Concrete poetry

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Resource on concrete, visual and optical poetry.

Poets, authors, collectives[edit]

See also Women in concrete poetry.

Iliazd (ed.), Poésie de mots inconnus, 1949, Log, PDF.
Jeff Berner (ed.), Astronauts of Inner Space: An International Collection of Avant-garde Activity, 1966, Log, PDF.
Emmett Williams (ed.), An Anthology of Concrete Poetry, 1967, Log, PDF.
Mary Ellen Solt (ed.), Concrete Poetry: A World View, 1968, HTML.
Eugen Gomringer (ed.), konkrete poesie: deutschsprachige autoren, 1972, Log, PDF.
Alan Riddell (ed.), Typewriter Art, 1975, Log, PDF.


See also exhibition catalogues.

  • Poésie de mots inconnus, ed. Iliazd (Ilya Zdanevitch), Paris: Le Degre 41, 1949, 26 folded sheets. [1] (French)
  • Concrete Poesie international. 13 Texte, Stuttgart: Hansjörg Mayer, 1965, [14] sheets.
  • rot 21: "konkrete poesie international", eds. Max Bense and Elisabeth Walther, Stuttgart, 1965, [46] pp.
  • Poesie visive, ed. & intro. Lamberto Pignotti, Bologna: Sampietro, 1965. Works by Alfredo Giuliani, Adriano Spatola, Luigi Tola, and Guido Ziveri. Special issue of Il Dissenso 8, part of Antologia della poesia visiva published as Il Dissenso 5-8. (Italian)
  • Astronauts of Inner Space: An International Collection of Avant-garde Activity, ed. Jeff Berner, 1966, 66 pp. (English)
  • Beloit Poetry Journal 17(1), ed. Stephen Bann, 1966. (English)
  • Modulo 1: "poesia concreta", ed. Arrigo Lora Totino, Torino, 1966, 119 pp. (Italian)
  • Concrete Poetry: An International Anthology, ed. Stephen Bann, London: London Magazine Editions, 1967. [2] (English)
  • An Anthology of Concrete Poetry, ed. Emmett Williams, New York: Something Else Press, and Stuttgart: hansjörg mayer, 1967; repr., New York: Primary Information, 2013, 342 pp.
  • Experimentální poezie, eds. Josef Hiršal and Bohumila Grögerová, intro. Miloš Jůzl, Prague: Odeon, 1967, 265 pp. [3] (Czech)
  • Bientot, ed. Jean Francois Bory, 1967. (French)
    • Once Again, ed. Jean-François Bory, New Directions, 1968, 132 pp. (English)
  • Chicago Review 19(4): "Anthology of Concretism", ed. Eugene Wildman, Chicago, Sep 1967, 144 pp. (English)
  • Concrete Poetry: A World View, ed. Mary Ellen Solt, Bloomington: Indian University Press, 1968, 311 pp. Special double issue of Artes Hipánicas/Hispanic Arts: A Magazine of Literature, Music and Visual Arts / Revista de Literatura Musica y Artes Visuales, 1(3-4): "A World Look at Concrete Poetry", Spring 1968. [4] (English)
  • Experiments in Prose, ed. Eugene Wildman, Chicago: Swallow Press, 1969, x+351 pp. TOC. [5]
  • The Cosmic Chef, ed. bpNichol, Oberon Press, 1970, UbuWeb. (English)
  • Exempla: documenti di poesia concreta e visuale / Documents of Concrete and Visual Poetry, ed. Maurizio Nannucci, Florence: Exempla, 1970, 36 [leaves], 20.5 x 11 cm. [6] (Italian)/(English)
  • rot 41: "konkrete poesie international II", eds. Max Bense and Elisabeth Walther, Stuttgart, 1970.
  • Mindplay: An Anthology of British Concrete Poetry, ed. John J. Sharkey, London: Lorrimer Publishing, 1971, 96 pp, IA. (English)
  • This Book is a Movie: An Exhibition of Language Art & Visual Poetry, eds. Jerry G. Bowles and Tony Russell, New York: Dell Publishing, 1971, 320 pp. [7] (English)
  • konkrete poesie: deutschsprachige autoren, ed. Eugen Gomringer, Stuttgart: Reclam, 1972, 174 pp; new ed., 2001. (German)
  • Typewriter Poems, ed. Peter Finch, 1972. (English)
  • Found Poems, ed. Malcolm Parr, 1972. (English)
  • The Pipe: Recent Czech Concrete Poetry, eds. Jiri Valoch and bpNichol, Toronto: Coach House, 1973. [8] (English)
  • Computer Poems, ed. Richard W. Bailey, Drummond Island, MI: Potagannissing Press, 1973, 53 pp. (English)
  • Antologia da poesia concreta em Portugal, eds. José-Alberto Marques and E.M. de Melo e Castro, Lisbon: Assírio & Alvim, 1973, 163 pp. Introduction. (Portuguese)
  • Italian Visual Poetry, 1912-1972, ed. Luigi Ballerini, Finch College Museum / Istituto Italiano di Cultura, 1973.
  • Gloup and Woup, ed. Bob Cobbing, 1974. (English)
