Experimental film

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Publications on individual filmmakers are included on their respective pages.

Maya Deren, An Anagram of Ideas on Art, Form and Film, 1946. Download.
Stan Brakhage, Metaphors on Vision, 1963. Download.
Sheldon Renan, An Introduction to the American Underground Film, 1967. View online.
Gene Youngblood, Expanded Cinema, 1970. Download.
Annette Michelson (ed.), Artforum: Special Issue on Film (September 1971). Download.
Amos Vogel, Film as a Subversive Art, 1974. Download.
Peter Gidal (ed.), Structural Film Anthology, 1976. Download.
Film as Film: Formal Experiment in Film, 1910-1975, 1979. Download.
Hollis Frampton, Circles of Confusion: Film/Photography/Video Texts 1968-1981, 1983. Download.
R. Bruce Elder, Harmony and Dissent: Film and Avant-garde Art Movements in the Early Twentieth Century, 2008. Download.
P. Adams Sitney, Eyes Upside Down: Visionary Filmmakers and the Heritage of Emerson, 2008. Download.

Journals and Magazines

Exhibition catalogues and brochures


  • Peter Gidal (ed.), Structural Film Anthology, London: British Film Institute, 1976.
  • P. Adams Sitney (ed.), The Avant-garde Film: A Reader of Theory and Criticism, New York: New York University Press, 1978. Contains the often-hard-to-find theoretical writings of experimental filmmakers, beginning in France in the 1920s and continuing internationally through the 1970s.
  • Jaroslav Andjel, Ljubica Stanivuk (eds.), Teorija česke avangarde 1908-1937, Belgrade: Institut za film , 1987, 86 pp. (Serbo-Croatian)
  • Miklós Peternák (ed.), F:I.L.M. A magyar avantgarde film története és dokumentumai, Budapest: Jelenkor, 1991. (Hungarian)
  • Wheeler Winston-Dixon, Gwendolyn Audrey Foster (eds.), Experimental Cinema: The Film Reader, London and New York: Routledge, 2002, 356 pp. Covers the field of experimental and avant-garde cinema from the 1920s onward, concentrating on movements and varied key figures, with a concentration on issues such as gender, sexuality, and race, as well as the impact of technological innovation. Review: Rees (Screen).
  • Jackie Hatfield (ed.), Experimental Film and Video: An Anthology, Eastleigh: John Libbey Pub., 2006.

