From Monoskop
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Artist organisations and para-institutional practices of the 1990s (on Monoskop).


Longer term research projects on the visual arts of the 1990s: works, exhibitions, symposia, publications, resources.

platforms, resources, living archives[edit]

Monument to Transformation[edit]

The question we put to ourselves in the autumn of 2006 was a relatively simple one: What has happened in the twenty years since the fall of the "Iron Curtain" to us, to the artistic imagination, to society? How are we to relate today to the twenty-year period of transformation that we were, and still are, part of? [3]

  • Atlas Transformace, eds. Zbyněk Baladrán and Vít Havránek with Věra Krejčová, Prague: tranzit.cz, 2009, 811 pp, HTML. Glossary on "processes of social and political change in transformation countries", with over 200 entries by over 100 authors. Project website. Publisher, [9]. (Czech)
  • Atlas of Transformation, eds. Zbyněk Baladrán and Vít Havránek, Zurich: JRP Ringier, and Prague: tranzit.cz, Sep 2010, 720 pp, HTML. Publisher, [10].

Former West[edit]

If the “former East” emerged in the aftermath of the Cold War in 1989, its western geo-political counterpart—blinded by the (seemingly default) victory of neoliberal capitalism—has widely failed to recognize the impact of these massive changes upon itself. The so-called West has continued to think and act, symbolically and realistically, as “first” among what were supposed to have become equal if heterogeneous provinces of one world. One wonders precisely why then, when there is a “former East,” there is no “former West”? [11]
  • Former West, 2008-2016. "A transnational research, education, publishing, and exhibition project in the field of contemporary art and theory. The project grapples with the repercussions of the political, cultural, and economic events of 1989 for the contemporary condition. It does so in the search for ways of formerizing the persistently hegemonic conjuncture that is “the West”; to be able instead to simply refer to “the west,” and with it, suggest the possibility of producing new constellations, another world, other worldings." Initiated by Maria Hlavajova (BAK), Charles Esche (Van Abbemuseum) and Katrin Rhomberg. Chronicle. Publication. Editorial meetings. Congresses. VIDEO. Exhibitions. Seminars. Library. Interviews.
Hlavajova Maria Sheikh Simon eds Former West Art and the Contemporary After 1989 2016.jpg
  • Former West: Art and the Contemporary After 1989, eds. Maria Hlavajova and Simon Sheikh, Utrecht: BAK basis actuele kunst, Dec 2016, 748 pp. TOC, Preface, Editors' Note, [13], TOC, [14], [15]. "The Cold War was a contest not between two ideological blocs but between two variants of Western modernity. It is this conceptual “Westcentrism” that a “formering” of the West seeks to undo. The contributions revisit contemporary debates through the lens of a “former West.” They rethink conceptions of time and space dominating the legacy of the 1989–1990 revolutions in the former East, and critique historical periodization of the contemporary. The contributors map the political economy and social relations of the contemporary, consider the implications of algorithmic cultures and the posthuman condition, and discuss notions of solidarity — the difficulty in constructing a new “we” despite migration, the refugee crisis, and the global class recomposition." Contributors: Nancy Adajania, Edit András, Athena Athanasiou, Zygmunt Bauman, Dave Beech, Brett Bloom, Rosi Braidotti, Susan Buck-Morss, Campus in Camps, Dipesh Chakrabarty, Chto Delat?/What is to be done?, Jodi Dean, Angela Dimitrakaki, Dilar Dirik, Marlene Dumas, Keller Easterling, Okwui Enwezor, Charles Esche, Silvia Federici, Mark Fisher, Federica Giardini and Anna Simone, Boris Groys, Gulf Labor Coalition, Stefano Harney, Sharon Hayes, Brian Holmes, Tung-Hui Hu, Wendy Hui Kyong Chun, Sami Khatib, Delaine Le Bas, Boaz Levin and Vera Tollmann, Isabell Lorey, Sven Lütticken, Ewa Majewska, Artemy Magun, Suhail Malik, Teresa Margolles, Achille Mbembe, Laura McLean, Cuauhtémoc Medina, Sandro Mezzadra, Walter D. Mignolo, Aernout Mik, Angela Mitropoulos, Rastko Močnik, Nástio Mosquito, Rabih Mroué, Pedro Neves Marques, Peter Osborne, Matteo Pasquinelli, Andrea Phillips, Nina Power, Vijay Prashad, Gerald Raunig, Irit Rogoff, Boaventura de Sousa Santos, Naoki Sakai, Rasha Salti, Francesco Salvini, Christoph Schlingensief, Georg Schöllhammer, Susan Schuppli, Andreas Siekmann, Jonas Staal, Hito Steyerl, Mladen Stilinović, Paulo Tavares, Trịnh T. Minh-Hà, Mona Vătămanu and Florin Tudor, Marina Vishmidt, Marion von Osten, McKenzie Wark, and Eyal Weizman. Publisher. Reviews: McQuillen (SEEJ), Mavrokordopoulou (Critique d’art). Commentary: Gronemeyer, Lerm Hayes.

