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Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Jun-Jul 1907. Oil on canvas. 243.9 x 233.7 cm. MoMA. See Steinberg 1988.

A resource on Cubism containing a selection of works, overview of major exhibitions and catalogues, artists' writings, and historical studies and analyses.

First published 25 March 2016.

Works (selection)

Artists, writers

Artists' pages contain links to works in museum collections online.


Exhibition catalogues

Some of the catalogues are available online, follow PDF links in captions.


  • Between Feb 1907 and 1914, Kahnweiler Gallery presented rotating selections of work by Georges Braque, André Derain, Pablo Picasso, Maurice de Vlaminck, and other artists. Notable exhibitions include those of Kees van Dongen (Mar 1908), Georges Braque (Nov 1908, with works he made in L’Estaque; catalogue with text by Apollinaire), Picasso (1909), and Derain (1909).
  • 'Salle 41' at Salon des Indépendants, Paris, 1911. First organised Cubist exhibition, with works by the Cubists of Montparnasse and Puteaux: Metzinger, Delaunay, Le Fauconnier, Gleizes, Léger.
  • at Salon d'Automne, 1911.
  • a Section d’or exhibition at the Galerie La Boétie, 1912. Works by the Duchamp brothers, Braque, Picasso, Gris, Léger, Picabia, Kupka, Delaunay, Gleizes, Metzinger, Marcoussis, de la Fresnaye and Lhôte, among others.
  • Exposició d'art cubista, J. Dalmau Gallery, Barcelona, 20 Apr-10 May 1912. Works by Agero, Duchamp, Gleizes, Gris, Laurencin, Le Fauconnier, Leger, Metzinger. Catalogue text by Jacques Nayral [pseud. of Jacques Huot] was reprinted in La Veu de Catalunya, Barcelona, 18 Apr 1912; its English trans. appeared in A Cubism Reader, 2008. Response. [1] [2]
  • Picasso, Braque and Marcel Duchamp at the 1913 Armory Show, a major New York exhibition that introduces their work to an American public.


Jacket for the catalogue Cubism and Abstract Art, 1936, with a chart of modernist art history by Alfred H. Barr, Jr.
  • Albert H. Barr, Cubism and Abstract Art, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1936. Exh. held 2 Mar-19 Apr 1936. (English)
  • Le Cubisme, 1907–1914, pref. Jean Cassou, Paris: Musée National d'Art Moderne, 1953. Exh. held 30 Jan-9 Apr 1953.
  • Les Cubistes, eds. Gilberte Martin-Méry and Jacques Lassaigne, pref. Jean Cassou, Bordeaux: Galerie des beaux-arts, and Paris: Musée National d'Art Moderne, 1973, xviii+106 pp. Exh. held in Bordeaux 4 May-1 Sep 1973. [3]
  • The Planar Dimension, ed. Margit Rowell, New York: Guggenheim Museum, 1979. (English)
  • Zeichnungen und Collagen des Kubismus: Picasso, Braque, Gris, Bielefeld: Städt. Ksthalle, 1979. (German)
  • Kubismus: Künstler–Themen–Werke, 1907–1920, Cologne: Josef-Haubrich-Ksthalle, 1982. (German)
  • The Essential Cubism, 1907–1920: Braque, Picasso and their Friends, eds. D. Cooper and G. Tinterow, London: Tate, 1983. (English)
  • Cubist Prints, Cubist Books, ed. Donna Stein, New York: Franklin Furnace, 1983, 128 pp. With contributions by Ron Padgett and George Peck. (English)
  • Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism, intro. W. Rubin, ed. J. Leggio, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1989, 460 pp. With doc. chronology by J. Cousins. (English)
    • Picasso et Braque: l'invention du cubisme, Paris: Flammarion, 1990, 422 pp. (French)
  • Český kubismus, 1909-1925: malířství, sochařství, umělecké řemeslo, architektura, eds. Jiří Švestka and Tomáš Vlček, Düsseldorf: Kunstverein für die Rheinlande und Westfalen, and Stuttgart: G. Hatje, 1991, 454 pp. Exh. curated by Milena Lamarová and Vladimir Šlapeta; held at the Museum of Decorative Arts, Prague, 15 May-30 Jun 1991; Vitra Design Museum, Weil am Rhein, 12 Jul-22 Sep 1991; Kunstverein für die Rheinlande und Westfalen, Düsseldorf, 26 Sep-1 Dec 1991; Museo Español de Arte Contemporáneo, Madrid, 17 Dec 1991-15 Feb 1992; Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 18 Mar-17 May 1992; Centre Canadien d'Architecture, Montreal, 10 Jun-2 Aug 1992 [4]; Moravian Gallery in Brno, 10 Sep-1 Nov 1992; Smithsonian Design Museum, 6 Apr-25 Jul 1993 [5]. (Czech)
    • Cubismo checo: arquitectura y diseño 1910-1925, Weil am Rhein: Vitra Design Museum, 1991, 339 pp. (Spanish)
    • Cubisme tchèque, Paris: Flammarion, 1992, 279 pp. [6] (French)
    • Czech Cubism: Architecture, Furniture, and Decorative Arts, 1910-1925, ed. Alexander von Vegesack, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1992, 337 pp. TOC. (English)
    • Czech Cubism, 1909-1925: Art, Architecture, Design, eds. Jiří Švestka and Tomáš Vlček, Prague: I3 CZ Modernista, 2006, 455 pp. TOC. (English)
  • Cubisme / Kubyzm / Kubismus: ein künstlerischer Aufbruch in Europa, 1906-1926 / Khudozhestvennyy proryv Evropy, 1906-1926, Hannover: Sprengel Museum, and Moscow: Tretyakov Gallery, 2003. Exh. held 18 May-3 Aug 2003 (Hannover) and 4 Sep-23 Nov 2003 (Moscow). [7] (German)/(Russian)
  • Český architektonický kubismus / Czech Architectural Cubism, eds. Zdeněk Lukeš and Ester Havlová, Prague: Galerie Jaroslava Fragnera, 2006, 174 pp. Exh. held at the Jaroslav Fragner Gallery, 21 Dec 2006-11 Feb 2007. (Czech)/(English)
  • Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection, eds. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2014, x+381 pp. Exh. held 20 Oct 2014-16 Feb 2015. [8] [9] (English)