  • Typewriter Art, ed. & intro. Alan Riddell, London: London Magazine Editions, 1975, 157 pp. (English)
  • Anthologie visuele poëzie. 133 dichters uit 25 landen / Visual Poetry Anthology: 133 Poets from 25 Countries, ed. G.J. de Rook, The Hague: Bert Bakker, 1975, [222] pp. (Dutch)/(English)
  • Illuminations, ed. Richard Kostelanetz, Woodinville, WA: Laughing Bear, 1977, 48 pp. Excerpt. (English)
  • International Anthology of Concrete Poetry, ed. John Jessop, Toronto: Missing Link Press & Poetry Toronto Books, 1978. (English)
  • Antologija konkretne in vizualne poezije, ed. Denis Poniž, Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 1978, 229 pp. [9] (Slovenian)
  • Text–Sound Texts, ed. Richard Kostelanetz, New York: William Morrow, 1980, 441 pp. (English)
  • 4 Major Visual Poets: Ruth Jacoby, Richard Kostelanetz, Tom Ockerse, Michael Joseph Phillips, ed. Michael Joseph Phillips, Indianapolis: Free University Press, 1980. (English)
  • Poesia concreta, eds. Iumna Maria Simon, Vinicius Dantas and Abril Educacao, São Paulo, 1982, 111 pp. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Poesía concreta. A. Artaud, M. Bense, D. Pignatari y otros, ed. Jorge Santiago Perednik, Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de America Latina, 1982, 146 pp. (Spanish)
  • Juan Pintó, La poesia experimental: del concretismo hasta nuestro dias, Merida, Venezuela: Universidad de los andes, 1983, 133 pp. (Spanish)
  • c/o Visual PoetryAnthology, eds. Franco Beltrametti and Patrizia Vicinelli, Bologna: c/o, 1984, 70 pp. (English)
  • Die Wiener Gruppe. Achleitner, Artmann, Bayer, Rühm, Wiener, ed. Gerhard Rühm, Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1985. (German)
  • Poemografias: perspectivas da poesia visual portuguesa, eds. Fernando Aguiar and Silvestre Pestana, Lisbon: Ulmeira, 1985, 274 pp. Hatherly's essay. [10] [11] (Portuguese)
  • WortBILD: visuelle Poesie in der DDR, eds. Guillermo Deisler and Jörg Kowalski, Halle and Leipzig: Mitteldeutscher Verlag, 1990, 163 pp. Anthology of East German visual poetry. (German)
  • Verbi Visi Voco: A Performance of Poetry, eds. Bob Cobbing and Bill Griffiths with Jennifer Pike, intro. Eric Mottram, London: Writers Forum, 1992, 310 pp. An anthology of visual and sound poetry. List of contributors. [12] (English)
  • Visible Language 27(4): "Visual Poetry: An International Anthology", ed. Harry Polkinhorn, Autumn 1993, 108 pp, PDFs. (English)
  • Vrh kostek: česká experimentální poezie [1968], eds. Josef Hiršal and Bohumila Grögerová, Prague: Torst, 1993, 408 pp. Anthology of Czech visual poetry; originally prepared for publication in 1968. [13] [14] (Czech)
  • 7 Poets/7 Poems: A Portfolio of Visual Poems, Minneapolis, MN: Hermetic Press, 1995, [7] pp. (English)
  • Il suono e le parole: otto artisti europei sonori visuali, ed. Alfonso Malinconico, Naples: Marcus, 2006, 168 pp. Review: Colusso. [15] (Italian)
  • The Last Vispo Anthology: Visual Poetry 1998-2008, eds. Nico Vassilakis and Crag Hill, Seattle, WA: FantaGraphics, 2012, 331 pp. Project website. Publisher. (English)
  • An Anthology of Concrete Poetry (in braille), ed. Rachel Simkover, Berlin: Motto Books, 2013. [16]
  • Poesía visual mexicana. La palabra transfigurada, 5 vols., ed. Carlos Pineda, México: Ediciones del Lirio, 2013. Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3, Vol. 5. Review: Hernández Espinosa (Ancila). [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] (Spanish)
  • Typewriter Art: A Modern Anthology, ed. Barrie Tullett, Laurence King, 2014, 176 pp. [23] (English)
  • Marvin Sackner, Ruth Sackner, The Art of Typewriting, pref. John Maeda, forew. Steven Heller, London: Thames & Hudson, 2015, 351 pp. A selection of works from the Sackner Archive of Visual and Concrete Poetry by 200+ artists. Publisher. [24] (English)
  • The New Concrete: Visual Poetry in the 21st Century, eds. Victoria Bean and Chris McCabe, London: Hayward Publishing, 2015, 240 pp. Review: Poynor (Creative Rev). [25] [26] [27] (English)


