Vilém Flusser

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Edith and Vilém Flusser with their sons Victor and Mischa, São Paulo, airport, 1969 or 1970.
Born May 12, 1920(1920-05-12)
Prague, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic)
Died November 27, 1991(1991-11-27) (aged 71)
near Prague, Czechoslovakia
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Vilém Flusser (1920 – 1991) was a media philosopher and writer born in Prague. He held Brazilian citizenship and wrote most of his work in German and Brazilian Portuguese.

Flusser's work notably elaborates a theory of communication, theorising the epochal shift from what he termed "linear thinking" (based on writing) toward a new form of multidimensional, visual thinking embodied by digital culture. For him, these new modes and technologies of communication make possible a society (the "telematic" society) in which dialogue between people becomes the supreme value. Flusser draws from Martin Buber, Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger and Thomas Kuhn, among others.

In 1939, Flusser emigrated together with his future wife Edith Barth from Nazi occupied Prague via London to São Paulo (1941). Later they lived in Rio de Janeiro (1950-72), Meran, Italy (1972-75), south of France (1975-81) and Robion, Provence (from 1981). [1]


This biography is sourced from the website of Vilém Flusser Archiv.

  • Vilém Flusser is born in Prague, on May 12, into the family of Jewish intellectuals. He lived with his mother Melitta, a singer, her parents, his father Gustav and his sister Ludovika in the part of Prague called Dejvice. Gustav Flusser studied mathematics and physics, Einstein being one of his professors. He lectured at the German and Czech University and was a member of Parliament in the social democratic party. He was murdered in the concentration camp of Buchenwald in 1940. In 1942 Flusser’s grandparents, his mother and his sister were brought to Auschwitz and later to Theresienstadt where they were murdered.
  • German and Czech primary school.
  • German grammar school.
  • Flusser writes his first poems and the play “Saul”.
  • Martin Buber's lecture “Prejudice against God” has a strong influence on Flusser‘s thinking.
  • Matriculation in philosophy at the Juridical Faculty of Karls University Prague.
  • Shortly after the occupation of Prague by the Nazis in March, Flusser emigrates with Edith Barth, his later wife, and her parents to London. For a few months he continues his studies at the London School of Economics.
  • Emigration to Brazil. Reaching the port of Rio de Janeiro Flusser is informed of his father's death. Flusser leaves for São Paulo, where he finds a job in an Czech import/export company.
  • Marriage to Edith Barth. They move to São Paulo together. Birth of their daughter Dinah. Flusser's first encounter with Alex Bloch, also a Jew who emigrated from Prague.
  • Birth of son Miguel Gustavo.
  • After the end of World War II, Flusser finds out about the murder of his entire family in the Nazi murder camps.
  • Due to Flusser's job the family moves to Rio. Birth of son Victor. Beginning of correspondence with Alex Bloch. Return to São Paulo at the end of the year.
  • Flusser begins to write a book about the history of ideas of the 18th century.
  • Flusser finishes book manuscript “The 20th Century”.
  • He writes “History of the Devil” in German, followed by the Portuguese “A história do diabo”.
  • Flusser becomes director of Stabivolt, a factory for radios and transistors.
  • He gets in touch with the Brazilian Institute for Philosophy (IBF) in São Paulo and with Vincente Ferreira da Silva and his wife Dora, Milton Vargas and Miguel Reale. First linguistic-philosophical lectures at the IBF and publications at the Revista Brasileira Filosofia.
  • Flusser gives a philosophical lecture every Wednesday afternoon in his house for the fellow students of his daughter Dinah, who help to publish his text “Praga, a cidade de Kafka” [Prague, City of Kafka] in the literary supplement of the daily newspaper O Estado de São Paulo.
  • Flusser is nominated Member of the Brazilian Philosophical Institute.
  • First book publication: “Lingua e realidade” [Language and Reality]. Appointment to lecture in Communication Theories at the University of São Paulo. Lecture Series “Filosofia da Lingua” [Philosophy of Language].
  • Writing of the manuscript “Da Dúvida” [On Doubt].
  • Position of Appointed Professor of Communication Theories at the Faculty for Communication and Humanities of Fundação A.A. Penteado (FAAP) in São Paulo. Flusser holds this chair until 1970. He is nominated member of the advisory board of the São Paulo Biennale.
  • Linguistic-philosophical lectures at the Faculty for Humanities of the Technological Institute for Aeronautic (ITA) in São José dos Campos. The literary magazine Cavalo Azul (edited by Dora Ferreira da Silva) releases the first and second chapter of the unpublished manuscript “Até terceira e quarta geração” [Until the third and fourth generation].
