Federated networks

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Small resource on Fediverse, federated networks, mesh networks, distributed web, alternative internet, alternative social media, decentralisation

Mastodon instances


Software projects

  • Beaker, experimental peer-to-peer Web browser (Hypercore), *2016.
  • Bookwyrm, federated platform for reading and reviewing (Activitypub), *2021. Instances.
  • Conversations, open source XMPP/Jabber client for Android, *2014.
  • Delta Chat, chat app that sends messages via e-mails, encrypted if possible, with Autocrypt
  • Diaspora, self-hosted social networking service (diaspora), *2010.
  • Distributed Press, open source publishing tool for the World Wide Web and DWeb; automates publishing and hosting content to the WWW that it seeds to Hypercore and IPFS, *2021.
  • dokieli, clientside editor for decentralised article publishing, annotations and social interactions (Solid, Linked Data, ActivityPub), *2015.
  • Epicyon, federated social network suitable for low power systems.
  • Friendica, decentralized social network, formerly Mistpark (diaspora, OStatus, pump.io, ActivityPub), *2010.
  • Funkwhale, decentralised audio platform (ActivityPub), *2019.
  • Hubzilla, communication platform, formerly RedMatrix (Zot, ActivityPub, diaspora, OStatus), *2015. Review.
  • Hypercore/Dat apps
  • IPFS, protocol and p2p network for storing and sharing data in a distributed file system, *2015.
  • Mastodon, self-hosted social networking service (ActivityPub), *2016.
  • Matrix apps
  • Misskey, decentralized microblogging service (ActivityPub), *2014.
  • PeerTube, federated video platform powered by ActivityPub and WebTorrent, *2018.
  • PixelFed, image sharing platform (ActivityPub), *2018.
  • Pleroma, social networking software (ActivityPub), *2019.
  • Scuttlebutt, decentralised secure gossip platform (gossip protocol), *2018.
  • Socialhome, federated personal profile with social networking functionality (ActivityPub, diaspora), *2016.
  • Solid apps
  • WriteFreely, open source platform for building a writing space on the web (ActivityPub).
  • YaCy, distributed search engine, *2016.

Protocols: ActivityPub (W3C recommendation, *2018), Solid (*2016), Hypercore (formerly Dat Protocol), Zot (evolved from DFRN, *2015), Matrix (*2014), Pump.io (evolved from OStatus, *2011), Diaspora (*2010), OStatus (formerly OpenMicroBlogging, *2008), XMPP (formerly Jabber, *1999).

More projects and context: Fediverse.party, Wikipedia.

Resources, art projects


  • Federated Social Web Europe, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung, Berlin, 3-5 Jun 2011. Open event on Social Web interoperability, standards and privacy. Supported and co-organised by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and by the EU FP7 PrimeLife project. The local organization was done under the label “d-cent” and by the independent institute PerGlobal.
  • IndieWebCamp, Elemental Technologies, Portland, OR, 22-23 Jun 2013.
  • GETDecentralized! (GET-D), The Red Victorian, 1665 Haight St, San Francisco, 31 Mar-2 Apr 2015. "An evening of conversation, celebration and community-building around new ideas in decentralization." Organised by Joachim Lohkamp. Attended by about fifty participants, incl. Brewster Kahle from the Internet Archive. Video. [7] [8]
  • Radical Networks conference, Integrated Digital Media at Magnet NYU, Brooklyn, NY, 24-25 Oct 2015. Organised by Sarah Grant, Erica Kermani, and Amelia Marzec, in partnership with Eyebeam.
  • Decentralized Web Summit, Internet Archive, San Francisco, 7-9 Jun 2016. Attended by about 350 participants, incl. 80 participants in the Builders Day. Juan Benet demonstrates a fully decentralized web site; Karissa McKelvey presents a browser-based implementation of the DAT protocol.
  • Radical Networks conference, Chem Creative, Brooklyn, NY, 4-6 Nov 2016. Organised by Sarah Grant, Erica Kermani, and Amelia Marzec, in partnership with Eyebeam. Second edition. Exhibition photographs.
  • Radical Networks conference, Chem Creative, Brooklyn, NY, 19-22 Oct 2017. Organised by Sarah Grant and Erica Kermani. Third edition.
  • Peer-to-Peer Web / NY, series of talks, School for Poetic Computation, New York, 26 May 2018. Presented by New Computer Working Group. [9] [10]
  • Radical Networks conference, Spektrum, Berlin, 19-21 Oct 2018. Organised by Sarah Grant and Erica Kermani. Fourth edition.
  • Reclaim the Web, Kop! (Smart/CoopCity), Brussels, 1 Dec 2018. Organised by iMAL.
  • Relearn 2019, Varia, Rotterdam, 7-9 Jun 2019; Hacktiris, Brussels, 21-22 Jun 2019; La Générale, Paris, 6-8 Sep 2019. More.
  • DWeb Camp, Pescadaro, CA, 18-21 Jul 2019. Follow-up to Decentralized Web Summits 2016 & 2018. Attended by 450 participants. Interview. Report. [11]
  • #SummerSchool 2020, 26 Jul-8 Aug 2020. Online, interdisciplinary conference for the Fediverse, informally hosted by the instance Scholar Social. First edition.
  • Dat Conference 2020, online, 30-31 Jul 2020. Virtual peer to peer event about local-first tech and meetup space for those interested in the decentralized web.
  • #SummerSchool 2021, 26 Jul-6 Aug 2021. Online, interdisciplinary conference for the Fediverse, informally hosted by the instance Scholar Social. Second edition.
  • THX, Ozaraine, Basque country, 10-20 Jul 2022.
  • #SummerSchool 2022, 25 Jul-6 Aug 2022. Online, interdisciplinary conference for the Fediverse, informally hosted by the instance Scholar Social. Third edition.
  • DWeb Camp, Camp Navarro, California, 24-28 Aug 2022. Fourth edition.


  • Relearn, "A Feminist Net/work How-to", in Portable Relearn Archive, Jul 2014. Material from the 2014 edition of Relearn, held at Variable, a collectively run F/LOSS Arts Lab in Brussels.
  • Brewster Kahle, "Locking the Web Open", Internet Archive, 1 Apr 2015, 28 min. Video; talk given at the GETDecentralized unconference, San Francisco.
  • Compost, eds. Mai Sutton et al., since Mar 2021. Magazine about the digital commons.

See also

Internet activism, Free software

communities of practice

Art and technology centres, Art servers, Circuit bending, Copyright activism, Cypherpunk, Data activism, Demoscene, Digital libraries, DIY biology, Federated networks, File sharing, FLOSS, Game art, Hacker culture, Hackerspaces, Hacktivism, Internet activism, Internet of things, Libre graphics, Live coding, Maker culture, Media archives, Net art, Neural aesthetics, Open hardware, Software art, VJing, VVVV.
See also Artists' cultures.