Artists' writings and statements

Arranged by the date of first publication of each artist. In French unless noted.


  • "La feerie", Ile Sonnante (Apr 1910), p 152.
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • "Note sur la peinture", Pan (Oct-Nov 1910), pp 49-52.
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • "Cubisme et tradition", Paris-Journal, 18 Aug 1911, p 5.
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • "Alexandre Mercereau", Vers et Prose (Oct-Dec 1911), pp 122-129.
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • with Gleizes, Du cubisme, 1912. See below.
  • "Kubistická technika", Volné směry 12, [Prague], 1913, pp 279-292. (Czech)
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)

Le Fauconnier

  • "Das Kunstwerk", in Neue Kunstlervereinigung, München, II Ausstellung, Munich: Moderne Galerie Thannhauser, Sep 1910. Translated from the French "L'oeuvre d'art". (German)
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • "La sensibilite moderne et le tableau", in Moderne Kunstkring (Musee Municipal, Amsterdam, 6 October–7 November 1912), Amsterdam: [Stedelijk], 1912, pp 17-27.
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)


  • "Art et ses représentants", La Revue Indépendante (Sep 1911), pp 161-172.
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • "A propos du Salon d’Automne", Les Bandeaux d’Or, [Arras], Nov 1911, pp 42-51.
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • with Metzinger, Du cubisme, Paris: Eugène Figuière, [late] 1912, 44+38 pp; new ed., forew. Gleizes, Paris: Compagnie Française des Arts Graphiques, 1947. [10]
    • Cubism, London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1913. Excerpt. [11] (English)
    • "O kubisme", trans. Mikhail Matiushin, Soyuz molodezhi 3, St Petersburg, Mar 1913. (Russian)
    • Du ″Cubisme″ / On ″Cubism″ / Ueber den ″Kubismus″, trans. & intro. Fritz Metzinger, Frankfurt am Main: R.G. Fischer, 1993, 175 pp. (German)
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • "La tradition et le cubisme", Montjoie! (1 and 2 Feb 1913).
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • Du cubisme et des moyens de la comprendre, Paris: La Cible, Povolozky, 1920.
    • Vom Kubismus: die Mittel zu Seinem Verständnis, trans. F.A. Angermayer and Hans Jacob, Berlin: Der Sturm, 1922, 56+[7] pp. (German)
  • La Mission créatrice de l'homme dans le domaine plastique, Paris: Povolozky, 1921.
    • "Poslannictwo tworcze czlowieka w dziedzinie plastyki", Praesens 2, Warsaw, 1927. (Polish)
  • La Peinture et ses lois, ce qui devait sortir du cubisme, Paris, 1924; 2nd ed., La Pensee universitaire, Aix, 1961. First published in La vie des lettres et des Arts, Paris, Mar 1923.
    • English trans., 2000.
  • Tradition et cubisme. Vers une conscience plastique. Articles et Conférences 1912-1924, Paris: La Cible, Povolozky, 1927. Collection of 15 articles from various publications.
  • Peinture et perspective descriptive, Sablons: Moly-Sabata, 1927; repr. in Gleizes, Puissances du cubisme, 1969. Lecture delivered to the Carnegie Foundation for the French Union Intellectuelle, at Paris, 22 Mar 1927.
  • Kubismus, Munich: Albert Langen (Bauhausbücher 13), 1928, 101 pp; repr. in Gleizes, Puissances du cubisme, 1969; repr., Mainz and Berlin: Florian Kupferberg, 1980. Written 1925-28. (German)
  • Souvenirs: le Cubisme, 1908-1914. Manuscrit inédit, Lyon: Association des Amis d'Albert Gleizes, 1957, 36 pp. repr., Ampuis: Association des Amis d'Albert Gleizes, 1997, 28 pp.
  • Puissances du cubisme, Chambéry: Présence, 1969. Manuscript dated Feb 1944.
  • Gleizes sur Picasso et Braque, Ampuis: Association des Amis d'Albert Gleizes, 1993.


