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Artists and groups[edit]


  • Proljetni (Spring) Salon, the first avant-garde activity in Zagreb, 1916
  • 1923, the first Zenithist soirees in Belgrade and Zagreb, organised by Micić


  • Zenit: International Review of Arts and Culture was a Yugoslav avant-garde magazine published in 43 numbers in 34 volumes in Zagreb (Feb 1921-May 1923) and Belgrade (Jun 1923-Dec 1926). Its founder, editor and the chief ideologist of the Zenitist aesthetics Ljubomir Micić, a poet and art critic, was the main progenitor of the avant-garde in Croatia and Serbia during the first half of the 1920s.


  • Ljubomir Micić, Ivan Goll and Bosko Tokin, "Manifest Zenitizma" [Zenithist Manifesto], Zenit no. 1, Zagreb, 1921. [5]
  • Branko Ve Poljanski, "Manifesto", Svetokret, 1921.
  • Ljubomir Micić, "Man and Art", Zenit, 1921.
  • Ljubomir Micić, "The Spirit of Zenithism", Zenit, 1921.
  • Ivan Goll, "Expressionism is Dying", Zenit, 1921.
  • Ljubomir Micić, "Šimi na groblju latinske četvrti, Zenitistički Radio-Film od 17 sočinenija" [Shimmy at the Latin Quarter Graveyard, Zenitist Radio-Film in 17 Parts], Zenit, 1922. In his prose text, Micić used constructivist and montage principles of cinema. He christened this new narrative structure "radio-film".
  • Ljubomir Micić, "A Categorical Imperative of the Zenithist School of Poetry", in The Rescue Car, 1922.
  • Ljubomir Micić, Zenithism as the Balkan Totalizer of New Life, manifesto, Zenit, 1923.
  • Drago Ibler, "Group Zemlja Manifesto", 22 May 1929. [6]
  • Traveleri, manifesto, 1930


  • Jadranka Vinterhalter (ed.), Prodori avangarde u hrvatskoj umjetnosti prve polovice 20.stoljeca / Flashes od avant-garde in the croatian art of the first half of the 20th century, Zagreb: MSU, 2007. [7]
  • Darko Šimičić, "Strategije u borbi za novu umjetnost. Zenitizam i dada u srednjoeuropskom kontekstu", in Moderna umjetnost u Hrvatskoj, 1898.-1975., Zagreb: Institut za povijest umjetnosti, 2012, pp 40-65. (Croatian)
  • Daina Glavočić, "D’Annunzio i riječki futurizam", in Moderna umjetnost u Hrvatskoj, 1898.-1975., Zagreb: Institut za povijest umjetnosti, 2012, pp 66-89. (Croatian)


  • Karpo Acimovic-Godina, The Medusa Raft (Splav meduze, 1980). Film about Zenithists. [15]


Experimental film[edit]

"In all of the former Yugoslavia experimental film almost unfailingly derived from the tradition of the so-called amateur film, whose home ground consisted in the numerous cinema clubs (kino klub) that flourished in all major cities of the former federation. The line separating amateur film from experimental film is thus unclear not only due to the subjectivity of judgment, but also because the former term in its most widely accepted meaning refers to the production conditions, while the latter term designates the aspirations, procedures, and effects of a specific cinematic expression. Furthermore, the terms experimental film and its more or less synonymous avant-garde film never really took hold in our current or former countries; thus the Croatian (or more specifically the Zagreb) school tried to shape new theories and practices, such as “antifilm”, while the Belgrade school struggled with the even looser term of “alternative film”." (from This is All Film! catalog)