  • As delegate for cultural cooperation with Northern America and Europe of the Brazilian Foreign Ministry, Flusser lectures in Harvard, Boston, Yale, at the MIT and numerous European universities and institutions. The FAZ (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung), the SZ (Süddeutsche Zeitung) and Die Presse (Vienna) print articles by Flusser.
  • Flusser substitutes his friend Milton Vargas as Lecturer for Philosophy of Science at the Escola Politécnica of the University of São Paulo. Appointed Professor for Philosophy of Communication at the Escola Dramática and the Escola de Superiore de Cinema in São Paulo.
  • Because of the increasingly problematic political situation in Brazil, due to the dictatorship, it is getting harder for Flusser to lecture and to publish.
  • He writes the manuscript “Auf der Suche nach einem neuen Menschen” [In search of a new man]. The Portuguese “Em busca de um Novo Homem” is published as “Fenomenologia do brasileiro” [Phenomenology of the Brazilian] in 1998. The publication of a collection of scattered phenomenological drafts “Coisas que me cercam” [Things that surround me] fails.
  • The daily newspaper Folha de São Paulo sets up a column “Posto Zero” [Point Zero] for Flusser. Daily critical glosses are released. Their journey to Europe for preparing the Biennale is taken as a chance to leave Brazil for good. Edith and Vilém settle in Meran, Italy. Flusser is writing short phenomenological texts, later published as “Natural:mente” [Natural:Mind]. The planned publication in French fails.
  • Flusser begins to write his philosophical autobiography “Zeugenschaft aus der Bodenlosigkeit” [Witnessing from bottomlessness/groundlessness] later published as “Bodenlos”. Flusser publishes his first book in France, he hands in an English manuscript. First articles in French newspapers and magazines. Flusser participates in many conferences and gives numerous lectures.
  • Begins to work on a “Phenomenology of the human gesture”. Lectures in the USA. Articles in “main currents”.
  • The Flussers move to the south of France. Lecture series on gestures at the Institut de l'Environment in Paris.
  • Lecture series “Les phenomens de la Communication” at the Théâtre du Centre in Aix-en-Provence.
  • First visit in Brazil.
  • Lectures “Comment notre crise existentielle se manifeste” at the Relais Culturel d'Aix-en-Provence. “Curs de la théorie de la Communication” at the Ecole d'Art et d'Architecture in Marseille-Luminy.
  • Lectures “Les Gestes” at the Ecole d'Art d'Aix-en-Provence.
  • Flusser summarizes his concepts of communication-philosophy, first in English and German, then in French, in the book manuscript “Mutations of Human Relations”, published as “Kommunikologie”.
  • Journey to São Paulo.
  • Lectures “La société postindustrielle” [Post-industrial Society] at the Office Regional de la Culture in Marseille. Flusser writes the manuscript “Nachgeschichte” [Post-history] in German and Portuguese.
  • Starting with the work on “Vampyroteuthis infernalis”.
  • The Flussers move to Robion/Provence. Flusser meets his later publisher Andreas Müeller-Pohle at a symposion on photography. He writes the essay “Für eine Philosophie der Fotografie” [Towards a Philosophy of Photography]. The German and Portuguese manuscripts of “Vampyroteuthis infernalis” are finished. He also begins the English and French versions. Lectures at the São Paulo Biennale.
  • First book published in Germany: “Für eine Philosophie der Fotografie” [Towards a Philosophy of Photography] after many failed attempts.
  • Flusser is working on an extension of the “photo philosophy”.
  • Flusser is working on the manuscript for the book “Hat Schreiben Zukunft?”.
  • Begin of the column “Curie’s Children” in Artforum/ New York. First visit to Prague. Flusser becomes consultant of the international cultural project “A Casa da Cor” in São Paulo.
  • “Die Schrift. Hat Schreiben Zukunft?” [Writing. Does it have a future?] is released as book and on disc. Flusser works on tv-scenarios, later published as “Angenommen” [Suppose that].
  • Flusser gets his own column “Reflections” in the magazine European Photography.
  • His work “Vom Subjekt zum Projekt” [From Subject to Project] remains a fragment.
  • Opening lecture “Zelte” [Tents] at the “steirischer herbst” in Graz, Austria.
  • His work on “Menschwerdung” [Becoming Human] remains unfinished.
  • Visiting professor at the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, with seminars on human communication, structures of communication and communicology as culture critique. He gives a talk at “Cultec – Kultur und Technik im 21. Jahrhundert” (Wissenschaftszentrum NRW) in Essen, Germany, called “Die Informationsgesellschaft. Phantom oder Realität?” [Information Society. Phantom or Reality?] Lecture “Paradigmenwechsel” [Change of Paradigm] at the Goethe-Institute, Prague. The very next day, on the 27th of November Flusser dies in a car accident. He is buried at the Jewish cemetery in Prague.