Monographs, Edited books

  • Maya Deren, An Anagram of Ideas on Art, Form and Film, Yonkers/NY: Alicat Book Shop Press, 1946, 52 pp.
    • Écrits sur l'art et le cinéma, trans. Éric Alloi and Julie Beaulieu, Paris: Paris expérimental, 2004, 120 pp. Contains a translation of "The creative use of Cinematography as the reality" (1960) as well. [12] [13] (French)
  • Frank Stauffacher (ed.), Art in Cinema: A Symposium on the Avantgarde Film Together with Program Notes and References for Series one of Art in Cinema, San Francisco: Art in Cinema Society, 1947.
  • Roger Manvell (ed.), Experiment in the Film, London: Grey Walls Press, 1949, 285 pp.
  • Stan Brakhage, Metaphors on Vision, Film Culture, 1963. Edited with an Introduction by P. Adams Sitney.
  • Sheldon Renan, An Introduction to the American Underground Film, New York: Dutton, 1967.
  • Cinema Now: Stan Brakhage, John Cage, Jonas Mekas, Stan Vanderbeek, eds. Hector Currie and Michael Porte, University of Cincinnati Press, 1968, 28 pp. Transcript of a discussion among filmmakers and members of the Film as Art and Communication class at the University of Cincinnati, which took place in April 1967.
  • Gene Youngblood, Expanded Cinema, intro. R. Buckminster Fuller, New York: Dutton, 1970, 432 pp.
    • Cine expandido, Buenos Aires: Eduntref, 2012, 456 pp. [14] (Spanish)
    • Expanded cinema, trans. Pier Luigi Capucci and Simonetta Fadda, Bologna: CLUEB, 2013, xvi+388 pp. (Italian)
  • Parker Tyler, Underground Film: A Critical History, New York: Grove Press, 1970.
  • Birgit Hein, Film im Underground. Von seinen Anfangen bis zum Unabhangigen Kino, Frankfurt/Berlin/Vienna: Ullstein, 1971. (German)
  • David Curtis, Experimental Cinema: A Fifty Year Evolution, London, Studio Vista, 1971. [15]
  • Jonas Mekas, Movie Journal: The Rise of the New American Cinema, 1959-1971, New York: Macmillan, 1972, 434 pp. Excerpt. A collection of the columns written for the Village Voice beginning in 1958 under the title "Movie Journal". Review: Everleth (UFJ 2007).
    • Ciné-Journal: Un nouveau cinéma américain (1959-1971), trans. Dominique Noguez, Paris: Paris expérimental, 1992, 400 pp. [16] (French)
  • Gottfried Schlemmer (ed.), Avantgardistischer Film 1951-1971, Theorie, Munich: Hanser, 1973. (German)
  • Amos Vogel, Film as a Subversive Art, C. T. Editions, 1974. [17] [18]
  • Hans Scheugl, Ernst Schmidt jr., Eine Subgeschichte des Films. Lexikon des Avantgarde-, Experimental- und Undergroundfilms, Band 1 und 2, Frankurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1974. (German)
  • Jean Mitry, Le Cinema Experimental: Histoire et Perspectives, Paris: Seghers, 1974. (French)
    • Storia del cinema sperimentale, Clueb, 2006, 214 pp. (Italian)
  • Stephen Dwoskin, Film is ...: The International Free Cinema, London: Owen, 1975.
  • P. Adams Sitney (ed.), The Essential Cinema: Essays on the Films in the Collection of Anthology Film Archives, New York: Anthology Film Archives, 1975. Essays by filmmakers and scholars of the avant-garde, written with a wide range of approaches ranging from the theoretical to the purely personal, intended to reinforce appreciation of the films chosen by the archive for inclusion in its Essential Cinema Collection.
  • Viktoria Hradská, Česká avantgarda a film, Prague: Čs. filmový ústav, 1976. (Czech)
  • Malcolm Le Grice, Abstract Film and Beyond, MIT Press, 1977.
  • Thanasis Rentzis (Θανάσης Ρεντζής), Οι Πρωτοπορίες στον κινηματογράφο, Athens: Kastaniotis [Καστανιώτης], 1978, 31 pp. (Greek)
  • Dominique Noguez, Éloge du cinéma expérimental: Definitions, Jalons, Perspectives, Paris: Paris expérimental and Centre Georges Pompidou, 1979; 3rd Edition, 2010. (French) [19]
  • Ulrich Gregor (ed.), The German Experimental Film of the Seventies, Munich: Goethe-Institut, 1980.
  • P. Adams Sitney, Visionary Film: the American Avant-Garde, 1943-2000, Oxford University Press, 1974; 3rd ed., 2002.