  • Zlatko Hajdler
1950s-1960s - the second avant-garde
  • Zagreb: Vladimir Petek, Mihovil Pansini, Tomislav Gotovac, Tomislav Kobija, Ivo Lukas, Goran Švob
    • FAVIT (Film, Audiovisual Investigations, Television) was founded by Vladimir Petek. In 1973, Camera, a group of Zagreb-based artists, published a text titled "Nova forme udruživanja i rada" (New Forms of Organization and Work), which included documents on Camera's activities since 1965. This group embraced all of the findings of the avant-garde expression and explored the dominant visual dimensions. The group Tok from 1972 predominantly focused on interventions in space with mixed media. An artist active in both groups, Petek founded the group FAVIT in 1972. The first FAVIT program was presented at the April Meetings in Belgrade in 1973. It comprised works made on film and videotape, audiovisual interventions, animated paintings, multiple projections, and contacts with the audience, which directly participated in the program. Petek also produced the FAVIT magazine, which was distributed among the viewers. The first issue (No. 0) of the magazine was recorded on film, and viewers received copies of it.
  • Split: Ivan Martinac, Ranko Kursar, Nakic, Lordan Zafranović, Andrija Pivčević, Ante Verzotti.
  • Lordan Zafranović. His first films made in the early 1960s were mostly experimental shorts with themes stretching from existentialist romanticism to the grotesque and absurd. [16] [17]
  • Ivan Ladislav Galeta
  • Split: Petar Fradelic, Branko Karabatic, Zdravko Mustac, Boris Poljak.
  • Kuduz, Knezevic, Tikulin, Bukovac, Simonovic-Narath, Zanki.

Film theory[edit]

Mihovil Pansini: antifilm (in use since 1962)


Amateur cinema clubs in Yugoslavia (or cine clubs) were the basic organizational units for amateur filmmakers. Originally they were formally dependent "film sections" of photo clubs, with the first photo clubs in the region organized in the late 19th century. After the Second World War, photographers and filmmakers often formed clubs together; one such example was the Janez Puhar Photo-Cinema Club in Kranj. Initially, photo clubs covered a wide range of activities and took on the role and responsibilities of cultural and educational institutions that had not yet been set up. Their scope was, however, limited: they provided premises for meetings, some equipment and materials, they organized courses and enabled their members to enter their works for festivals, which did not accept independent filmmakers. As amateur clubs had been the domain of the bourgeoisie before the war, an umbrella organization was set up for them after the Second World War, Popular Engineering Society (Ljudska tehnika). This was to ensure that representatives of the working class also joined the clubs and in part also to supervise the clubs for any potentially subversive activities. In the 1970s the clubs gradually became less significant, although some exist as associations to this day.