autonomie + funktionalisierung der kunst[edit]

In contrast to the previous West German art centre of Cologne, Berlin in the 1990s offered available primeval wastelands, empty spaces and undefined interstices that were an essential moment in the development of artistic productions and practices. Of formative and exemplary importance were the slowly contouring urban cultural policies, their discourse and participation practices, as well as the economic and political concepts that promoted the arts, art projects and artists in various forms and used them, among other things, for the representation of the German capital. [16]
  • Autonomie und Funktionalisierung, research project, Institute for History and Theory of Design at the University of the Arts (UdK), Berlin, 2017-2019. A cultural-historical-aesthetic analysis of the concepts of art in the visual and performative arts in Berlin from the 1990s until today. Focuses on four strands of artistic practice: political art, art as social work, participatory art, and art as a form of knowledge/artistic research. Initiated by Judith Siegmund. Events. Conference. Publications. [17]
  • Sabeth Buchmann, "Zwischen Projekt und Bartleby: Tunix im Widerspruch", in Wiedersehen in TUNIX! Ein Handbuch zur Berliner Projektekultur, eds. Anina Falasca, Annette Maechtel, and Heimo Lattner, Berlin: eeclectic, 2018. (German)

  • Annette Maechtel, Das Temporäre politisch denken. Raumproduktion im Berlin der frühen 1990er Jahre [Thinking the Temporary Politically. Space Production in Berlin in the Early 1990s], Berlin: b_books, 2020, 448 pp. Along the spaces, groups, discourses, media and fields of practice that the heterogeneous constellation Botschaft e.V. produced in the six years of its existence from 1990 to 1996, the book draws a differentiated picture of the production of space in the period of the early 1990s in Berlin. The book is the documentation of a process, an analysis, but also a manifesto of a temporary production of space in the context of art and the city. Based on PhD thesis (HGB Leipzig, 2018). TOC. Publisher. Video talk (2017). Book launch. Review: Conrads (TAZ). (German)
  • Knut Ebeling, Annette Maechtel, Heimo Lattner (eds.), Never Mind the Nineties. Eine Medienarchäologie des Kunststandorts Berlin, Hamburg: adocs, and Berlin: Eeclectic, Mar 2021, 146 pp. Excerpt. Contributions by Ulrike Steglich, Stephan Geene, Bettina Allamoda, Waling Boers, Mo Loschelder, Manuel Zimmer, Carl Hegemann and Bernd Frank. Publisher. Publisher. Seminars. (German)
  • Birgit Eusterschulte, Christian Krüger (eds.), Involvierte Autonomie. Künstlerische Praxis zwischen Engagement und Eigenlogik, Bielefeld: transcript, Jul 2022, 230 pp. From different disciplinary perspectives, the contributors to this volume explore the contradictions of a false juxtaposition of autonomy and engagement and redefine differentiated strategies and heteronomous interconnections of artistic practice against tendencies of one-sided functionalisation. Based on the project's closing conference. Publisher. (German),(English)

Our Many Europes[edit]

  • Our Many Europes (OME), 2018-2022. "Programme focusing on the 1990s: the decade contemporary Europe was born." Organised by the museum confederation L'Internationale. [18]
  • Glossary of Common Knowledge, 2 vols., ed. Ida Hiršenfelder, Ljubljana: Moderna galerija, 2018, 352 pp; Dec 2022, 304 pp. Glossary entries produced through seminars (2014-2022), focusing on selected referential fields: historicisation, subjectivisation, geopolitics, constituencies, commons, other-institutionality, and commons/solidarity. Vol. 1 contains 86 terms from 66 contributors, vol. 2 contains 57 terms proposed from 51 contributors. Curated by Zdenka Badovinac, Bojana Piškur and Jesús Carrillo (MNCARS) in collaboration with L’Internationale, et al. Excerpt (v.1), [19]. Excerpt (v.2). Project website (MG), Project website (L'Internationale), Log. [20]