    • Le cinéma visionnaire: L'Avant-garde américaine (1943-2000), trans. Pip Chodorov and Christian Lebrat, Paris: Paris expérimental, 2002, 448 pp. (French) [20]
  • Martin Walsh, The Brechtian Aspect of Radical Cinema, London: BFI Publishing, 1981, 136 pp.
  • Hollis Frampton, Circles of Confusion: Film/Photography/Video Texts 1968-1981, forew. Annette Michelson, Visual Studies Workshop Press, 1983, 200 pp.
  • Inez Hedges, Languages of Revolt: Dada and Surrealist Literature and Film, Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1983.
  • Andere Avant Garde, Linz: Gutenberg, 1984. (German)
  • Branko Vučićević, Avangardni film 1895-1939, 2 vols., Belgrade: Radionica SIC, 1984 & 1990, 159 & 63 pp. (Serbo-Croatian)
  • Maureen Cheryn Turim, Abstraction in Avant-garde Films, Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1985.
  • Jairo Ferreira, Cinema de Invenção, Sao Paulo: Editora Max Limonad, 1986. [21] (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Helge Krarup, Carl Norrested, Eksperimentalfilm i Danmark, Copenhagen: Borgen, 1986. (Danish)
  • Fernao Ramos, Cinema Marginal, 1968-1973: A Representacao em seu Limite, Sao Paulo: Editora Brasiliense, 1987. (Portuguese)
  • Stan Brakhage, Film at Wit's End: Eight Avant-garde Filmmakers, Kingston, N.Y.: Documentext, 1989.
  • Ingo Petzke (ed.), Das Experimentalfilm-Handbuch, Frankfurt am Main: Deutsches Filminstitut, 1989, 385 pp. (German) [22]
  • Peter Gidal, Materialist Film, London and New York: Routledge, 1989.
  • Marcin Giżycki, Walka o film artystyczny w miedzynarodowej Polsce. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warsaw, 1989. (Polish)
  • Eduard Ditschek, Politisches Engagement und Medienexperiment: Theater und Film der Russischen und Deutschen Avantgarde der Zwanziger Jahre, Tübingen: Narr, 1989, 306 pp. (German) Contents.
  • David E. James, Allegories of Cinema: American Film in the Sixties, Princeton University Press, 1989, 408 pp.
  • P. Adams Sitney, Modernist Montage: The Obscurity of Vision in Cinema and Literature, New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
  • Patricia Mellencamp, Indiscretions: Avant-garde Film, Video & Feminism, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
  • Lauren Rabinovitz, Points of Resistance: Women, Power & Politics in the New York Avant-garde Cinema, 1943-71, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991; 2nd ed., 2003. [23]
  • Stanislav Ulver, Západní filmová avantgarda, Prague: ČFÚ, 1991. (Czech)
  • William C. Wees, Light Moving in Time: Studies in the Visual Aesthetics of Avant-Garde Film, University of California Press, 1992, PDF.
  • Frederique Devaux, Le cinéma Lettriste: 1951-1991, Paris: Paris expérimental, 1992. (French) [24]
  • David E. James (ed.), To Free the Cinema: Jonas Mekas and the New York Underground, University of Princeton Press, 1992, 352 pp. [25]
  • Scott MacDonald, Avant-garde Film: Motion Studies, Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  • William C. Wees, Recycled Images: The Art and Politics of Found Footage Films, New York: Anthology Film Archives, 1993, 117 pp.
  • Germaine Dulac, Écrits sur le cinéma, 1919-1937, ed. Prosper Hillairet, Paris: Paris expérimental, 1994, 225 pp. Anthology of Dulac's writings with contextual essay. (French) [26]
  • Edward S. Small, Direct Theory: Experimental Film/Video as Major Genre, SIU Press, 1994, 122 pp.
  • James Peterson, Dreams of Chaos, Visions of Order: Understanding the American Avante-garde Cinema, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1994.
  • Holger Wilmesmeier, Deutsche Avantgarde und Film: Die Filmmatinee "Der absolute film" (3. und 10. Mai 1925), 1994, 220 pp. (German)
  • Jan-Christopher Horak (ed.), Lovers of Cinema: The First American Film Avant-garde, 1919-1945, Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995. [27]
  • Peter Weiss, Avantgarde Film, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1995. (German)