  • "Les Origines de la peinture et sa valeur représentative", Montjoie! 1:8, 29 May 1913, p. 7; 1:9-10, 14–29 Jun 1913, pp 9–10; repr. in Fonctions de la peinture, Paris, 1965, pp 11-19.
    • "The Origins of Painting and Its Representational Value", in Léger, Functions of Painting, 1973, pp 3-10. (English)
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008, pp 535-543. (English)
  • "Les Réalisations picturales actuelles", Les Soirées des Paris 25 (15 Jun 1914), pp 349–56; repr. in Fonctions de la peinture, Paris, 1965, pp 20-29.
    • "Contemporary Achievements in Painting, in Léger, Functions of Painting, New York and London, 1973, pp 11-19.
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • Fonctions de la peinture, Paris: Gonthier, 1965.
    • Functions of Painting, New York and London, 1973, OL. (English)


  • Gabrielle Buffet, "Modern Art and the Public", Camera Work, [New York], Jun 1913, pp 10–14.
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)

de la Fresnaye

  • "De l’imitation dans la peinture et la sculpture", La Grande Revue (10 Jul 1913), pp 316-325.
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)


  • "L'Architecture et le fer", Poème et Drame (Jan-Mar 1914), pp 22–29.
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)



  • "Des possibilités de la peinture", Transatlantic Rev. 1:6 (1924), pp 482–8; 2:1, pp 75–9; repr. in D.-H. Kahnweiler, Juan Gris: Sa Vie, son oeuvre, ses écrits, Paris, 1946.
    • English trans. and rev. D. Cooper as "Juan Gris: His Life and Work", London, 1968-69, pp 195–200. (English)


  • Du cubisme à l’art abstrait, ed. Pierre Francastel, Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N., 1957, 414 pp.


  • with H. Harvard Arnason, My Life in Sculpture, London, 1972, 249 pp. (English)


Early criticism and historisation

Guillaume Apollinaire, Les Peintres cubistes, 1913, HTML.
Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, Der Weg zum Kubismus], 1920, IA.


  • Guillaume Apollinaire, (untitled text), in Exposition Georges Braque, 9–28 November 1908, Galerie Kahnweiler, 28, rue Vignon, Paris, Paris: Galerie Kahnweiler, 1908. Catalogue text. (French)
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • Louis Vauxcelles, "Exposition Braque. Chez Kahnweiler, 28 rue Vignon", Gil Blas, 14 Nov 1908. (French)
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)


  • André Salmon, "Histoire anecdotique du cubisme", in Salmon, La Jeune Peinture française, Paris: Albert Messein, 1912, pp 41-61. [13] (French)
    • "An Anecdotal History of Cubism", in André Salmon on French Modern Art, ed. & trans. Beth S. Gersh-Nešić, Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp 50-60. [14] (English)
    • trans., in A Cubism Reader, 2008. (English)
  • Guillaume Apollinaire, Les Peintres cubistes: Méditations esthétiques, Paris: Figuière, [17 Mar] 1913, 84+46 pp; online ed., eds. Éric Thiébaud and Frédéric Glorieux, 2014. [15] Written between 1905-12. (French)
  • Pierre Reverdy, "Sur le cubisme", Nord-Sud 1, Paris, 15 Mar 1917, pp 5-7, [18]; repr. in Oeuvres complètes, ‘Nord-Sud’, ‘Self-defence’ et autres écrits sur l’art et la poésie, 1917–1926, ed. E.-A. Hubert, Paris, 1975. (French)
  • Maurice Raynal, Quelques intentions du cubisme, Paris: L'Effort moderne, 1919, [21] pp. Lecture delivered 11 May 1919 to Mr. and Mrs. Fitch. (French)


  • Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, Der Weg zum Kubismus, Munich: Delphin, 1920, 146 pp. Originally published as articles in the Zurich Weissen Blätter in 1916. (German)
  • Vincenc Kramář, Kubismus, Brno: Moravsko-slezská revue, 1921, 87 pp. (Czech)
    • Le Cubisme, eds. Hélène Klein and Erika Abrams, with Jana Claverie, trans. Erika Abrams, intro. Yve-Alain Bois and Vojtech Lahoda, Paris: Ecole nationale supérieure des beaux-arts, 2002, xxxiii+123 pp. (French)
  • Jan Gordon, "Cubism", ch 14 in Gordon, Modern French Painters, London: J. Lane, [1923], pp 132-149. (English)


Historical studies and analyses

See also catalogues of retrospective exhibitions, introductions and commentaries to translations of primary texts, and introductions in anthologies and readers.


  • Albert H. Barr, Cubism and Abstract Art, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1936. (English)
  • Gertrude Stein, Picasso, Paris: Floury, 1938, 168 pp. Biography.
    • Picasso, London: BT Batsford, 1938, vii+55 pp; repr., London: Batsford, 1946; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1946; repr., Boston: Beacon, 1959, vii+50 pp, OL; repr., New York: Dover, 1984, vii+55+[67] pp, OL. (English)
    • more translations


  • Pierre Descargues, Le Cubisme, Paris: Somogy, 1956, 64 pp. (French)
  • Clement Greenberg, "The Pasted-Paper Revolution", ARTnews 57 (Sep 1958), pp 46–9, 60–61; rev. as "Collage" in Greenberg, Art and Culture, Boston, 1961, pp 70-83, HTML. (English)
  • John Golding, Cubism: A History and an Analysis, 1907–1914, London, 1959; rev.ed., 1968; 3rd ed., Harvard University Press, 1988. (English)
    • Le cubisme: (cubism), trans. Françoise Cachin, Paris: René Julliard, 1962, 191 pp. (French)
    • Storia del cubismo, (1907-1914), trans. Marco Chiarini, Torino: G. Einaudi, 1963, xv+240 pp. (Italian)
    • El cubismo: una historia y un análisis, 1907-1914, trans. Adolfo Gómez Cedillo, Madrid: Alianza, 1993, 199+108 pp. (Spanish)
  • Guy Habasque, Le cubisme: etude biographique et critique, Geneve: Skira, 1959. (French)
    • Kubismus: biographisch-kritische Studie, trans. Karl Georg Hemmerich, Genève: Albert Skira, 1959, 170 pp. (German)
    • Cubism: Biographical and Critical Study, trans. Stuart Gilbert, New York: Skira, 1959, 169 pp. (English)
    • Il cubismo: studio biografico-critico, trans. Margherita Abbruzzese, Genève: Skira, and Milan: Fabbri, 1968, 169 pp. (Italian)


  • Robert Rosenblum, Cubism and Twentieth-Century Art, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1960; new ed., 1966; rev.ed., 1977. (English)
  • P. R. Banham, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age, London, 1960, pp 202–13. (English)
  • Pierre Cabanne, L'épopée des cubistes, Paris: Gallimard, 1963, 432 pp; new ed., exp., Paris: Les Ed. de l'Amateur, 2000, 439 pp. (French)
  • Hellmuth Sting, Der Kubismus und seine Einwirkung auf die Wegbereiter der modernen Architektur, Aachen: Technische Hochschule Aachen, 1965, 170 pp. Dissertation. (German)
  • Edward F. Fry, Cubism, London: Thames and Hudson, 1966; New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966; repr., 1978. (English)
    • Le cubisme, trans. Eléonore Bille-De Mot, Brussels: La Connaissance, 1966, 199+[48] pp. (French)
    • Der Kubismus, ed. Werner Haftmann, trans. Irmtraud Schaarschmidt-Richter, Cologne: DuMont Schauberg, 1966, 314 pp. (German)
    • Cubismo, trans. Sergio Lentati, Milan: Gabriele Mazzotta, 1967, 272 pp; 2nd ed., 1975, 271 pp. (Italian)
  • John Berger, "The Moment of Cubism", New Left Review I/42, Mar-Apr 1967; repr. in Berger, The Moment of Cubism, and Other Essays, Pantheon, 1969. [20] (English)