  • Split Cinema Club (Kino klub Split) was founded in 1952. With 313 short films produced and four generations of authors, it is also referred to as the "Split Film School". This denomination has two actual meanings, one in terms of continuity of the style of it; and which does not distinguish production from individuals as separate phenomena, but as mere curiosity. Generations of Split authors were also strongly influenced by "editing in the square", advocated along with the concept of pure film of the early avant-garde by Ivan Martinac, a dominant figure in the Split film circle. His films, characterized by contemplative style and strict form, are rhythmic poetic reflections on life and death, space and time, in the search for the pure film and the "film of state". The first generation comprises the founders of the club in the 1950s (Nozica, Bogdanovic), while the second, active in the 1960s, is considered the "golden" one, which saw the most prolific and radical film activity (Zafranović, Verzotti, Nakić, Pivčević, Kursar, Crvelin, Drušković and Buljević). In the following decade the third generation (Karabatić, Tasić, Bošnjak, Bojić) still displayed a recognizable touch, while the last generation, active in the 1980s, introduced some novelties into the filmic expression of the day (Batinović, Bezi, Fradelić, Mustać, Poljak, Stambuk). Kino klub Split is still active.
  • Zagreb Cinema Club (Kino klub Zagreb) was founded in 1928 what makes it the oldest amateur club in south-eastern Europe. The most important authors of the 1930s were Maksimilijan Paspa and Oktavije Miletic, who left behind a series of family, travel and documentary films. After the Second World War the Club joined Foto Savez Hrvatske and later Narodna Tehnika. In the 1950s it gathered a number of young people who would initiate an active and prolific period of film production: Mihovil Pansini, Tomislav Kobija, Vladimir Petek, Tomislav Gotovac, and many others. At the beginning of the 1960s, Pansini and Kobija initiated lively discussions on the concept of antifilm, and co-founded the GEFF festival. The "structuralist" inclinations of the Club were mainly marked by deliberation and experimentation with the medium. Later the club served as a springboard point for almost half of the film professionals in Croatia. During the club's many years they have worked on various ways of approaching audiovisual culture. Today the cinema club organizes workshops, produces independent short and feature films, takes part in the coordination of the One Take Film Festival, and more.
  • Film Authors Studio (FAS) was the first independent and autonomous production house in Yugoslavia, established in 1967 as a collaboration of Zagreb and Split Cinema Clubs. FAS operated until 1973 under the management of Kruno Heidler. The motives for associating in FAS were new organizational forms of cooperation in all stages of film production, independence from professional production, openness toward authorial concepts and practices, filmmaking under guerrilla conditions, and lastly, modernism and new poetics. In addition to renowned professionals, such as Branko Bauer, Branko Majer, Zlatko Sudović, Mate Relja and Dusan Vukotić, Ivo Škrabal and Fadil Hadžić, new young filmmakers too gathered around FAS: Lordan Zafranović, Vladimir Petek, Ranko Kursar, Ivan Martinac, Petar Krelja, Milivoj Puhlovski, Zoran Tadić, Ante Peterlić, Miroslav Mikuljan, and Tomislav Radić. Most of the Studio film authors were Croatian, some Slovenians too were involved, like Karpo Godina, who realized his Piknik v nedeljo (Picnic on Sunday) there. FAS films tended to do quite well each year at the festival of documentary film in Belgrade, particularly owing to their provocative and innovative approaches to their chosen themes. Five feature films were produced by FAS, as well as some 50 shorts.
  • Pan 69. Mladen Stilinović: "Together with Milivoj Puhovski, Degenek and Boris Bata we formed the student film club Pan 69. Through the Union of Socialist Youth we received some funds to buy the necessary equipment and start making films. At first Pan 69 had six or seven members. The first film produced by Pan was Miša Budisavljević's film in 1969, which was screened at GEFF. Pan 69 held film screenings in Zagreb and Belgrade: at the Zagreb Cinema Club Pan 69 had regular nights, as it did in Belgrade at the SKC (Students Cultural Center)."

Festivals and exhibitions[edit]

In the 1960s and 1970s, experimental films were shown almost exclusively at various amateur film festivals organized under the auspices of the Photo-Cinema Association, which was part of the umbrella organization Popular Engineering Society (Ljudska tehnika). The festivals were in fact organized in a system that echoed that of the organizational structure of Ljudska technika or the federal state structure. The basic units in the system were cinema clubs, whose members could enter films for festival consideration; as a rule, filmmakers could not work independently, although there were some exceptions. Following an agreement with the Republic or Federal Subcommittee for Film of the Photo-Cinema Association the individual cinema club would then hold a festival. Initially, the festivals were divided into non-competitive reviews and competitive festivals and then structured hierarchically like the main organization into club, interclub, regional, republic-wide, and federal festivals. The latter two related, as only films that had been successful at the republican level could be entered for federal festivals. This restriction proved too harsh as the federal festival came to be seen as prestigious, and was abandoned in 1970. Although formally only events at club or interclub level, some of them were nonetheless held in high esteem, depending on the organization and the filmmakers they managed to attract. As a result, filmmakers valued GEFF, MAFAF, 8 mm in Novi Sad, the Alternative Film Festival in Split, and the Alternatives in Belgrade more than they did the federal festival.

