Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is a process of making a three-dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model. While 3D printing technology has been around since the 1980s, it was not until the early 2010s that the printers became widely available commercially. The first working 3D printer was created in 1984 by Chuck Hull of 3D Systems Corp.
- Thingiverse, a software repository for open source hardware designs. Launched in November 2008 by Zach Smith and Bre Pettis.
- RepRap (replicating rapid prototyper), an initiative to develop an open license 3D printer that can print most of its own components. Founded in March 2005 by Adrian Bowyer. First open-source 3D printer in 2007.
- MakerBot initiative, a New York-based company founded in January 2009 by Bre Pettis, Adam Mayer, and Zach Smith producing open source hardware, specifically 3D printers. MakerBot builds on the early progress of the RepRap Project with the goal of bringing desktop 3D printing into the home at an affordable price.
- Ultimaker, an open source 3D printer.
Articles and videos
- Joris Peels, "2010: the Year in 3D printing", December 2010.
- ThePirateBay.org, "Evolution: New category", January 2012.
- Stephen Murphey, "3D Printer Community Survey Results", August 2012.
- Dimitris Papadopoulos, "Generation M: Matter, Makers, Microbiomes::Compost for Gaia", eipcp.net, February 2014.
- Artisans numériques, ed. Ewen Chardronnet, Orléans: HYX, 2014, 185 pp.  (French)
- Kat Braybrooke, "Hacking Apple: putting the power of tech back into our hands", The Guardian, 1 Dec 2015.
- AD 86(5): "Digital Property: Open-source Architecture", eds. Wendy W. Fok and Antoine Picon, Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Sep-Oct 2016, 136 pp.  
movements and cultures
Internet of things,
| Artists' cultures
or, sets of techniques and practices bringing together communities of artists, makers and writers
Avant-garde and modernist magazines, Artists' publishing, Graphic design, Photography, Typewriter art, Multimedia environments, Design research, Video activism, Urban practices, Zine culture, Demoscene, VJing, Live cinema, Media labs, Cyberfeminism, Community television, Hacktivism, Art servers, Hackerspaces, CD-ROM art, Circuit bending, Pure Data, Media archives, VVVV, Maker culture, Glitch art, 3D printing, Live coding, Locative media, Libre graphics, Electromagnetism, Surf clubs, DIY biology, Post-digital, Neural aesthetics.