  • Douglas Cooper, The Cubist Epoch, London: Phaidon, with Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. (English)
  • Linda Dalrymple Henderson, "A New Facet of Cubism: “The Fourth Dimension” and “Non-Euclidean Geometry” Re-interpreted", A. Q. 34:4, Detroit, 1971. (English)
  • Le cubisme: Actes du premier Colloque d'histoire de l'art contemporain tenu au Musée d'art et d'industrie, Saint-Étienne, les 19, 20, 21 novembre 1971, Université de Saint-Etienne, 1973, 237 pp. Conference proceedings. [21]
  • Leo Steinberg, "The Philosophical Brothel", Art News 71 (Sep 1972), pp 20-29; 2nd ed. in October 44 (Spring 1988).
  • Robert Rosenblum, "Picasso and the Typography of Cubism", in Picasso in Retrospect, eds. J. Golding and R. Penrose, New York, 1973, pp 49–76, n266-8. Excerpt (pp 49-71). (English)
  • Le Cubisme, Université de Saint-Etienne, Centre Interdisciplinaire d’Etudes et de Recherche sur l’Expression Contemporaine, Travaux iv, Paris, 1973. (French)
  • William Rubin, "Cézannisme and the Beginnings of Cubism", in Cézanne: The Late Work, ed. Rubin, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1977. (English)
  • Leo Steinberg, "Resisting Cézanne: Picasso's Three Women", Art in America 66:6 (Nov-Dec 1978), pp 114–33. (English)
  • V. Spate, Orphism: The Evolution of Non-figurative Painting in Paris, 1910–1914, Oxford, 1979. (English)
  • Leo Steinberg, "The Polemical Part", Art in America 67:2 (1979), pp 114–27 (English)


  • L. W. Gamwell, Cubist Criticism, 1907–1925, Ann Arbor, 1980. (English)
  • J. M. Nash, "The Nature of Cubism: A Study of Conflicting Explanations", A. Hist. 3:4 (1980), pp 435–47. (English)
  • Rosalind Krauss, "In the Name of Picasso", October 16: "Art World Follies" (Spring 1981), pp 5-22. Lecture presented on 12 Oct 1980 at a symposium on the cubist legacy in 20th-century sculpture. On collage. (English)
  • William Rubin, "From 'Narrative' to 'Iconic' in Picasso: The Buried Allegory in Bread and Fruitdish on a Table and the Role of Les Demoiselles d’Avignon’", The Art Bulletin 65:4 (Dec 1983), pp 615-649. (English)
  • Christopher Green, Cubism and its Enemies: Modern Movements and Reaction in French Art, 1916–1928, London and New Haven, 1987. (English)
  • M. Roskill, The Interpretation of Cubism, Philadelphia, Toronto and London, 1987. (English)
  • Yve-Alain Bois, "Kahnweiler's Lesson", trans. Katharine Streip, Representations 18 (Spring 1987), pp 33-68; repr. in Bois, Painting as Model, MIT Press, 1990. (English)
  • P. Assouline, L’Homme de l’art: D.-H. Kahnweiler, 1884–1979, Paris, 1988. (French)


  • Christine Poggi, In Defiance of Painting: Cubism, Futurism and the Invention of Collage, Yale University Press, 1992. (English)
  • Yve-Alain Bois, "The Semiology of Cubism", in Picasso and Braque: A Symposium, ed. Lynn Zelevansky, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1992. (English)
  • Rosalind Krauss, "The Motivation of the Sign", in Picasso and Braque: A Symposium, ed. Lynn Zelevansky, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1992. (English)
  • A. von Vegesack, Czech Cubism: Architecture, Furniture, Decorative Arts, 1910-1925, 1992. (English)
  • William Rubin, "The Genesis of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon", Studies in Modern Art 3: "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon", New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1994. (English)
  • David Cottington, Cubism and Its Histories, Manchester University Press, 1994. [22] (English)
  • Vojtěch Lahoda, Český kubismus, Prague: Brána, 1996, 203 pp. List of illustrations and biographical data on artists also in English. (Czech)
  • David Cottington, Cubism in the Shadow of War: the Avant-Garde and Politics in Paris, 1905-1914, Yale University Press, 1998, OL. (English)


  • Mark Antliff, Patricia Dee Leighten, Cubism and Culture, London: Thames & Hudson, 2001, 224 pp. (English)
    • Cubisme et culture, trans. Christian-Martin Diebold, Paris: Thames & Hudson, 2002, 224 pp. (French)
  • Pavel Štěpánek, Picasso en Praga, Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 2005. (Spanish)



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