  • GEFF (Genre Experimental Film Festival) was established in Zagreb and held in 1963, 1965, 1967 and the last in 1970. The festival attracted film enthusiasts, some of whom would later become well known movie directors, and the films of the cinema clubs from the entire former Yugoslavia. As early as the first edition of the festival, called "Antifilm and New Tendencies in Cinematography", GEFF's inclination to connect more human activities was expressed, not only in the field of art, but in science and technology as well, all in the name of experimentation and research. The themes of the festivals to follow were: "Exploration of Cinematography and Exploration through Cinematography" (1965), "Cybernetics and Aesthetics" (1967), and "Sexuality as a New Road towards Humanity" (1970). Various research programs and approaches procured by other disciplines were used in the process. The first GEFF - "the first meeting of film experimentators" - is also the one on which we have the largest body of information.
  • MAFAF (Mala Pula; Meduklupski i autorski festival amaterskog filma; Interclub Amateur and Artist Film Festival). In 1957 the organisers of the Pula Festival of Yugoslavian professional film invited cinema amateurs to show their work. All amateur cinema clubs were invited, but at such short notice that only the Belgrade Cinema Club managed to participate. This event later gave rise to the forming of MAFAF, one of the most important amateur film festivals in Yugoslavia, sometimes referred to as Mala Pula (Minor Pula) in allusion to the Pula Film Festival. MAFAF was organised by the Belgrade Cinema Club and Pula Cinema Club in Pula between 1965 and 1990. The initiative for the festival came from the Pula club Jelen. Film screenings took place outdoors, in the garden of the Museum of the Revolution, a few days before the Pula Yugoslavian Film Festival. This timing ensured the atttendance of many authors, spectators, and journalists. During the festival courses were organized for film amateurs. Juries were mostly comprised of prominent young directors, renowned critics and theoreticians, and award-winning amateurs, all of whom shared great sympathy for explorations and research in film. This encouraged the participation of many authors who later became the great names of Yugoslavian film: Lordan Zafranović, Karpo Godina, Želimir Žilnik, Srdan Karanović, Franci Slak, Vilko Filač, and the more avant-garde Mihovil Pansini, Vladimir Petek, Tomislav Gotovac, Ivan Martinac, Miro Mikuljan, Ivica Matić, etc.
  • Alternative Film Festival Split
  • avant-garde film exhibition in Lodz, Poland in 1978
  • "Third International Avant-Garde Festival" at National Film Theatre in London, 1979
  • "Film as Film" exhibition at Hayward Gallery, London, 1979
  • Genoa 1980
  • "The Other Side: European Avant-Garde Cinema 1960-1980", The American Federation of Art program
  • This Is All Film! Experimental Film in Yugoslavia 1951-1991, 2010-2011, Museum of Modern Art Ljubljana


  • Hvorje Turkovic, "Croatian Avant-Garde Scene", Zagreb, 1993. [18]
  • Heiko Daxl, "Film and Video-art in Croatia. Fragmentary Sketches of a History and a Description of the Status Quo", August 1993. (English), (German)
  • Andrew J Horton, "Avant-garde Film and Video in Croatia" Central European Review (November 1998) [19] (English)
  • "Uncharted Serbia: The Avant-Garde of the Kino Clubs", film selection with an introduction, 2009. [20]
  • Branka Benčić, Diana Nenadić, Adriana Perojević, Splitska škola filma – 60 godina Kino kluba Split, 2012. With DVD. (in English/Croatian) [21] [22]
  • Nevena Daković, "The Unfilmable Scenario and Neglected Theory: Yugoslav Film Avant-Garde: 1895-1992" in Impossible Histories: Historical Avant-gardes, Neo-avant-gardes, and Post-avant-gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918-1991, eds. Dubravka Djurić and Miško Šuvaković, MIT Press, 2003, pp 466-489. (English)
  • "Experimental Ex-Yu", film selection with an introduction, 2009. [23]
  • Ana Janevski (ed.): As Soon as I Open My Eyes I See a Film. Experiment in the Art of Yugoslavia in the 1960s and 1970s, Warsaw: Museum of Modern Art, 2010. With essays by Ana Janevski (on experimental art and film in Yugoslavia), Stevan Vuković (on political upheaval in 1968 in Belgrade), and Łukasz Ronduda (on contacts between Yugoslav and Polish artists in the 1970s). Publisher. Exhibition. Interview with Ana Janevski, June 2011.
    • Kiedy rano otwieram oczy, widzę film. Eksperyment w sztuce Jugoslawii w latach 60. i 70., Warsaw: Muzeum Sztuki Nowoczesnej w Warszawie, 2011. Excerpt. (Polish)
  • Bojana Piškur et al (eds.), This Is All Film: Experimental Film in Yugoslavia 1951-1991 [Vse to je film: Eksperimentalni film v Jugoslaviji 1951-1991], catalogue, Museum of Modern Art, Ljubljana, 2010. 154 pages. ISBN: 9789612060909
  • Pavle Levi, Cinema by Other Means, Oxford University Press, 2012, 224 pp. [24]