Groundless, [1973].
Natural:Mind, [1975].
Gestures, [1976].
Writings, 2002.
  • [Das XX. Jahrhundert. Versuch einer subjektiven Synthese], [1957], c200 pp. Manuscript; unpublished. [2] (German)
  • A História do Diabo [1958], São Paulo: Martins, 1965, 216 pp; São Paulo: Annablume, 2010. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Die Geschichte des Teufels, ed. Andreas Müller-Pohle, Göttingen: European Photography, 1993; 2nd ed., 1996, 200 pp; 3rd ed., 2006. [3] (German)
    • Příběh ďábla, trans. Jiří Fiala, Galerie Gema, 1997, 185 pp. [4] (Czech)
    • The History of the Devil, trans. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes, Minneapolis, MN: Univocal, 2014, 220 pp, ARG. Publisher. (English)
    • L'histoire du diable, trans. Philippe Thureau-Dangin, afterw. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes, Paris: Exils, 2021, 284 pp. (French)
  • Língua e Realidade [1962], São Paulo: Herder, 1963, 238 pp; 2nd ed., rev. Gustavo Bernardo Krause, São Paulo: Annablume, 2004, 228 pp; 3rd ed., 2007, 232 pp; rev.ed., eds. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes and Rodrigo Petronio, São Paulo: É Realizações, 2021. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Jazyk a skutečnost, trans. Karel Palek, Triáda, 2005, 200 pp. Introduction. (Czech)
    • Language and Reality, trans. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes, Minneapolis, MN: Univocal, 2018, xiii+187 pp. (English)
  • Da Dúvida [1965], ed. Dilmo Milheiros, Rio de Janeiro: Relume Dumará, 1999; São Paulo: Annablume, 2011, 122 pp, PDF; new ed., eds. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes and Rodrigo Petronio, São Paulo: É Realizações, 2018, 200 pp. Publisher. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Vom Zweifel, ed. Andreas Müller-Pohle, Göttingen: European Photography, 2006, 64 pp. [5] (German)
    • On Doubt, trans. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes, Minneapolis, MN: Univocal, 2014, 100 pp, ARG. [6] (English)
  • Fenomenologia do Brasileiro: em busca de um novo homem [1971], ed. Gustavo Bernardo, Rio de Janeiro: Eduerj, 1998. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Brasilien oder die Suche nach dem neuen Menschen. Für eine Phänomenologie der Unterentwicklung. Schriften, Bd. 5, eds. Stefan Bollmann and Edith Flusser, Bensheim and Düsseldorf: Bollmann, 1994, 336 pp. (German)
  • Coisas que Me Cercam [1972]. Unpublished; collection of previously published essays, which became the basis for La force du quotidien. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • La force du quotidien, trans. Jean Mesrie and Barbara Niceall, pref. Abraham Moles, Paris: Mame, 1973, 146 pp; 1989. Review: Feller (Comm et lang). (French)
  • Bodenlos. Eine philosophische Autobiographie [1973], afterw. Milton Vargas, notes Edith Flusser and Stefan Bollmann, Bensheim and Düsseldorf: Bollmann, 1992, 295 pp; repr., Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1999, 295 pp. (German)
    • Bezedno: filosofická autobiografie, Prague: Hynek, 1998, 225 pp. (Czech)
    • Bodenlos: uma autobiografia filosofica, São Paulo: Annablume, 2010. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Groundless, ed. & trans. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes, Metaflux, 2017, 278 pp. (English)
  • Gesten. Versuch einer Phänomenologie [1976], Bensheim and Düsseldorf: Bollmann, 1991, 274 pp; Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch, 1994, 239 pp.
    • Los gestos. Fenomenología y comunicación, trans. Claudio Gancho, Barcelona: Herder, 1994, 210 pp. (Spanish)
    • Les gestes, HC, 1999. (French)
    • three selected texts, trans. Jiří Fiala, in Revolver Revue 56 (2004). (Czech)
    • Gestures, trans. Nancy Ann Roth, University of Minnesota Press, 2014, xi+193 pp, ARG. (English)
    • "Gesty. Próba fenomenologiczna", trans. Adam Lipszyc, Widok 12, 2015, PDF. Trans. of two chapters. (Polish)
    • Momjitdeul [몸짓들: 현상학 시론], trans. 안규철 옮김, Seoul: Workroom, 2018, 264 pp. [8] (Korean)
  • Communicology: Mutations in Human Relations? [1978], ed. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes, forew. Katherine Hayles, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2022. Originally written in English. (English)
    • Kommunikologie. Schriften, Bd. 4, eds. Stefan Bollmann and Edith Flusser, Bensheim and Düsseldorf: Bollmann, 1996, 355 pp; repr., Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch, 1998; repr., 2007. TOC. (German)
    • Tekunokodo no tanjo, trans. Junichi Murakami, Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1997. (Japanese)
    • Komunikológia, Bratislava: Mediálny inštitút, 2001. (Slovak)