Magazines, periodicals[edit]

  • Noigandres, 5 numbers, eds. Haroldo de Campos, Augusto de Campos, Décio Pignatari, and Reinaldo Azeredo, São Paulo: Grupo Noigandres, 1952-1962. Reprint. [28]. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • spirale, 9 numbers, eds. Eugen Gomringer (1-9), Dieter Roth (1-4), Marcel Wyss (2-9), and Karl Gerstner (5-9), Bern: Spirale Press, 1953-1964. Book, Review. [29], [30]. (German)
  • De Tafelronde, eds. Andries Dhoeve, Peter Dietrich, Rudo Durant, and Henri Chopin, Antwerp, 1953-1981. [31] [32] (Dutch)
  • material: Journal for Concrete Poetry and Fine Art, 5 numbers, ed. Daniel Spoerri, Darmstadt & Paris, 1957-1959. [33]. [34], [35], [36].
  • Cinquième Saison, 16 numbers, ed. Henri Chopin, 1958-1963.
  • Fuck You: A Magazine of the Arts, 9 numbers, ed. Ed Sanders, New York, 1962-1965. (English)
  • Invenção: revista de arte de vanguardia, 5 numbers, eds. Décio Pignatari, Pedro Xisto, and Edgard Braga, São Paulo, 1962-1967. [37]. [38]. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Poor.Old.Tired.Horse., 25 numbers, ed. Ian Hamilton Finlay, 1962-1968. Published an increasing amount of visual poetry from issue 5 onwards. See also issue of Roland dedicated to magazine (2009). (English)
  • Diagonal Cero, 28 numbers, ed. Edgardo Antonio Vigo, et al., La Plata/Argentina, 1962-1968. [39]. (Spanish)
  • Marrahwannah Quarterly, ed. d.a. levy, Cleveland, 1964-1967. (English)
  • Poems for a Thaler, 4 numbers, eds. Vagn Steen and Hans-Jørgen Nielsen, 1964-1965. (Danish)
  • Revue Ou, 28 numbers, ed. Henri Chopin, 1964-1974; new ed., Alga Marghen, 2007, 4 CDs+book. Multimedia magazine of visual poetry and sound poetry. [40]
  • Futura, 26 numbers, ed. Hansjörg Mayer, Stuttgart, 1965-1968. [41]
  • Approches, 4 numbers, eds. Jean-François Bory and Julien Blaine, Paris: Approches, 1965-1969. [42] (French)
  • Buddhist Third Class Junkmail Oracle, ed. d.a. levy, Cleveland, 1967-1969. (English)
  • Stereo Headphones: An Occasional Magazine of the New Poetries, 10 numbers, ed. Nicholas Zurbrugg, Kersey near Ipswich, UK: Nicholas Zurbrugg, 1969-1982. Minimalist, sound, visual and concrete poetry. [43] [44] (English)
  • Signal: internacionalna revija za signalistička istraživanja, 9+21 numbers, ed. Miroljub Todorović, et al., Belgrade, 1970-1973 & 1995-2004. No. 1, 4-5, 8-9. WP. (Serbo-Croatian),(Hungarian),(English)
  • Konkret, 1 issue, ed. Eric Amann, Toronto, 1979. (English)
  • UNI/vers(;), 35 numbers, ed. Guillermo Deisler, Halle, 1987-1995. (English)
  • Essex Magazine, 4 numbers, eds. Scott Pound and William R. Howe, 1997-1998. Features the resurgence of visual poetry in Toronto and Buffalo in the 1990s. (English)
Between Poetry and Painting, 1965, Log, PDF, IA, UbuWeb.