  • Spoznanje! Upor! Reakcija! Performans in politika v devetdesetih letih v pojugoslovanskem kontekstu / Realize! Resist! React! Performance and Politics in the 1990s in the Post-Yugoslav Context, ed. Bojana Piškur, Ljubljana: Moderna galerija, 2021, 257 pp. Explores different trajectories of political performance, especially what it brought to, meant, or changed in the broader field of art of the 1990s post-Yugoslavia, as well as the connections between performances and political and ideological structures from which these performances emerged. Exh. with 120+ artworks, archival materials, and video documents, and is structured around the following topics: war, nationalism, the body, new spaces, demonstrations, states, territories, new borders, the Other, feminism, and media. Texts by Bojana Piškur, Rok Vevar and Jasmina Založnik, Jasna Jakšić, Asja Mandić, Vida Knežević, Biljana Tanurovska-Kjulavkovski and Ivana Vaseva, Linda Gusia and Nita Luci, and Zdenka Badovinac. Publisher. Exhibition held at MG+MSUM Metelkova, Ljubljana, 24 Jun-10 Oct 2021. Curator: Bojana Piškur; guest curators: Linda Gusia, Jasna Jakšić, Vida Knežević, Nita Luci, Asja Mandić, Biljana Tanurovska-Kjulavkovski, Ivana Vaseva, Rok Vevar, Jasmina Založnik. Exh. photo. Exh. review: Lépold (Artmagazin). Commentary: Kraner (Maska). (Slovenian)/(English)
  • Lenin Was a Mushroom – Moving Images in the 1990s, exhibition, Antwerp: M HKA, 2022. Looks at moving images that offered reflections of the era but also new modes and means for image-making through the technological advancements adopted by artists. Exhibition held at Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst Antwerpen (M HKA), 3 Jun-21 Aug 2022; curated by Nav Haq. Artists: AMVK, Aernout Mik, Amar Kanwar, Andrea Fraser, Artūras Raila, David Claerbout, Gianni Motti, Gillian Wearing, Hänzel & Gretzel, Johan Grimonprez, Nedko Solakov, Pipilotti Rist, Rosalind Nashashibi, Rosângela Rennó, Şener Özmen & Erkan Özgen, Sergey Kuryokhin & Sergey Sholokhov, Shilpa Gupta, and Stan Douglas. VIDEO trailer. [21]
  • Rewinding Internationalism: Scenes from the 90s, Today, ed. Nick Aikens, Eindhoven: Van Abbemuseum, 2023, 176 pp. Contributions by Nick Aikens, Sara Buraya Boned, Pablo Martinez, Bojana Piškur, Grace Samboh, Rachel Surijata. Exh. comprises work by over 35 artists and collectives, including 5 new commissions, 4 collaborative research projects and several loans. Exh. held at Netwerk Aalst, Alost (BE), 19 Feb-1 May 2022; Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, 19 Nov 2022-30 Apr 2023, [22]; Villa-Arson, Nice, 17 June-28 August 2023. Curated by Nick Aikens. Conference.
The early 1990s – the time of transition from socialism to capitalism in the territory of the former Yugoslavia – saw some fundamental shifts in the way artists’ work was perceived, as well as structural changes of spaces of art. And more than that: in the post-socialist world, artists’ production time changed as well. [23]
  • Umetnost na delu. Na razpotju med utopijo in (ne)odvisnostjo / Art at Work: At the Crossroads between Utopianism and (In)Dependence, ed. Tamara Soban, Ljubljana: Moderna galerija, 2022, 176 pp. Looks at three different segments of the genealogy of the concept of (artistic) work in the region: first, the way work was conceived by the avant-garde artists of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s; next, the transformations of the concept of artistic work and art spaces in the 1990s; and lastly, the labour-related political art practices since 2000. Exh. with works by more than 50 artists, art collectives and associations. Texts by Zdenka Badovinac, Sezgin Boynik, Vida Knežević, Bojana Piškur, Tjaša Pureber, Igor Španjol, Jelena Vesić. Publisher. Exhibition held at MG+MSUM Metelkova, Ljubljana, 22 Sep 2022-29 Jan 2023. Curators: Zdenka Badovinac, Ana Mizerit, Bojana Piškur, Igor Španjol. Exh. review: Miklič (Koridor), pt. 2, pt. 3. Symposium. (Slovenian)/(English)
  • The Legacy of Independent Projects in the 1990s, symposium, Museum of Contemporary Art Metelkova, +MSUM, 19 Nov 2022. Concept: Igor Španjol. Participants: Ana Đikoli, Nikola Gelevski, Davor Mišković, Ana Panić, Vladimir Vidmar, Natalija Vujošević, Miha Zadnikar. VIDEO.
  • Preparing to Exit: Art, Interventionism and the 1990s, ed. L'Internationale Online, forew. Nick Aikens and David Crowley, L'Internationale Online, Dec 2022, 203 pp, HTML. Six case studies of activities on the border between artistic practice and activism, sometimes operating as para-institutional organisations, presenting different motivations, forms and strategies for the possibility of ‘preparing to exit’ colonialist-capitalist state structures. Contributors: Nick Aikens, David Crowley, Clémentine Deliss, Fernanda Laguna, Asja Mandić, Leónidas Martín, Alessandra Pomarico, Seda Yıldız. Publisher. Announcement.
  • Sahnede 90'lar / The 90s Onstage, exhibition, Salt, Istanbul, 2022. Traces the intersection of a diverse range of performances in Turkey that gained an increasing visibility in parks, bars, historical landmarks, abandoned sites, and off-the-beaten path, exploring unexpected connections that contribute to a broader understanding of the “stage”. Exhibition held at Salt Beyoğlu and Salt Galata, Istanbul, 15 Sep 2022-2 Apr 2023. Announcement. Exh. VIDEO (TRT). Exh. review: Genç (Artforum), Yildiz (ArtAsiaPacific), Hattam (Hyperallergic). With web project Research on Performance in Turkey 1984-1999, [24]. Series of talks. [25]

