærke Rydal Jørgensen, Michael Juul Holm, Tine Colstrup and Kirsten Degel, Humlebaek: Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, 2016, 95 pp. Exh. held Feb-Jun 2016. (English)
    • Eye attack op art og kinetisk kunst 1950-1970, Humlebæk: Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, 2016, 95 pp. (Danish)
  • Rück – Blick: Kinetika 1967, eds. Agnes Husslein-Arco, Harald Krejci, and Axel Köhne, Vienna: Belvedere, 2016, 72 pp. Exh. held at 21er Haus, Vienna, 27 Apr-28 Aug 2016. [78] (German)
  • Arte programmata: Italian Kinetic Art from the 1960s, London, 2016. Exh. held at M & L Fine Art, London, 4 Oct-20 Dec 2016. (English)
  • Kinesthesia: Latin American Kinetic Art, 1954-1969, ed. Dan Cameron, Palm Springs: Palm Springs Art Museum and DelMonico Books/ Prestel, 2017, 240 pp. Essays by Jesus Fuenmayor, Maria Jose Herrera, Frederico Morais, Hector Olea, Isabel Plante, Cristina Rossi. Exh. held at Palm Springs Art Museum, 26 Aug 2017-15 Jan 2018. Review: Quinz (Critique d'art). [79] (English)
  • The Other Transatlantic: Kinetic and Op Art in Eastern Europe and Latin America, eds. Marta Dziewańska, Dieter Roelstraete, and Abigail Winograd, Warsaw: Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw, 2017, 358 pp. Based on 2016 conference; published on the occasion of exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw, 17 November 2017–11 February 2018. Essays by Anindita Banerjee, Ariel Jiménez, Sasha Obukhova, Andrzej Turowski, Daniel Garza Usabiaga. TOC. Project website. Publisher. Review: Quinz (Critique d'art). (English)


  • Laboratoriya budushchego: Kineticheskoye iskusstvo v Rossii [Лаборатория будущего: Кинетическое искусство в России], St Petersburg: Manezh (Манеж), 2020, 580 pp. Catalogue. Exhibition, Exhibition. [80] (Russian)
  • Kinetismus: 100 Years of Electricity in Art, Prague: Kunsthalle Praha, 2022. Exhibition. [81] [82]

Major exhibitions without catalogues[edit]


Zdeněk Pešánek, Kinetismus: Kinetika ve výtvarnictví – barevná hudba, 1941, Log, PDF.
L. Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion, 1947, Log, PDF.
Bann, Gadney, Popper, Steadman, Kinetic Art: Four Essays, 1966.
Frank Popper, Naissance de l'art cinétique, 1967.
Guy Brett, Kinetic Art: The Language of Movement, 1968, PDF.

Reception, art criticism, art historical studies[edit]

For writings on individual artists and collectives see their respective pages.