Exhibition catalogues[edit]

  • First International Exhibition of Concrete, Kinetic and Phonetic Poetry, ed. Mike Weaver, Cambridge, UK, 1964. Exh. held in the Rushmore rooms, St. Catharine's College, Cambridge, UK, 28 Nov-5 Dec 1964. [45] (English)
  • Between Poetry and Painting, ed. Jasia Reichardt, London: Institute of Contemporary Arts, 1965, 81 pp. Exh. held 22 Oct-27 Nov 1965. (English)
  • Konkrete Poesie deutschsprachiger Autoren, ed. Hansjörg Schmitthenner, Munich: Goethe-Institut, 1969, 48 pp.
    • Poesia concreta de autores de lingua alema / Konkrete Poesie deutschsprachiger Autoren, Munich: Goethe-Institut, 1973, 64 pp. (German)/(Portuguese)
  • Concrete Poetry: An Exhibition in Four Parts, Vancouver: UBC Fine Arts Gallery, 1969, [10+25] leaves. Exh. held 13 Apr-5 May 1969. With essays by Michael Rhodes, Edwin Varney, Ian Hamilton Finlay & Stephen Scobie, Ian Wallace, Kurt Von Meier (on Michael Morris) and Michael Morris (on Ray Johnson). [46]
  • Novisima poesia /69, Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Educacion, 1969. (Spanish)
  • Klankteksten, konkrete poëzie, visuele teksten / Sound Texts, Concrete Poetry, Visual Texts / Akustische Texte, konkrete Poesie, visuelle Texte, Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum, 1970. With LP. Exh. curated by Hansjörg Mayer (DE), Reinhard Döhl (DE), Bob Cobbing (UK) and Paul De Vree (BE); held at Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Nov 1970; International Cultural Centre, Antwerp; Stuttgart; Nuremberg; Liverpool; Oxford. [47] (Dutch)/(English)/(German)
  • Grenzgebiete der bildenden Kunst. Konkrete Poesie, Bild, Text, Textbilder, Computerkunst, Musikalische Graphik, ed. Arnulf M. Wynen, Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, 1972, 136+[10] pp. Reinhard Döhl's essay. [48] (German)
  • Taalbeeld-beeldtaal. Nederlandse visuele dichters, Amsterdam: Kunsthistorisch Instituut, 1975. Exh. held 14 Nov-6 Dec 1975. (Dutch)
  • Czeska i słowacka poezja konkretna, ed. Barbara Baworowska, Wroclaw: Muzeum Narodowe we Wrocławiu, 1976, [23] pp. (Polish)
  • Vom Aussehen der Wörter: visuelle Poesie/Notationen, eds. Michael Erlhoff and Bernhard Holeczek, Hannover: Das Kunstmuseum, 1980, 215 pp. Exh. held at Kunstmuseum Hannover mit Sammlung Sprengel, 14 Nov-7 Dec 1980. (German)
  • auf ein Wort! Aspekte visueller Poesie und visueller Musik, ed. Dietrich Mahlow, Heidelberg: Braus, 1987, 176 pp. Exh. held at four venues in Mainz. (German)
  • Visuelle Poesie, eds. Guillermo Deisler and Karla Sachse, Club der Kulturschaffenden "Johannes R. Becher", 1988, [30] pp. (German)
  • Text als Figur: visuelle Poesie von der Antike bis zur Moderne, eds. Jeremy Adler and Ulrich Ernst, Weinheim: Acta Humaniora, 1990, 336 pp. Exh. held at Zeughaus der Herzog-August-Bibliothek, 1 Sep 1987-23 May 1988. (German)
  • Visuelle Poesie, eds. Karla Sachse and Guillermo Deisler, Gotha: Museen der Stadt Gotha, 1990, [34] pp. (German)
  • Konkrete Poesie. Innovation und Tradition, ed. Ulrich Engel, Wuppertal: Bergische Univ., 1991, 130 pp. Exh. held at Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, 14 May-7 Jun 1991. (German)
  • Peacedream Project. UNI/vers(;). 5 Jahre / 5 Years, ed. Guillermo Deisler, Halle/Saale, 1992, [31] pp. Published after UNI/vers(;) 18. (German)
  • Peacedream Project. UNI/vers(;). 5 Jahre, ed. Guillermo Deisler, Halle/Saale, 1992, [12] pp. Published after UNI/vers(;) 20. (German)
  • Buchstäblich wörtlich, wörtlich buchstäblich. Eine Sammlung konkreter und visueller Poesie der sechziger Jahre in der Nationalgalerie, Berlin, ed. Michael Glasmeier, Berlin: Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, 1994, 281 pp. (German)
  • Báseň, obraz, gesto, zvuk: experimentální poezie 60. let, Prague: Památník národního písemnictví, 1997, 43+[51] pp. Texts by Josef Hiršal, Petr Kotyk, Josef Hlaváček, et al. Exh. held at Zimní refektář Strahovského kláštera, 10 Mar-2 Jun 1997. [49] (Czech)
  • Akce, slovo, pohyb, prostor. Experimenty v umění šedesátých let, ed. Vít Havránek, Prague: Galerie hl. města Prahy, 1999, 508 pp. TOC. [50] (Czech)
  • Concrete Poetry, Fluxus and Conceptual Art: A Book Friction, ed. Marc Goethals, Ghent: Witte Zaal, 2008, 100 pp. Introduction. [51] [52] (English)
  • From Concrete to Liquid to Spoken Worlds to the Word, Genève: Centre d'Art Contemporain Genève, 2017. Exh. held 31 May-31 Aug 2017. Review: Watson (Artforum).