  • Rudolf E. Kuenzli (ed.), Dada and Surrealist Film, MIT Press, 1996.
  • Marcin Giżycki, Awangarda wobec kina. Film w kręgu polskiej awangardy artystycznej dwudziestolecia międzywojennego, Wydawnictwo male, Warsaw, 1996. [28] [29] (Polish)
  • Karin Fritsche, Claus Löser (eds.), Gegenbilder - Filmische Subversion in der DDR 1976-1989, Berlin: Janus Press, 1996. [30], Review. (German)
  • Bruno Fischli, Carola Ferber (eds.), Der Deutsche experimentalfilm der 90er Jahre / The German Experimental Film of the 1990s, Munich: Goethe Institut, 1996, 101 pp. (German)/(English)
  • Christian Lebrat, Entre les images, Paris: Paris expérimental, 1997, 100 pp. (French) [31]
  • Il cinema d'avanguardia: 1910-1930, Venezia: Marsilio, 1997. (Italian)
  • Jack Sargeant, Naked Lens: Beat Cinema, London: Creation Books, 1997; repr., Berkeley, CA: Soft Skull Press, 2008.
  • Wheeler W. Dixon, The Exploding Eye: A Re-Visionary History of 1960s American Experimental Cinema, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.
  • Robert A. Haller (ed.), First Light, New York: Anthology Film Archives, 1998, 108 pp.
  • Beatriz Sarlo Sabajanes, La maquina cultural: maestras, traductores y vanguardistas, Buenos Aires: Ariel, 1998. (Spanish)
  • Scott MacDonald, A Critical Cinema: Interviews with Independent Filmmakers, 5 vols, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988–2005. Five volumes of in-depth, perceptive, enlightening interviews with a multitude of filmmakers offer a veritable history of the field. The author’s overriding concern is with experimental cinema as a form of critique of conventional media.
  • A. L. Rees, A History of Experimental Film and Video: From Canonical Avant-garde to Contemporary British Practice, London: British Film Institute, 1999.
  • Emanuel Levy, Cinema of outsiders: the rise of American independent film, New York: New York University Press, 1999.
  • Bruno Di Marino, Sguardo inconscio azione: cinema sperimentale e underground a Roma: 1965-1975, Rome: Lithos, 1999. (Italian)
  • Joan M Minguet Batllori, Cinema, modernitat i avantguarda (1920-1936), Valencia: E. Climent, 2000. (Spanish)
  • Laura U. Marks, The Skin of the Film: Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment, and the Senses, Duke University Press, 2000, 320 pp. Excerpt, [32].
  • Scott MacDonald, The Garden in the Machine: A Field Guide to Independent Films about Place, University of California Press, 2001, 487 pp. [33]
  • Barbara Wilinsky, Sure Seaters: the emergence of art house cinema, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001.
  • Malcolm Le Grice, Experimental Cinema in the Digital Age, London: BFI Publishing, 2001, 484 pp.
  • Hans Scheugl, Erweitertes Kino. Die Wiener Filme der 60er Jahre, Vienna: Triton, 2002. (German)
  • Nina Danino, Michael Maziere (eds.), The Undercut reader: critical writings on artists' film and video, London/New York: Wallflower, 2003.
  • Maurice Lemaitre, 1967-1969, le cafe-cinema Lemaitre : suivi de Huit filmes lettristes, Paris: Paris expérimental, 2003. (French)
  • Nicky Hamlyn, Film Art Phenomena, London: British Film Institute, 2003, viii+200 pp. Ch 4. Reviews: Rees (Screen), Conomos (Screening the Past).
  • Michael O'Pray, Avant-Garde Film: Forms, Themes and Passions, London/New York: Wallflower, 2003.
  • Anna Abrahams, Mariska Graveland, Erwin van 't Hart, Peter van Hoof, MM2. Experimental film in the Netherlands since 1960, Amsterdam: Filmbank & De Balie, 2004, 286 pp. [34]
  • Jeffrey Skoller, Shadows, Specters, Shards. Making History in Avant-Garde Film, University of Minnesota Press, 2005, 233 pp.
  • David E. James, The Most Typical Avant-garde: History and Geography of Minor Cinemas in Los Angeles, University of California Press, 2005, 548 pp. Review.
  • Clayton Patterson (ed.), Captured: A Film & Video History of the Lower East Side, New York: Seven Stories Press, 2005, 554 pp. [35]