  • Zdeněk Pešánek, Kinetismus: Kinetika ve výtvarnictví – barevná hudba, intro. František Kalivoda, Prague: Česká grafická Unie, 1941, 144 pp; repr., afterw. Tomáš Pospiszyl, Prague: Akademie múzických umění, 2013, 166 pp. [84] (Czech)
  • L. Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion, Chicago: Paul Theobald, 1947, 371 pp. Esp. "The History of Kinetic Sculpture", pp 237-240. (English)
  • Franz Mon, with Walter Höllerer and Manfred de la Motte (eds.), Movens. Dokumente und Analysen zur Dichtung, bildenden Kunst, Musik, Architektur, Wiesbaden: Limes, 1960, 200 pp. (German)
  • Stephen Bann, Reg Gadney, Frank Popper, Philip Steadman, Kinetic Art: Four Essays, St. Albans: Motion Books, 1966, 70 pp. (English)
  • Michael Compton, Optical and Kinetic Art, London: Tate Gallery, 1967, [16+32] pp. Review: Taylor (Leonardo). (English)
  • Frank Popper, Naissance de l'art cinétique: l'image du mouvement dans les arts plastiques depuis 1860, pref. Étienne Souriau, Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1967, xiv+227 pp; 2nd ed., rev. & augm., as L'art cinétique, Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1970, 301 pp. Review: Taylor (Leonardo). [85] (French)
    • Origins and Developments of Kinetic Art, trans. Stephen Bann, New York: New York Graphic Society, 1968; London: Studio Vista, 1968. (English)
    • L'arte cinetica: l'immagine del movimento nelle arti plastiche dopo il 1860, Turin: Einaudi, 1970, xix+355 pp. (Italian)
    • Los orígenes del arte cinético y el movimiento virtual, trans. Julieta Sucre, México: Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas, 19??, 36 pp. (Spanish)
  • Guy Brett, Kinetic Art: The Language of Movement, London: Studio Vista, and New York: Reinhold, 1968, 95 pp. Review: Taylor (Leonardo). [86] (English)
  • John Tovey, The Technique of Kinetic Art, London: Batsford, and New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1971, 144 pp, IA. (English)
  • Dušan Konečný, Kinetizmus, Bratislava: Pallas, 1970, 88 pp. [87] (Slovak)
  • Jonathan Benthall, Science and Technology in Art Today, London: Thames and Hudson, 1972. (English)
  • Elena de Bértola, El arte cinético: el movimiento y la transformación: análisis perceptivo y funcional, Buenos Aires: Nueva Visión, 1973, 218 pp. (Spanish)
  • Frank J. Malina (ed.), Kinetic Art: Theory and Practice. Selections from the Journal Leonardo, New York: Dover Publications, 1974, 244 pp. Review: Bornstein (Leonardo). (English)
  • Frank Popper, Art—Action and Participation, New York University Press, 1975; London: Studio Vista, 1975. (English)
    • Art, action et participation: l'artiste et la créativité aujourd'hui, Paris: Klincksieck, 1980, 368 pp. (French)
    • Arte, acción y participación: el artista y la creatividad hoy, trans. Eduardo Bajo, Madrid: Akal, 1989, 314 pp. (Spanish)
  • Frank Popper, Die kinetische Kunst: Licht und Bewegung, Umweltkunst und Aktion, Cologne: DuMont Schauberg, 1975, 205 pp. (German)
  • Inmaculada Julián, El arte cinético en España, Madrid: Cátedra, 1986, 396 pp. (Spanish)
  • Vyacheslav F. Koleichuk (В.Ф. Колейчук), Kinetizm [Кинетизм], Moscow: Galart (Галарт), 1994, 154 pp. [88] (Russian)
  • Denise René, Catherine Millet, Conversations avec Denise René, Paris: A. Biro, 2001, 157 pp. (French)
  • Margit Rosen et al (eds.), A Little-Known Story About a Movement, a Magazine, and the Computer's Arrival in Art: New Tendencies and Bit International, 1961-1973, Karlsruhe: ZKM Center for Art and Media, and Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011, 576 pp. (English)
  • Christina Chau, Movement, Time, Technology, and Art, Singapore: Springer, 2017. (English)
  • De l'art cinétique à l’art numérique: hommage à Frank Popper, ed. Françoise Py, Paris: L'Harmattan, 2017, 232 pp. Publisher. Review: Quinz (Critique d'art). (French)
  • Rachel Rivenc, Reinhard Bek (eds.), Keep It Moving? Conserving Kinetic Art, Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute, 2018, 175 pp. (English)

Journal issues[edit]

  • IMAGE: "Kinetic Art: Concrete Poetry", ed. Philip Steadman, London: Kingsland Prospect, Nov 1964, 64 pp. Incl. essays by Philip Steadman ("Colour Music and the Art of Lumia"), Reg Gadney ("An Introduction: Kinetic Art"), a.o. (English)
  • Artstudio 22: "La Sculpture en mouvement", 1992. (French)

Book chapters, essays, theses[edit]


  • Lumière et mouvement. Volume 1, Art cinétique et lumino-cinétique, eds. Claude Guibert and Jean-Luc Chalumeau, Paris: Imago (Encyclopédie audiovisuelle de l'art contemporain), 2004. Video DVD (1 h 51 min).



Encyclopedic entries[edit]

en Oxford DA, Tate, Wikipedia. fr Pompidou. it Treccani. es Akal. cr Šuvaković. hu Artportal. sl Pojmovnik.

See also[edit]