  • Kathleen McCullough, Concrete Poetry: An Annotated International Bibliography, with an Index of Poets and Poems, Troy, NY: Whitston Publishing, 1989. (English)

Archives, resources[edit]

Recent exhibitions[edit]

Reception, art historical studies, theory[edit]

Augusto de Campos, Décio Pignatari, Haroldo de Campos, Teoria da Poesia Concreta – Textos Críticos e Manifestos 1950-1960, 1965; 2nd ed., 1975, Log, PDF.
Josef Hiršal, Bohumila Grögerová (eds.), Slovo, písmo, akce, hlas. K estetice kultury technického věku, 1967, Log, PDF.
Bit International 5-6: "The Word Image", 1969, Log, PDF.
Dick Higgins, Pattern Poetry: Guide to an Unknown Literature, 1987, Log.


  • Eugen Gomringer, "vom vers zur konstellation", Augenblick 1:2, 1955. (German)
  • Augusto de Campos, Décio Pignatari, Haroldo de Campos, Teoria da Poesia Concreta – Textos Críticos e Manifestos 1950-1960, 1965; 2nd ed., São Paulo: Duas Cidades, 1975. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Franz Mon, Zur Poesie der Fläche / Texte in den Zwischenräumen, St. Gallen: Galerie Press, 1966, 12 pp. [57] (German)
  • Josef Hiršal, Bohumila Grögerová (eds.), Slovo, písmo, akce, hlas. K estetice kultury technického věku, Prague: Československý spisovatel, 1967, 256 pp. (Czech)
  • Franz Mon, "An eine Säge denken", Akzente 15, 1968, pp 429-436. (German)
  • Bit International 5-6: "The Word Image: poésie concrète / Oslikovljena riječ: konkretna poezija", ed. Vera Horvat-Pintarić, Zagreb: Galerije grada Zagreba, 1969, 145 pp. Texts by Vera Horvat-Pintarić, Branimir Donat, Max Bense, Tomaž Brejc, Siegfried J. Schmidt, and Željko Bujas. (Serbo-Croatian)/(English),(French),(German)
  • David William Seaman, French Concrete Poetry: The Development of a Poetic Form from the Origins to the Present Day, Stanford University, 1970, xiv+522 pp. PhD dissertation. (English)
  • Text + Kritik 25: "Konkrete Poesie I", ed. H.L. Arnold, Munich, 1970. (German)
  • Text + Kritik 30: "Konkrete Poesie II", ed. H.L. Arnold, Munich, 1971. (German)
  • Klaus Peter Dencker, Text-Bilder: visuelle Poesie international: von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, Cologne: M. DuMont Schauberg, 1972, 190 pp. Review: Arnheim (Leonardo). (German)
  • Thomas Kopfermann (ed.), Theoretische Positionen zur Konkreten Poesie. Texte und Bibliographie, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1974. (German)
  • Harald Hartung, Experimentelle Literatur und konkrete Poesie, Göttingen, 1975. (German)
  • Dieter Kessler, Untersuchungen zur Konkreten Dichtung: Vorformen, Theorien, Texte, Meisenheim am Glan: Hain, 1976, 418 pp. (German)
  • Armando Zárate, Antes de la vanguardia: historia y morfología de la experimentación visual: de Teócrito a la poesía concreta, Buenos Aires: Rodolfo Alonso, 1976, 122 pp. (Spanish)
  • Wolfgang Max Faust, Bilder werden Worte: zum Verhältnis von bildender Kunst und Literatur im 20. Jahrhundert oder Vom Anfang der Kunst im Ende der Künste, Munich: Hanser, 1977, 268 pp. Based on PhD dissertation from TU, Berlin, 1976. (German)
  • Bob Cobbing, Peter Mayer, Concerning Concrete Poetry, London: Writers Forum, 1978, 85 pp; repr., London: Slimvolume, 2014. (English)
  • Thomas Kopfermann, Konkrete Poesie: Fundamentalpoetik und Textpraxis einer Neo-Avantgarde, Peter Lang, 1981, 335 pp. (German)
  • Poetics Today 3(3): "Poetics of the Avant-Garde: Concrete Poetry", Summer 1982. Section in special issue of journal. [58] (English)
  • Visible Language 20(1): "Pattern Poetry: A Symposium", ed. Dick Higgins, Jan 1986. (English)