  • Paul Arthur, A Line of Sight: American Avant-Garde Film Since 1965, University of Minnesota Press, 2005. [36]
  • Jean Petrolle, Virginia Wright Wexman (eds.), Women and Experimental Filmmaking, Urbana: University of Illinois, 2005. [37]
  • Paul G. Pickowicz, Yingjin Zhang (eds.), From underground to independent: alternative film culture in contemporary China, Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.
  • Nicole Brenez, Cinémas d'avant-garde, Paris: Cahiers du cinéma, 2006, 95 pp. (French)
  • Nicole Brenez, Traitement du lumpenproletariat par le cinéma d'avant-garde, Biarritz: Séguier, and Paris: Archimbaud, 2006, 97 pp. (French)
  • Robin Blaetz (ed.), Women's Experimental Cinema: Critical Frameworks, Durham: Duke University Press, 2007, 421 pp. Introduction, Essay by Janet Cutler, [38], [39].
  • Malte Hagener, Moving Forward, Looking Back: The European Avant-garde and the Invention of Film Culture, 1919-1939, Amsterdam University Press, 2007, 376 pp.
  • Alexander Graf, Dietrich Scheunemann (eds.), Avant-garde Film, Rodopi, 2007. Result of a research project at the University of Edinburgh that aims to connect the history of avant-garde film to the wider avant-garde in literature and art. It establishes a continuum between the contemporary moving image and the classical experimental film that preceded it from the 1920s onward.
  • Łukasz Ronduda, Florian Zeyfang (eds.), 1,2,3... Avant-Gardes: Film/Art between Experiment and Archive, Warsaw: Centre for Contemporary Art, and Berlin/New York: Sternberg, 2007. [40] (English)/(German)
  • Duncan Reekie, Subversion: The Definitive History of Underground Cinema, London: Wallflower Press 2007.
  • P. Adams Sitney, Eyes Upside Down: Visionary Filmmakers and the Heritage of Emerson, 2008.
  • Randall Halle, Reinhild Steingroever (eds.), After the Avant-Garde: German and Austrian Experimental Film, Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2008. [41]
  • R. Bruce Elder, Harmony and Dissent: Film and Avant-garde Art Movements in the Early Twentieth Century, Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008.
  • Daniel Barnett, Movement as Meaning: In Experimental Film, Rodopi, 2008, 240 pp.
  • Hollis Frampton, On the Camera Arts and Consecutive Matters: The Writings of Hollis Frampton, ed. Bruce Jenkins, MIT Press, 2009, 360 pp. [42]
  • Jean-Paul Aubert, L'école de Barcelone: un cinéma d'avant-garde en Espagne sous le franquisme, Paris: Harmattan, 2009. (French)
  • Paul Young, Paul Duncan (eds.), Art Cinema, Taschen, 2009, 192 pp. [43]
    • La cinéma expérimental, Taschen, 2009, 192 pp. (French) [44]
  • Film, Avantgarde, Biopolitik, eds. S. Buchmann, H. Draxler and S. Geene, Vienna: Schlebrügge, 428 pp. [45] (German)
  • From Absolute Cinema to Future Film: Materials from the History of Experiment in the Moving Picture Art, eds. Violetta Kutlubasis-Krajewska and Piotr Krajewski, Wroclaw: WRO Art Center, 2009, 84 pp.
  • Gabriele Jutz, Cinéma brut. Eine alternative Genealogie der Filmavantgarde, Springer, 2010, 295 pp. (German)
  • Steve Anker, Kathy Geritz, Steve Seid (eds.), Radical Light: Alternative Film and Video in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1945-2000, University of California Press, Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive, 2010, 352 pp.
  • Lars Gustaf Andersson, John Sundholm, Astrid Söderbergh Widding, A History of Swedish Experimental Film Culture: From Early Animation to Video Art, Stockholm: Mediehistoriskt arkiv, 2010. [46]
  • Malcolm Turvey, The Filming of Modern Life: European Avant-Garde Film of the 1920s, MIT Press, 2011. Review: Foltz (LARB).
  • Pavle Levi, Cinema by Other Means, Oxford University Press, 2012, 224 pp.
  • William E.B. Verrone, The Avant-Garde Feature Film: A Critical History, Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2012, 222 pp.
  • Akira Mizuta Lippit, Ex-Cinema: From a Theory of Experimental Film and Video, University of California Press, 2012, 189 pp, EPUB.