Action art, happening, performance, body art[edit]


  • Ivana Mance, "Performance Art Practices in Croatia from the Late 1960s through the late 1980s: An Essay in Genealogy", Centropa 14:1, Jan 2014. [25] (English)
  • Suzana Marjanić, Kronotop hrvatskoga performansa: od Travelera do danas, 3 vols., Zagreb : Udruga Bijeli val: Institut za etnologiju i folkloristiku: Školska knjiga, 2014, 2008 pp. TOC. [26] (Croatian)

Visual poetry, Concrete poetry, Lettrism[edit]


Conceptual art[edit]



Geometric abstraction, Neo-constructivism, Op art, Kinetic art[edit]




See also New Tendencies.


Electroacoustic music[edit]


  • Dubravko Detoni [36]
  • Davorin Kempf
  • Ivo Malec. Moved to Paris in 1955, since 1959 active member of Groupe de musique concrète directed by Pierre Schaeffer. He then started to work at the Research Services of the french national broadacsting services (ORTF) and within the Groupe de recherche musicale (GRM). He's the co-founder of Ensemble Musique Plus, and he's teaching compostion at the Conservatoire national supérieur de musique in Paris from 1972 to 1990, pursuing at the same period his conductor work. [37]
  • Martin Davorin-Jagodić


  • Davorin Kempf, Synthesis for electronics and chamber ensemble (1979)
  • Davorin Kempf, Spectrum for orchestra and electronics (1985)
  • In Search of a New Sound: 1956-1984. Anthology of Electroacoustic Music from Croatia, 2-CD, ed. Višeslav Laboš, Zagreb: Croatia Records & Mama, 2016. [38]


Computer and computer-aided art[edit]

New Tendencies network (includes individual artists and bibliography)

Video art[edit]






  • Heiko Daxl, "Film and Video-art in Croatia. Fragmentary Sketches of a History and a Description of the Status Quo", August 1993. (English), (German)
  • Tihomir Milovac (ed.): Insert / Retrospective of Croatian Video Art, MSU: Zagreb, 2008. The publication is a follow-up of the museum’s 2005 retrospective and presents the works of some one hundred video artists on 360 pages with 466 reproductions, in Croatian and English. Authors: Tihomir Milovac, Silva Kalčić, Antonija Majača, Branko Franceschi. [41]
  • Andrew J Horton, "Avant-garde Film and Video in Croatia" Central European Review (November 1998) [42] (English)

New media art, Media culture[edit]


Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Čakovec, Dubrovnik, Kalebova Luka, Karlovac, Krizevci, Labin, Osijek, Ražanj, Vis, Zadar.







Art theory and art history[edit]

Matko Meštrović, Božo Bek, Dimitrije Bašičević, Željko Bujas, Grgo Gamulin, Vera Horvat-Pintarić

More artists[edit]

avant-garde, modernism and after

Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Central and Eastern Europe, Chile, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kosova, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Slovenia, Slovakia, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States