  • Willard Bohn, The Aesthetics of Visual Poetry, 1914-1928, Cambridge University Press, 1986; University of Chicago Press, 1993, x+228 pp.
  • Dick Higgins, Pattern Poetry: Guide to an Unknown Literature, SUNY Press, 1987, x+275 pp. (English)
  • Visible Language 23(1): "The Printed Poem and the Reader", ed. Richard Bradford, Jan 1988. (English)
  • Bob Cobbing, Changing Forms in English Visual Poetry: The Influence of Tools and Machines, London: Writers Forum, 1988, [16] pp. Lecture given at the international conference Visuelle Poesie im Historischen Wandel / Changing Forms of Visual Poetry held in the Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbuttel, 30 Aug-4 Sep 1987. (English)
  • Víťazoslav Hronec, Jaroslav Supek (eds.), Nový život. Nové umenie, Novi Sad: Obzor, 1990. (Slovak)
  • Harvard Library Bulletin 3(2): "Material Poetry of the Renaissance/The Renaissance of Material Poetry", ed. Roland Greene, Summer 1992. Bibliography. [59] [60] (English)
  • John Byrum, Crag Hill (eds.), Core: A Symposium on Contemporary Visual Poetry, Mentor, OH: Generator Press, and Mill Valley, CA: Score, 1993, 156 pp. (English)
  • Dick Higgins, "Concrete Poetry", in The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, eds. Alex Preminger and T. V. F. Brogan, Princeton University Press, 1993, 233-234. (English)
  • Victoria Pineda, "Speaking about Genre: The Case of Concrete Poetry", New Literary History 26:2, 1995, pp 379-393. (English)
  • K. David Jackson, Eric Vos, Johanna Drucker (eds.), Experimental-Visual-Concrete. Avant-Garde Poetry Since the 1960s, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 448 pp. TOC. (English)
  • Eugen Gomringer, Theorie der Konkreten Poesie. Texte und Manifeste 1954-1997. Gesamtwerk Band II, Vienna: Splitter, 1997. (German)
  • Text + Kritik: "Visuelle Poesie", ed. Heinz Ludwig Arnold, 1997, 225 pp. [61] (German)
  • Willard Bohn, Modern Visual Poetry, Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2001. [62] (English)
  • Willard Bohn, Reading Visual Poetry, Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2010, 176 pp. (English)
  • Klaus Peter Dencker, Optische Poesie: Von den prähistorischen Schriftzeichen bis zu den digitalen Experimenten der Gegenwart, De Gruyter, 2011. [63] (German)
  • Richard Bradford, Graphic Poetics: Poetry as Visual Art, Bloomsbury, 2011. (English)
  • Johanna Drucker, "Concrete Poetry", in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 4th ed., ed. Roland Greene, Princeton University Press, 2012, pp 294-295. (English)
  • E. Berry, "Visual Poetry", in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 4th ed., ed. Roland Greene, Princeton University Press, 2012, pp 1522-1525. (English)
  • Aleksandra Kremer, "Poezja konkretna w trzech obszarach językowych" [Concrete Poetry in Three Languages], Przestrzenie Teorii 19, Poznań: Adam Mickiewicz University Press, 2013, pp 95-114. (Polish)
  • Jamie Hilder, Designed Words for a Designed World: The International Concrete Poetry Movement, 1955-1971, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2016, 277 pp. Based on PhD dissertation, 2010. (English)
  • Luca Francesco Romani, Sound in Brazilian and German Concrete Poetry, Tübingen: Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, 2017, 269 pp. PhD dissertation. Focusses on sound in the concrete poetry of Grupo Noigandres and Stuttgarter Gruppe. (English)
  • die horen 271 & 272: "Das Wort beim Wort nehmen. Konkrete und andere Spielformen der Poesie 1 & 2", eds. Safiye Can and Jürgen Krätzer, Wallstein Verlag, 2018, 189 & 181 pp. [64] [65]