We Have Never Been Closer[edit]

Can strange things in white cubes, black boxes or public spaces still be transgressive at all? Should artists and cultural workers find fulfilment in the very possibility to create and organise, and in the process somehow 'make a living'? Are we really in a situation where the endless catching up with the West in our region has turned into a cultural demarcation against it, but with no alternatives in sight? 
D'EPOG, Farewell, here it comes again!, 2022. Performative intervention in the We Have Never Been Closer exhibition. Video: Johana Novotná. Camera: Peter Važan. [1]
Nikdy sme neboli blizsie We Have Never Been Closer 2021.jpg
 Ferenc Gróf, Das Kapital Raum2, 2021, [42] pp. Typographical score for blackboard drawings.


Scholarly reception of arts and culture of the 1990s.


  • Seven Stories About Modern Art in Africa, ed. Clémentine Deliss, London: Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1995, 319 pp, IA. TOC. Exh. held at Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, 27 Sep-26 Nov 1995; Malmö Konsthall, 27 Jan-17 Mar 1996; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Jun-Sep 1996. Exh. review: Artforum. Commentary: Friedel (C&). [27]
  • Okwui Enwezor (ed.), The Short Century: Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa 1945-1994, Munich: Prestel, 2001, 496 pp, IA. Chronology. Exh. held at Museum Villa Stuck, Munich, Feb-Apr 2001; Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, May-Jul 2001; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Sep-Dec 2001; MoMA PS1, Feb-May 2002. Reviews: Jackson (Afr Stud R), Denzer (Antipode). Exh. reviews: Eze (Antipode), Demissie (Antipode), Beidelman (Am Anthr).
    • "O breve século: movimentos de independência e libertação na África, 1945-94: uma introdução", in Histórias afro-atlânticas, vol. 2: antologia, eds. Adriano Pedrosa, Amanda Carneiro, André Mesquita, São Paulo: Museu de Arte de São Paulo (MASP), and Instituto Tomie Ohtake, 2018. Trans. of Enwezor's introduction. (Brazilian Portuguese)
  • Okwui Enwezor, Chika Okeke-Agulu, Contemporary African Art Since 1980, Bologna: Damiani, 2009, 366 pp. Preface, Chs 1-7.
    • "Situando a arte contemporânea Africana", in Africa africans: arte contemporânea, São Paulo: Museu Afro Brasil, 2015. Trans. of Chapter 1 ("Situating Contemporary African Art"). (Brazilian Portuguese)