    • Komunikológija, Belgrade: Fakultet za medije i komunikacije - Univerzitet Singidunum, 2015. (Serbian)
    • Mutations dans les relations humains? De la communicologie, ed. Marc Partouche, Le Bon Voisin, 2021, 340 pp. [9] [10] (French)
  • Pós-história: vinte istantâneos e um modo de usar [1979], São Paulo: Duas Cidades, 1983, 168 pp; new ed., São Paulo: Annablume, 2011, 196 pp; new ed., eds. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes and Rodrigo Petronio, São Paulo: É Realizações, 2019. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • "Nachgeschichten", in Nachgeschichten. Essays, Vorträge, Glossen, ed. Volker Rapsch, Düsseldorf: Bollmann, 1990; new ed. as "Nachgeschichte", in Flusser, Nachgeschichte. Eine korrigierte Geschichtsschreibung. Schriften, Bd. 2, eds. Stefan Bollmann and Edith Flusser, Bensheim and Düsseldorf: Bollmann, 1993; Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch, 1997. (German)
    • Post-History, trans. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes, Minneapolis, MN: Univocal, 2013, 167 pp. [11] (English)
    • Postdějiny, trans. Petr Bláha, Mělník: Přestupní stanice, 2018, 122 pp. [12] (Czech)
    • Post-histoire, pref. Catherine Geel and Anthony Masure, postf. Yves Citton, Paris: T&P Work Unit, and Saint Etienne: Cité du design, 2019, 208 pp. (French)
  • Vampyroteuthis infernalis. Eine Abhandlung samt Befund des Institut Scientifique de Recherche Paranaturaliste [1981], ills. Louis Bek, Göttingen: Immatrix Publications, 1987, 65 pp; 3rd ed., rev., Göttingen: European Photography, 2002, 71 pp; 4th ed., Berlin: European Photography, 2018, 69+[17] pp. [13] (German)
  • Für eine Philosophie der Fotografie, Göttingen: European Photography, 1983, 58 pp; new ed., rev., 1989, 77 pp; new ed., upd., 1997, 77 pp. [16] (German)
    • Towards A Philosophy of Photography, ed. Derek Bennett, Göttingen: European Photography, 1984, 62 pp. (English)
    • Filosofia da caixa preta. Ensaios para uma futura filosofia da fotografia, trans. Vilém Flusser, São Paulo: Hucitec, 1985, 92 pp; Rio de Janeiro: Relume Dumara, 2002; new ed., eds. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes and Rodrigo Petronio, São Paulo: É Realizações, 2018, 144 pp. Publisher. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Per una filosofia della fotografia, trans. Chantal Marazia, Torino: Agorà, 1987; Milan: Bruno Mondadori, 2006, 128 pp. Review. (Italian)
    • For fotografiets filosofi, Horten: Preus Fotomuseum, 1987. [17] (Norwegian)
    • En filosofi för fotografin, trans. Jan-Erik Lundström, Göteborg: Korpen, 1988, 112 pp. [18] (Swedish)
    • Hacia una filosofía de la fotografía, trans. Eduardo Molina, México, D.F.: Trillas, 1990, 78 pp. (Spanish)
    • A fotográfia filozófiája, trans. Panka Veress and István Sebesi, Budapest: Tartóshullám - Belvedere - ELTE BTK, 1990. (Hungarian)
    • Bir fotoğraf felsefesine doğru, trans. İhsan Derman, Istanbul: Agac, 1991; 2nd ed., Ankara: Med-Campus, 1994, 53 pp; 3rd ed., Istanbul: Hayalbaz Kitap, 2009, vi+97 pp. (Turkish)
    • Shashin no tetsugaku no tame ni: tekunoroji to vijuaru karucha, trans. Fukagawa Masafumi, Tokyo: Keiso Shobo, 1992; 1999, iii+192 pp. (Japanese)
    • Za filosofii fotografie, trans. Božena Koseková and Josef Kosek, 1994, PDF; 2nd ed., rev., Prague: Fra, 2013, 103 pp. [19] (Czech)
    • She ying de zhe xue si kao, trans. Wenji Li, Taipei: Yuan-Liou, 1994, 101 pp. (Chinese)
    • Pour une philosophie de la photographie, Paris: Circé, 1996. (French)
    • Ensaio sobre a fotografia: para uma filosofia da técnica, Lisbon: Relógio d'Água, 1998. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Pros mia philosophia tēs phōtographias, trans. Ingo Dünnbier and Ēraklēs Papai͏̈ōannu, Thessaloniki: University Studio Press, 1998; repr., 2015, 85 pp. (Greek)
    • Sajin ŭi ch'ŏrhak ŭl wihayŏ: k'ŭn kŭlssich'aek, trans. Yun Chong-sŏk, Seoul: Communication Books, 1999; repr., 2014, vi+127 pp. (Korean)
    • Za filozofiju fotografije, trans. Tijana Tubić, Belgrade: Kulturni Centar Beograda, 1999; 2005, 80 pp. (Serbian)
    • Towards A Philosophy of Photography, trans. Anthony Mathews, London: Reaktion Books, 2000. (English)
    • Una filosofía de la fotografía, trans. Thomas Schilling, Madrid: Síntesis, 2001, 192 pp. [20] (Spanish)
    • Za edna filosofia na fotografiata, trans. Angel Kalinov, Plovdiv: Horizonti, 2002, 79 pp. (Bulgarian)
    • Pentru o filosofie a fotografie, Bucharest: Idea Design & Print, 2003. (Romanian)
    • Za edna filosofia na fotografira, Moscow, 2002. (Russian)
    • Ku filozofii fotografii, trans. Jacek Maniecki, Katowice: Akademia Sztuk Pieknych w Katowicach, 2004, 75 pp; new ed., intro. Piotr Zawojski, Warsaw: Aletheia, 2015, 149 pp. (Polish)