the West[edit]

East-Central Europe[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

See also magazine Psí víno.

  • Jiří Valoch, "Česká vizuální poezie sedmdesátých let", in Radomír Pospíšil, et al., Literárněvědný sborník Památníku národního písemnictví, Prague: PNP, 1982, pp 42-51. (Czech)
  • Jiří Valoch, "České vizuální texty. Náčrt přehledu šedesátých až osmdesátých let", Rok 1, Brno, 1991. (Czech)
  • Josef Hiršal, Bohumila Grögerová, Let let: Pokus o rekapitulaci, 3 vols., Prague: Rozmluvy, 1993-94; repr., Prague: Torst, 2007, 1046 pp. Memoir covering the years 1952-68. Review: Karfík (Respekt).
  • Josef Hlaváček, "Vizuální a konkrétní poezie, lettrismus", in Dějiny českého výtvarného umění VI/1, eds. Rostislav Švácha and Marie Platovská, Prague: Academia, 2007, pp 232-239. (Czech)
  • Wagon 3-4: "Experimentální poesie", ed. Olga Stehlíková, 2007, 557 pp, HTML. (Czech)
  • "Laboratoře básnického experimentu", in Dějiny české literatury 1945-1989, vol. 3: 1958-1969, ed. Pavel Janoušek, Prague: Academia, 2008, pp 232-242.
  • Josef Štochl, "Antologie Vrh kostek, Die Wiener Gruppe a Havlovy Antikódy", in Česká literatura v intermediální perspektivě, ed. Stanislava Fedrová, Prague: Ústav pro českou literaturu AV ČR & Akropolis, 2010, pp 39-50. (Czech)
  • Eva Krátká (ed.), Česká vizuální poezie. Teoretické texty, Brno: Host, 2013, 308 pp. [72]. Reviews: Košnarová (Tvar), Peková (Psí víno), Rehúš (Romboid), Langerová (A2), Ledvina (Art+Antiques), Šanda (Právo), Kuběnský ( (Czech)
  • Ha!art 42(2): "Czeska i słowacka literatura nowomedialna", Kraków: Korporacja Ha!art, 2013. (Polish)
  • Enter+: Creative Manual for Repurposing in Electronic Literature, eds. María Mencía and Zuzana Husárová, Košice: Dive Buki, 2015, 104 pp. [73] (English)
  • Eva Krátká, Vizuální poezie. Pojmy, kategorie a typologie ve světovém kontextu, Brno: Host, 2016, 320 pp. [74] (Czech)


See also magazines Kloaka and Enter.