East Asia[edit]

  • Reinterpretation: A Decade of Experimental Chinese Art, 1990-2000. The First Guangzhou Triennial, eds. Wu Hung, Huangsheng Wang, and Buyi Feng, Guangzhou: Guangdong Art Museum, Dec 2002, 545 pp. Exh. catalogue. The three main themes of the exhibition are "Memory and Reality,' "Self and Environment," and "Global and Local." Excerpt: "'Experimental Exhibitions' of the 1990s". Commentary: Hung (Yishu). [31]
    • 首屆廣州當代藝術三年展 - 重新解讀: 中國實驗藝術十年, Guangzhou: Guangdong Museum of Art, 2002, 545 pp. [32] (Chinese)
  • The Multiform Nineties: Taiwan's Art Branches Out, Taipei City: Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Aug 2004, 233 pp. Exh. held 18 Sep-28 Nov 2004. Publisher. Symposium. (Chinese)/(English)
  • Echoes: Chengdu New Visual Art Documentary Exhibition 1989-2007 / 回響: 成都新視覺藝術文獻展 1989-2007, Chengdu: Sichuan Art Publishing Company, 2007, 222 pp. Exh. held at A Thousand Plateaus Art Space. [33] (Chinese)/(English)
  • Avant-Garde China: 20 Years of Chinese Contemporary Art, Tokyo: The National Art Center, and Osaka: The National Museum of Art, 2008, 184 pp. [34] (Japanese)/(English)
  • Action in China: Performance Art from 1980s to 1990s / 中國行動:八十年代到九十年代的行為藝術, ed. Pulin Wen, Beijing: Beijing Windhorse Mass Medium, 2009, 45 pp. [35] (Chinese)/(English)
  • On Yunnan: A Branch of Chinese Contemporary Art Since the 1990s / Chu yun nan ji: 90 nian dai yi lai de zhong guo dang dai yi shu zhi yi mai [出雲南記:90年代以來的中國當代藝術之一脈], ed. YE Yongqing (葉永青), Hong Kong: Beijing Center for the Arts Publishing House, 2010, 198 pp. Features around 40 works by 14 Yunnan-based artists. Exh. held 27 Mar-9 May 2010. [38] (Chinese)/(English)
  • Melissa Chiu, Benjamin Genocchio, Contemporary Asian Art, London: Thames & Hudson, 2010, 256 pp. TOC.
  • Melissa Chiu, Benjamin Genocchio (eds.), Contemporary Art in Asia: A Critical Reader, MIT Press, Feb 2011, 440 pp. "An anthology of critical writings to map the shift in both the nature and the reception of Asian art over the past twenty years." Publisher.
  • Artlink 33(1): "This Asian Century", Mar 2013. [39]
  • Jung-Yeon Ma (マ・ジョンヨン), Nihon media āto-shi / A Critical History of Media Art in Japan [日本メディアアート史], Tokyo: Artes, Dec 2014, ix+355 pp. Publisher. (Japanese)
  • We Can Make Another Future: Japanese Art After 1989, ed. Reuben Keehan, South Brisbane: Queensland Art Gallery/Gallery of Modern Art, 2014, 175 pp. "Surveys the art of Heisei, which commenced in 1989 with the ascension of Emperor Akihito, through 100 works by over 40 contemporary Japanese artists." TOC. Exh. held 6 Sep 2014-20 Sep 2015.
  • Art and China after 1989: Theater of the World, ed. Alexandra Munroe, New York: Guggenheim Museum, 2017, 324 pp. Catalogue. Features 150 works by 70 artists and collectives from 1989-2008. With contributions by Jane DeBevoise, Katherine Grube, Lu Mingjun, Stephanie H. Tung, Anthony Yung, Xiaorui Zhu-Nowell. Publisher. Exh. held 6 Oct 2017-7 Jan 2018. Curated by Alexandra Munroe with Philip Tinari and Hou Hanru.
  • Ajia ni mezametara āto ga kawaru, sekai ga kawaru 1960-1990-nendai / Awakenings: Art in Society in Asia 1960s–1990s [アジアにめざめたら:アートが変わる、世界が変わる 1960-1990年代], eds. Myungji Bae, Yu Jin Seng, and Katsuo Suzuki, Tokyo: National Museum of Modern Art, Oct 2018, 271 pp. Catalogue. Exh. held at The National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, 10 Oct-24 Dec 2018; National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Seoul, 31 Jan-6 May 2019; and National Gallery Singapore, 13 Jun-15 Sep 2019. Curatorial roundtable (video, 85 min). Exh. review: Keke (Artforum). [41] [42] [43] (Japanese)/(English)
    • 세상에 눈뜨다 : 아시아 미술과 사회 1960s-1990s / Awakenings: Art in Society in Asia 1960s–1990s, Seoul: National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, 2019, 325 pp. (Korean)/(English)
    • Awakenings: Art in Society in Asia 1960s–1990s, Singapore: National Gallery Singapore, 2019, 349 pp.
  • Performance Histories from East Asia 1960s–1990s: An IAPA Reader, ed. Victor Wang, London: DRAF (David Roberts Arts Foundation), 2018, 160 pp. Texts by KuroDalaiJee, Reiko Tomii, Joan Kee, Yao Jui Chung and Victor Wang. Editor. Exh. held at the David Roberts Art Foundation, London, 28 Sep-28 Oct 2018. Review: Churchman (ArtReview). [44]
  • Lü Peng (吕澎), Chinese Contemporary Art since 1989, trans. Bruce G. Doar, Paris: Somogy, 2018, 160 pp.
  • Parergon: Japanese Art of the 1980s and 1990s, ed. Mika Yoshitake, Skira, 2020, 256 pp. Exh. held at Nonaka-Hill, Los Angeles, 17 Feb-6 Apr 2019; Blum & Poe, Los Angeles, 14 Feb-23 Mar 2019, 6 Apr-19 May 2019. Publisher. Exh. review: Li (Art in America).
  • New Horizons: Ways of Seeing Hong Kong Art in the ‘80s and ‘90s, Hong Kong: Hong Kong Museum of Art, Feb 2021. Exh. booklet. Exh. "highlights art works by seven significant artists or artist collectives. It also restages models of iconic art spaces of the time, and illustrates the development of Hong Kong art during that period through archival materials such as books, posters, and newspaper clippings." Exh. held 4 Mar 2021-29 May 2022; curated by Janet Fong and Raymand Tang. Events. Announcement, [45]. Exh. reviews: Man Yee (OnCurating), Tsui (SCMP). [46] [47] (Chinese)/(English)
  • Peggy Wang, The Future History of Contemporary Chinese Art, University of Minnesota Press, 2021, 256 pp. Publisher.