    • Filozofija fotografije, Zagreb: Scarabeus, 2007. (Croatian)
    • Een filosofie van de fotografie, trans. & afterw. Marc Geerards, Utrecht: IJzer, 2007. (Dutch)
    • Za filosofiyu fotografii [За философию фотографии], trans. G. Khaydarova, St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University, 2008, 146 pp. (Russian)
    • K filozofiji fotografije, trans. Anja Naglič, ed. Jan Babnik, Ljubljana: ZSKZ, 2010, 90 pp. (Slovenian)
    • Para una filosofía de la fotografía, trans. Mariana Dimópulos, Buenos Aires: La marca, 2014, 84 pp. (Spanish)
    • Li-ḳerat filosofyah shel ha-tsilum [לקראת פילוסופיה של הצילום], trans. Johnathan Wertheim Soen, Tel Aviv: Resling, 2014, 135 pp. (Hebrew)
    • She ying zhe xue de si kao [摄影哲学的思考], Beijing: Zhong guo min zu she ying yi shu chu ban she, 2017, 94 pp. (Chinese)
  • Ins Universum der technischen Bilder [1984], Göttingen: European Photography, 1985, 143 pp; 2nd ed., 1989; 3th ed., 1990; 4th ed., rev., 1992, 186 pp; 5th ed., 1996; 6th ed., 2000, 186 pp; 7th ed., rev., Berlin: European Photography, 2018, 180 pp. [21] (German)
    • "Ku uniwersum obrazów technicznych", trans. Andrzej Gwóźdź, in Po kinie? Audiowizualnosc w epoce przekaźników elektronicznych, ed. Andrzej Gwóźdź, Krakow: Universitas, 1994. Trans. of excerpt. (Polish)
    • Do universa technických obrazů, trans. Jiří Fiala, Prague: OSVU, 2001, 162 pp. (Czech)
    • Προς το σύμπαν των τεχνικών εικόνων, Σμίλη, 2008. (Greek)
    • A technikai képek univerzuma felé, trans. József Maleczki, 2001; rev.trans. Dalma Török, 2011. (Hungarian)
    • O universo das imagens técnicas: elogio da superficialidade, rev. Gustavo Bernardo, São Paulo: Annablume, 2008, 150 pp, PDF, PDF; repr., 2010; new ed. as Elogio da Superficialidade. O Universo das Imagens Técnicas, eds. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes & Rodrigo Petronio, São Paulo: É Realizações, 2019. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Into the Universe of Technical Images, trans. Nancy Ann Roth, University of Minnesota Press, 2011, 224 pp. (English)
    • Hacia el universo de las imagenes técnicas, trans. Fernando Zamora Águila, México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2011, 156 pp. (Spanish)
    • In het universum van de technische beelden, trans. Marc Geerards, afterw. Arjen Mulder, Utrecht: IJzer, 2014, 239 pp. (Dutch)
    • El universo de las imágenes técnicas: elogio de la superficialidad, intro. & notes Claudia Kozak, trans. Julia Tomasini, Buenos Aires: Caja Negra, 2015, 192 pp. (Spanish)
    • Ji shu tu xiang de yu zhou [技术图像的宇宙], trans. Yijun Li, Shanghai: Fu dan da xue chu ban she you xian gong si, 2021, 131 pp. (Chinese)
  • Die Schrift. Hat Schreiben Zukunft? [1986], Göttingen: Immatrix, 1987, 158 pp, book with 2 floppy disks; 2nd ed., exp., 1989, 159 pp; new ed., upd., 1992, 154 pp. [22] (German)
    • Dijit'ŏl sidae ŭi kŭl ssŭgi: kŭl ssŭgi e mirae nŭn innŭn'ga, trans. Chong-sŏk Yun, Seoul: Munye Ch'ulp'ansa, 1996, 317 pp. (Korean)
    • Az írás. Van-e jövője az írásnak?, trans. J.A. Tillmann and Lídia Jósvai, Balassi Kiadó - BAE Tartóshullám - Intermedia, 1997. (Hungarian)
    • Ē graphē: echei mellon to graphein, trans. Giōrgos Ē. Ēliopoulos, Athens: Potamos, 2003, 270 pp. (Greek)
    • A escrita: há futuro para a escrita?, trans. Murilo Jardelino da Costa, São Paulo: Annablume, 2010, 178 pp. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Does Writing Have a Future?, trans. Nancy Ann Roth, University of Minnesota Press, 2011, 208 pp. (English)
  • Angenommen: eine Szenenfolge [1987ff], Göttingen: Immatrix Publications, 1989, 112 pp; 2nd ed., rev., ed. Andreas Müller-Pohle, Göttingen: European Photography, 2000, 76 pp. [23] (German)
    • What If? Twenty-Two Scenarios in Search of Images, intro. Anke Finger, trans. Anke Finger and Kenneth Kronenberg, afterw. Kenneth Goldsmith, University of Minnesota Press, 2022, 120 pp. [24] (English)
  • Vom Subjekt zum Projekt. Menschwerdung. Schriften, Bd. 3 [1989/90], eds. Stefan Bollmann and Edith Flusser, Bensheim and Düsseldorf, Bollmann, 1994, 288 pp; Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch, 1998. (German)
    • サブジェクトからプロジェクトへ, trans. Junichi Murakami, Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1996. (Japanese)
    • Od subjektu k projektu, trans. Petr Babka, Mělník: Přestupní stanice, 2020, 166 pp. Review: Židková (A2). [25] (Czech)
  • Nachgeschichten. Essays, Vorträge, Glossen, ed. Volker Rapsch, Düsseldorf: Bollmann, 1990, 229 pp. Selected essays and lectures. (German)
  • Klaus Nüchtern, Vilém Flusser: ein Gespräch, Göttingen: European Photography, 1991, 52 pp. Conversation between Klaus Nüchtern and Flusser took place in Graz on 6 Oct 1990. (German)