  • Zora Rusinová, "Experimentálna poézia", in Slovník svetového a slovenského výtvarného umenia druhej polovice 20. storočia, Bratislava: Kruh súčasného výtvarného umenia, 1999, pp 75-79. Encyclopedic entry. (Slovak)
  • Zora Rusinová, "Lettrizmus", in Slovník svetového a slovenského výtvarného umenia druhej polovice 20. storočia, Bratislava: Kruh súčasného výtvarného umenia, 1999. Encyclopedic entry. (Slovak)
  • František Štraus, Štefan Moravčík, Princípy hry v slovenskej poézii, Martin: Matica slovenská, 2001. (Slovak)
  • Miloš Štofko, "Experimentálna poézia", in Štofko, Od abstrakcie po živé umenie. Slovník pojmov moderného a postmoderného umenia, Bratislava: Slovart, 2007, pp 59-62. Encyclopedic entry. (Slovak)
  • Katarína Ihringová, "Experimentálna poézia a jej podoby v slovenskom vizuálnom umení", Slovenská literatúra 58:4, Bratislava: Slovenská akadémia vied, 2011, pp 317-330. [75] (Slovak)
  • Katarína Ihringová, Vzťah slova a obrazu v slovenskom vizuálnom umení, Trnava: Pergamen, 2012. (Slovak)
  • Bogumiła Suwara, Zuzana Husárová (eds.), V sieti strednej Európy: nielen o elektronickej literatúre, Bratislava: SAP & Ústav svetovej literatúry, 2012, 312 pp. (Slovak),(Czech)
  • Michal Rehúš, Jaroslav Šrank, "Nesystematický návod na použitie slovenskej experimentálnej poézie", in V sieti strednej Európy: nielen o elektronickej literatúre, eds. Bogumila Suwara and Zuzana Husárová, Bratislava: SAP a Ústav svetovej literatúry, 2012, pp 241-264. (Slovak)
  • Ha!art 42(2): "Czeska i słowacka literatura nowomedialna", Kraków: Korporacja Ha!art, 2013. (Polish)
  • Michal Jareš, Veronika Ráczová, Ľubica Schmarcová, "Experimentálna línia", in Hľadanie súčasnosti. Slovenská literatúra začiatku 21. storočia, Bratislava: Literárne informačné centrum, 2014. [76] (Slovak)
  • Enter 24: "Kreatívny manuál pre slovenskú nekonvenčnú poéziu", ed. Michal Murin, Košice: Dive Buki, Dec 2015, 90 pp. [77] (Slovak)
  • Michal Murin, "Triangulačné body nekonvenčnej poézie na Slovensku", in Milan Adamčiak, Archív II (KOPO): konkrétna poézia 1964-1972, Košice: Dive Buki, 2016, pp 12-85. (Slovak)
  • Peter Zajac, "Optická poézia Milana Adamčiaka v kontexte slovenskej literatúry", in Milan Adamčiak, Archív II (KOPO): konkrétna poézia 1964-1972, Košice: Dive Buki, 2016, pp 294-326. (Slovak)
  • Zuzana Husárová, "Slovenská elektronická literatúra", World Literature Studies 3:8, 2016, pp 57-77. (Slovak)


  • Tadeusz Sławek, Między literami. Szkice o poezji konkretnej [Between Letters: Sketches on Concrete Poetry], Katowice: Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, 1989. (Polish)
  • Piotr Rypson, Obraz slowa historia poezji wisualnej, Warsaw, 1989, 373 pp. (Polish)
  • Małgorzata Dawidek Gryglicka, Historia tekstu wizualnego. Polska po 1967 roku, Kraków: Korporacja Ha!art, 2012, 752 pp. Review: Kearns (Enclave). (Polish)



  • Andrei Oisteanu, "The Romanian Avant-Garde And Visual Poetry", in Dada East? The Romanians of Cabaret Voltaire, eds. Adrian Notz and, Zurich: Cabaret Voltaire, and Bucharest:, 2007; repr. in Exquisite Corpse. A Journal of Letters and Life, n.d. (English)

East Germany[edit]

  • Liselotte Gimpel, "Concrete" Poetry from East and West Germany: The Language of Exemplarism and Experimentalism, Yale University Press, 1977, xvi+268 pp. Reviews: Butler (J Eur Stud), O'Swald (GDR Bulletin), Weimar (GDR Bulletin). (English)

Latin America[edit]

See also[edit]

Women in concrete poetry, Sound poetry, Conceptual writing, Artists' publishing, Typewriter art, Code poetry

styles, movements and cultures

Avant-garde and modernist magazines, Artists' publishing, Vorticism, Dada, Zenitism, Estridentismo, Surrealism, Concrete poetry, Zine culture, Afrofuturism, Digital libraries, Code poetry, Conceptual literature, Alternative literature, Conceptual comics.
See also Artists' cultures.