  • Adriano Aprà (ed.), Fuori norma. La via sperimentale del cinema italiano, Marsilio, 2013, 208 pp. (Italian)
  • Arnd Schneider, Caterina Pasqualino (eds.), Experimental Film and Anthropology, Berg/Bloomsbury, 2014, 208 pp. Conference. [47]
  • Andrew V. Uroskie, Between the Black Box and the White Cube: Expanded Cinema and Postwar Art, University of Chicago Press, 2014, 288 pp.
  • Ara Osterweil, Flesh Cinema: The Corporeal Turn in American Avant-Garde Film, Manchester University Press, 2014, 304 pp. [48]
  • Božidar Zečević, Srpska avangarda i film 1920-1932, Belgrade: Akademski filmski centar/Dom kulture Studentski grad, 2014, 390 pp. (Serbian)
  • Albert Alcoz, Alberto Cabrera Bernal (eds.), Angular 1, trans. Mattea Cussel, Angular, 2014, 82 pp. Incl. DVD with 13 films (122 min). [49] [50] (Spanish)/(English)
  • David E. James, Adam Hyman (eds.), Alternative Projections: Experimental Film in Los Angeles, 1945-1980, John Libbey, 2015, 320 pp. [51]
  • Patti Gaal-Holmes, A History of 1970s Experimental Film: Britain’s Decade of Diversity, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, 231 pp.
  • Jackie Hatfield (ed.), Experimental Film and Video: An Anthology, John Libbey, 2015, 283 pp.
  • François Bovier, Adeena Mey (eds.), Cinéma exposé – Films d'artistes, art vidéo et exposition d’images en mouvement / Exhibited Cinema: Exhibiting Artists' Films, Video Art and Moving Image, Dijon: Les Presses du réel, 2015, 224 pp. [52] (French)/(English)
  • Jeffrey Babcock, Cecilia Dino, Séances: Re-wiring Images in the Amsterdam Underground, Amsterdam, 2016. [53]
  • George Bagdasarov, Alexandra Moralesová, et al., Buenos Aires Experiment, Prague: Akademie múzických umění v Praze, 2016, 162 pp. TOC, Excerpt. [54]. Review: Križková (Kapitál/Kinečko). (Czech)
    • Buenos Aires Experiment, Prague: AMU – Academy of Performing Arts in Prague, 2017, 162 pp. Excerpt. [55] (English)
  • Kamila Kuc, Visions of Avant-Garde Film: Polish Cinematic Experiments from Expressionism to Constructivism, Indiana University Press, 2016. (English)
  • Albert Alcoz, Resonancias fílmicas. El sonido en el cine estructural (1960-1981), Santander: Shangrila Textos Aparte, 2017, 358 pp. [56] (Spanish)
  • François Bovier (ed.), Early Video and Experimental Film Networks: French-Speaking Switzerland in 1974: A Case for "Minor History", Lausanne: ECAL/University of Art and Design Lausanne, 2017, 252 pp. [57] [58]
  • Sue Clayton, Laura Mulvey (eds.), Other Cinemas: Politics, Culture and Experimental Film in the 1970s, I.B. Tauris, 2017.
  • Érik Bullot, Le film et son double. Boniment, ventriloquie, performativité, Dijon: Les Presses du réel, 2017, 208 pp. Introduction. [59] (French)
  • Érik Bullot (ed.), Du film performatif, Dijon: Les Presses du réel, 2018, 265 pp. [60] (French)
  • Claudia Aravena, Iván Pinto, Visiones laterales: cine y video experimental en Chile 1957-2017, Santiago de Chile: Metales Pesados, 2018, 271 pp. [61]. Reviews: Moreno (Algarrobo-MEL), Kottow (laFuga). (Spanish)
  • Gonzalo de Lucas (ed.), Xcèntric Cinema: Conversations on the Creative Process and the Filmic Vision, Barcelona: CCCB, 2018, 311 pp. With DVD. [62] [63]
  • Richard H. Brown, Through The Looking Glass: John Cage and Avant-Garde Film, Oxford University Press, 2019, 256 pp. [64]
  • Albert Alcoz, Radicales libres: 50 películas esenciales del cine experimental, Barcelona: UOC, 2019, 236 pp. [65] (Spanish)

Journal issues

Selected essays

Encyclopedic entries

Mailing lists


Documentary films

  • Die kritische Masse – Film im Underground, Hamburg '68, dir. Christian Bau, 1998, 110 min. [67]
  • Free Radicals: A History of Experimental Film, dir. Pip Chodorov, 2012, 82 min. [68]


See also

Moving Image
communities of practice in film and video

Early cinema, Experimental film, Expanded cinema, Video art, Live cinema, Film labs, Media archives, Community television, Demoscene, VJing, VVVV, Live coding .
See also Artists' cultures.