  • Le monde codifié: conférence du 3 Mai 1973, Paris: Institut de l'Environment/Centre de Formation Permanente pour les Arts Plastiques, 1974, 48 pp. (French)
  • Orthonature/paranature [1976], Institut Scientifique de Recherche Paranaturaliste, 1978, [7] pp. Lecture given by Flusser on 9 Oct 1976 on the occasion of Louis Bec’s exhibition Les Sulfanogrades. Manuscript. (French)
  • Krise der Linearität [1988], ed. G.J. Lischka, Bern: Benteli, 1992, 43 pp. Lecture delivered on 20 March 1988 at Kunstmuseum Bern. (German)
  • Ende der Geschichte, ende der Stadt? [1991], Vienna: Picus, 1992, 56 pp. Lecture delivered on 13 Mar 1991 at the Wiener Rathaus; incl. interview with Hubert Christian Ehalt. (German)

Collections published posthumously[edit]

  • Vilém Flusser: Virtuelle Räume - simultane Welten, ed. & intro. Sabine Kraft, Special issue of ARCH+: Zeitschrift für Architektur und Städtebau 111, 1992, pp 18-85. Selected texts. (German)
  • Dinge und Undinge: phänomenologische Skizzen, ed. Michael Krueger, Munich and Vienna: Carl Hanser, 1993, 150 pp. (German)
    • Choses et non-choses: esquisses phenomenologiques, Nimes: Jacqueline Chambon, 1996. (French)
    • Az ágy, trans. Zoltán Sebők, Budapest: Kijárat Kiadó, 1996. (Hungarian)
  • Vom Stand der Dinge: eine kleine Philosophie des Design, ed. Fabian Wurm, Göttingen: Steidl, 1993, 126 pp; 4th ed., exp., Göttingen: Lagerfeld, Steidl, Druckerei, 2019, 159 pp. Selected essays from 1970-1992. Review: Pachmanová (, 2015). (German)
    • The Shape of Things: A Philosophy of Design, trans. Anthony Mathews, London: Reaktion, 1999. (English)
    • Petite philosophie du design, trans. Claude Maillard, Belfort: Circé, 2002, 115 pp. (French)
    • Filosofía del diseño, trans. Pablo Marinas, Madrid: Síntesis, 2002, 171 pp. (Spanish) [26]
    • Filosofia del design, Milan: Bruno Mondadori, 2003. (Italian)
    • Dezain no chiisana tetsugaku [デザインの小さな哲学], trans. Masashi Takimoto, Tokyo: Kajimashuppankai, 2009, 208 pp. (Japanese)
    • Tvar věcí. Filosofie designu, Prague: Fra, forthcoming. (Czech)
  • Von der Freiheit des Migranten. Einsprüche gegen den Nationalismus, ed. Stefan Bollmann, Bensheim: Bollmann, 1994; repr., Berlin: Philo, 2000; repr., Berlin: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 2007; repr., Hamburg: CEP Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 2021. (German)
    • The Freedom of the Migrant: Objections to Nationalism, ed. Anke K. Finger, University of Illinois Press, 2003, 136 pp; 2013, 136 pp. (English)
  • Jude sein. Essays, Briefe, Fiktionen, eds. Stefan Bollmann and Edith Flusser, Mannheim: Bollmann, 1995, 189 pp; new ed., Berlin and Vienna, 2001. (German)
  • Die Revolution der Bilder. Der Flusser-Reader zu Kommunikation, Medien und Design, ed. Stefan Bollmann, Mannheim: Bollmann, 1995; 2nd ed., 1996, 236 pp. (German)
  • Moc obrazu: Výbor filosofických textů z 80. a 90. let, trans. Milena Slavická and Jiří Fiala, Special Issue of Výtvarné umění 3-4, Prague: OSVU, 1996, 252 pp. Excerpt. (Czech)
    • Milena Slavická, "Od redakce / From the editors"", pp 6-7.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Curriculum vitae", pp 9-10.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Hledání smyslu, Filozofický autoportrét", pp 11-13.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Náčrt teorie technoimaginace", pp 16-22.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Evropské umění", pp 23-27.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Barvy místo forem", pp 28-34.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Nová skutečnost z počítače?", pp 35-43.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Zvyk jako hlavní estetické kritérium", pp 44-51.
    • "High-tech místo domácké práce. O kreativitě s Vilémem Flusserem hovoří Elisabeth Quastová", pp 52-55.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Pohlednice. Pro Andrease Müllera-Pohla", pp 56-60.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Transformace", pp 62-64.
    • "Výběr dvanácti fotografií z knihy Müllera-Pohla „Transformace“, obsahující padesát fotografií", pp 65-77.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Fotografie, matka všech věcí", pp 81-84.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Fotografie a dějiny. Gottfriedu Jägerovi", pp 85-92.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Fotokritika", pp 93-97.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Fotografie a směnná hodnota", pp 98-104.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Fotokamera", pp 105-108.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Kritéria - krize - kritika", pp 109-116.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Fikce", pp 117-121.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Fotografie jako umění ve veřejném prostoru", pp 122-127.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Fotografování jako definování", pp 128-130.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Moc obrazu", pp 131-138.
    • Jan Jedlička, "Zimní cesta k moři", pp 140-151.
    • Jan Jedlička, Milena Slavická, "O zimní cestě k moři. Rozhovor Mileny Slavické s Janem Jedličkou", pp 152-156.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Flexor: In memoriam", pp 159-162.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Poznámky k článku Gottfrieda Jägera „Generativní fotografie“", pp 163-165.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Karl Gerstner", pp 166-170.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Ulrich Mertens: Shora zdola", pp 171-174.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Vizualismus/dokumentarismus podle Müllera-Pohla", pp 175-180.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Danièle Akmen", pp 181-184.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Becovy sulfanogrady", pp 185-188.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Pátrání po původu řeči, Filosofická reflexe díla Miry Schendel pp 189-193.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Jiří Hanke: Hledisko", pp 195-198.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Andy Warhol v Linci", pp 199-202.
    • Vilém Flusser, "Mondrian aneb zrození strukturalismu", pp 203-206.
    • Jiří Fiala, "Moc slov, moc obrazů a měnící se časy", pp 218-224.
    • Andreas Ströhl, Christoph Bartmann, "Návrat do Prahy, K úmrtí Viléma Flussera", pp 225-229.
    • Keiko Sei, "Flusser, média a východní Evropa", pp 231-235.
    • "Životopisný přehled", pp 237-239.
    • "Edition Flusser", p 240.
    • "Bollmann Verlag", pp 241-243.
    • "Česky vyšlo", pp 244-245.
    • "Klíčové pojmy", pp 246-250.
    • "Poznámka překladatele", p 251.
  • Medienkultur, ed. Stefan Bollmann, Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch, 1997, 238 pp; 2nd ed., 2008. [28] (German)
    • La cultura dei media, postf. Andrea Borsari, Milan: Mondadori, 2004, 296 pp. (Italian)
    • La civilisation des médias, trans. Claude Maillard, Belval: Circe, 2006, 226 pp. (French)
  • Standpunkte. Texte zur Fotografie, ed. Andreas Müller-Pohle, Göttingen: European Photography, 1998, 255 pp. [29] (German)
  • Ficções filosóficas, eds. Milton Vargas and Maria Lília Leão, São Paulo: EDUSP, 1998. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Von der Freiheit des Migranten. Einsprüche Gegen den Nationalismus, Berlin and Vienna, 2000. (German)
  • Briefe an Alex Bloch, eds. Edith Flusser and Klaus Sander, Göttingen: European Photography, 2000. [30] (German)
  • Writings, trans. Erik Eisel, ed. Andreas Ströhl, University of Minnesota Press, 2002, 229 pp. (English)
  • absolute Vilém Flusser, eds. Nils Röller and Silvia Wagnermaier, Freiburg: Orange-Press, 2003. (German)
  • La cultura dei media, ed. Andrea Borsari, Milan: Bruno Mondadori, 2004. (Italian)
  • Kommunikologie weiter denken. Die "Bochumer Vorlesungen", eds. Silvia Wagnermaier and Siegfried Zielinski, intro. Friedrich A. Kittler, afterw. Silvia Wagnermaier, Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 2009, 320 pp. TOC. Review: Bidlo (RKM). [31] (German)
  • Artforum: Essays, Metaflux, 2017, 336 pp. Twenty-eight essays, both published and unpublished, which Flusser wrote for the Artforum magazine. (English)
  • Kultura pisma: z filozofii słowa i obrazu, trans. & afterw. Przemysław Wiatr, Warsaw: Aletheia, 2018, 404 pp. (Polish)

Book chapters, papers, articles, talks (selection)[edit]

  • "Filosofia da linguagem", Ita-Humanidades 2 (1966), pp 133-210. Ten lectures held at Brazilian Institute of Philosophy (IBF) in São Paulo in 1965. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • "Da ficção", Jornal O Diário de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, 26 Aug 1966. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • "On Fiction", trans. Derek Hales and Erick Felinto, &&&, 12 May 2016. (English)
  • "Line and Surface", Main Currents of Modern Thought 29:3, New York, Feb 1973, pp 100-106; repr. in Flusser, Writings, 2002, pp 21-34. Written in English. (English)
    • trans. Claude Maillard, in La Civilisation des médias, Circé, 2006. (French)
  • "Auf der Suche nach Bedeutung", trans. Edith Flusser with Vera Schwamborn, Tendenzen der aktuellen Philosophie in Brasilien in Selbstbildnissen 27 (1975), São Paulo: Loyola. Autobiographical essay, written in English and Portuguese in Oct-Nov 1969 in São Paulo. See also Bodenlos, 1999. (German)
    • "Em busca do significado", in Stanislaus Ladusãns, Rumos da filosofia atual no Brasil em auto-retratos, São Paulo: Loyola, 1976, pp 493-506. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • "In Search of Meaning (Philosophical Self-portrait)", in Flusser, Writings, 2002, pp 197-208. (English)
  • "Cultura dos 'Imateriais'?", Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira de História da Ciência 3, Nov 1985. (Brazilian Portuguese)
    • Immaterialism, Metaflux Publishing, 2015, 38 pp. This edition presents Flusser's English version of the text, designed as a visual poem by the artist Chagrin. (English)
  • "Adentrando a Cultura Imaterial", 1986. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • "Gedächtnisse", in Philosophien der neuen Technologie, ed. Ars Electronica, Berlin: Merve, 1989. Lecture presented at the symposium Philosophien der neuen Technologie on 14 Sep 1988 in the Brucknerhaus in Linz. (German)
  • "Man as Subject or Project", in Constructivism: Man versus Environment, Dordrecht: Stichting PRO, 1989; repr., Philosophy of Photography 2:2, 2012, pp 239-243. Paper delivered to the PRO Conference in Rotterdam (29 September 1989 to 2 October 1989). (English)
  • "Fotografie a dějiny", 1991. Talk presented at Pražský dům fotografie, Prague, 8 Jun 1991. Excerpt. (Czech)
  • "Die Stadt als Wellental in der Bilderflut", in Nachgeschichten, 1990. Written in 1988. Repr. in Arch+ 111 (March 1992), pp 58-63 [35]; Die Revolutionen der Bilder, 1995; Medienkultur, 1997, pp 178-179. (German)
  • "Projektion statt Linearität", in Strategien des Scheins. Kunst Computer Medien, eds. Florian Rötzer and Peter Weibel, Munich, 1991, pp 93-95. (German)
  • "Räume", in außen räume innen räume. Der Wandel des Raumbegriffs im Zeitalter der elektronischen Medien, ed. Heidemarie Seblatnig, Vienna: Universitäts Verlag, 1991, pp 75-83; repr. in Raumtheorie. Grundlagentexte aus Philosophie und Kulturwissenschaften, eds. Jörg Dünne and Stephan Günzel, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2006, pp 274-285. (German)
  • "Der Blick des Designers", Design Report 18/19, Dec 1991. (German)
  • "Změna paradigmatu", Prostor 5:19, 1992; repr. as "Změna paradigmat", Výtvarné umění 1, 1992, pp 70-75. Flusser's last lecture, given at Goethe Institute in Prague, 25 Nov 1991. Commentary: Krtilová (Flusser Studies, 2007, CZ/DE). (Czech)
    • "Paradigmenwechsel", in Nach der Postmoderne: ein Zeitmitschrift-Buch mit philosophischen Textenzur Gegenwart, ed. Andreas Steffens, Düsseldorf/Bensheim: Bollmann, 1992; repr. in The Thing Between: Internationales Kunstprojekt, eds. Roland Boden and Ulrike Gärtner, 1996. (German)
    • "Change of Paradigms", trans. Elizabeth Wilson and Andreas Ströhl, Yale Journal of Criticism 6:2, Fall 1993; repr. in Flusser, Writings, 2002, pp 85-90. (English)
  • "Von Formen und Formein", Design Report 20/21, Jun 1992. (German)
  • "Vom Projezieren", in Flusser, Vom Subjekt zum Projekt. Menschwerdung. Schriften, Bd. 3, 1994, pp 9-27. (German)
    • "O proetsirovanii" [О проецировании], trans. Mikhail Stepanov, Khora [Хора] 3-4, 2009, pp 65-76. (Russian)

Audio and video documentation[edit]

  • Schlagworte—Schlagbilder. Ein Gespräch mit Vilém Flusser, Cologne: WDR, 1986, 13 min. Video documentation by Harun Farocki.
  • [Fotografie a dějiny], Prague House of Photography, Prague, Jun 1991. Lecture. 7 min excerpt. (Czech)
  • Die Informationsgesellschaft: Phantom oder Realität?, eds. Thomas Knöfel and Klaus Sander, Cologne: supposé, 1991, 45 min. An audio CD documentation of Flusser’s lecture at the conference CULTEC–Culture and Technology in the Twenty-first Century in Essen on 23 November.
  • Vilém Flussers Fluß, Cologne: 235 Media, 1994, 45 min. A video documentation shot in August 1991 by Michael Bielicky.
  • Heimat und Heimatlosigkeit, Cologne: supposé, 1999. Audio CD.
  • We Shall Survive in the Memories of Others, eds. C3 Budapest and Vilém-Flusser-Archiv Berlin, 2010, 87 min. DVD in 7 languages, video recordings of lectures and interviews from 1988-1991, with a booklet in English. Watch online (all four videos). TOC.


  • in Flusser, Kommunikologie weiter denken, 2009, pp 285ff. (German)
  • in Guldin, Philosophieren zwischen den Sprachen: Vilém Flussers Werk, 2005, pp 378-386. [36] (German)
  • in Flusser, Writings, 2002, pp 209-218. (English)

Archives, Centres[edit]




  • Volker Rapsch (ed.), überflusser: Die Fest-schrift zum 70. von Vilém Flusser, Düsseldorf: Bollmann, 1990. (German)
  • Elizabeth Neswald, Medien-Theologie: Das Werk Vilém Flussers, Cologne, Weimar, and Vienna: Böhlau, 1998. (German)
  • International Flusser Lectures, eds. Vilém Flusser Archiv at the Academy of Media Arts Cologne and UdK Berlin, Cologne: Walther König, 1999-. (German)
    • Dietmar Kamper, First International Flusser Lecture. Körper-Abstraktionen. Das anthropologische Viereck von Raum, Fläche, Linie und Punkt, 2000.
    • Timothy Druckrey, Second International Flusser Lecture. Medien, Gedächtnis, Moderne, 2001.
  • Gustavo Bernardo Krause, Ricardo Mendes (eds.), Vilém Flusser no Brasil, Rio de Janeiro: Relume Dumará, 2000. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Gottfried Jäger (ed.), Fotografie denken. Über Vilém Flussers Philosophie der Medienmoderne, Bielefeld: Kerber, 2001. (German)
  • Ricardo Mendes, Vilém Flusser: uma história do diabo, São Paulo: Edusp, 2001. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Rainer Guldin, Philosophieren zwischen den Sprachen: Vilém Flussers Werk, Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 2005, 386 pp. (German) [37]
  • Thomas Karlsohn, Passage mellan medier: Vilém Flusser, datorn och skriften, Göteborg: Folkuniversitetets Akademiska Press, 2006, 426 pp. (Swedish) [38] Review, Review.
  • Gustavo Bernardo, Anke Finger, Rainer Guldin, Vilém Flusser: uma introdução, São Paulo, Brazil: Annablume, 2008, 151 pp. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Oliver Fahle, Michael Hanke, Andreas Zimmermann (eds.), Technobilder und Kommunikologie. Die Medientheorie Vilém Flussers, Berlin, 2009. (German)
  • Eva Batlickova, A época brasileira de Vilém Flusser, São Paulo: Annablume, 2010. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Marcel René Marburger, Flusser und die Kunst, Cologne, 2011. (German)
  • Melentie Pandilovski, Tom Kohut (eds.), Marshall McLuhan + Vilém Flusser's Communication + Aesthetic Theories Revisited, Winnipeg: Video Pool Media Arts Centre, 2015. Proceedings of the 2012 conference. [40] (English)
  • Siegfried Zielinski, Peter Weibel, Daniel Irrgang (eds.), Flusseriana: An Intellectual Toolbox, Minneapolis, MN: Univocal, 2015, 496 pp. [41] (English)
  • Vito Campanelli, L'utopia di una società dialogica. Vilem Flusser e la teoria delle immagini tecniche, Luca Sossella, 2015, 138 pp. (Italian)
  • Gustavo Bernardo, Rainer Guldin, O homen sem chão: a biografia de Vilém Flusser, São Paulo: Annablume, 2017, 368 pp. Introduction. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Caderno Sesc_Videobrasil 12: metafluxus: 2016/2017, ed. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes, São Paulo: Sesc São, and Videobrasil, 2017, 166 pp. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Daniel Irrgang, Vom Umkehren der Bedeutungsvektoren. Prototypen des technischen Bildes bei Vilém Flusser, Cologne: Walther König, 2017. [43] (German)
  • Geórgia Brito, A Xilogravura e as Imagens Técnicas: debatendo Vilém Flusser, Novas Edições Acadêmicas, 2017, 128 pp. [44] (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Cláudio de Abreu Machado Campos, Imagem, escrita e sociedade: Reflexões sobre a filosofia dos novos media de Vilém Flusser, Novas Edições Acadêmicas, 2017, 220 pp. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Jana Kuklová, Vnitřní konstituce média, Prague: Univerzita Karlova, 2017, 172 pp. (Czech)
  • Michael Hanke, Kommunikation - Medien - Kultur. Vilém Flusser und die Signatur der telematischen Gesellschaft, Berlin: Kadmos, 2017, 270 pp. (German)
  • Przemysław Wiatr, W cieniu posthistorii. Wprowadzenie do filozofii Viléma Flussera, Toruń: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, 2018, 422 pp. English summary. [45] (Polish)
  • Rodrigo Duarte, Thomas Friedrich (eds.), Kulturendialog mit Vilém Flusser, Münster: LIT-Verlag, 2020, 168 pp. (German)
  • Nach Flusser, für eine KünstlerTheorie des Zwischenraums, Dransfeld: Haus der Kunstforschung, 2021, 124 pp. (German)
  • Aaron Jaffe, Michael F. Miller, Rodrigo Martini (eds.), Understanding Flusser, Understanding Modernism, Bloomsbury Academic, 2021, 368 pp. [46] (English)



Selected essays[edit]

Conferences with/on Flusser[edit]

See also[edit]