Middle East[edit]

  • Contemporary Arab Women's Art: Dialogues of the Present, ed. Fran Lloyd, London: Women's Art Library, Dec 1999, 259 pp. TOC. Essay. Publisher. Review: Dietrich (Woman's Art J), Highet (Nka).

South Asia[edit]

  • 20th Century Indian Art: Modern, Postindependence, Contemporary, eds. Partha Mitter, Parul Dave Mukherji, and Rakhee Balaram, London: Thames & Hudson, 2022, 744 pp. TOC. Review: Bose (Telegraph India).

Southeast Asia[edit]

  • Outlet: Yogya dalam peta seni rupa kontemporer Indonesia, Yogyakarta: Yayasan Seni Cemeti, 2000, 249 pp. TOC. (Indonesian)
    • Outlet: Yogyakarta within the Contemporary Indonesian Art Scene, ed. Melissa Larner, trans. Landung Rusyanto Simatupang and Ruth Mackenzie, Yogyakarta: Cemeti Art Foundation, 2001, [201] pp. TOC. [52]
  • Post Đổi MớI: Vietnamese Art After 1990, Singapore: Singapore Art Museum, 2008, 195 pp. Exh. examined the impact of the Renovation policies on the development of art in Vietnam in the last two decades. 62 works by 46 artists were divided into 4 thematic sections — Individual, Land, Reminiscence and Transformation. Texts by Joyce FAN and TAN Siuli. Exh. held 12 May-28 Sep 2008. [53]
  • Essays on Modern and Contemporary Vietnamese Art, Singapore: Singapore Art Museum, 2009, xiv+398 pp. Based on the Symposium on Modern and Contemporary Vietnamese Art (16-18 May 2008) and the exhibition Post-Doi Moi: Vietnamese Art after 1990. TOC. (English),(Vietnamese)
  • Melissa Chiu, Benjamin Genocchio, Contemporary Asian Art, London: Thames & Hudson, 2010, 256 pp. TOC.
  • Melissa Chiu, Benjamin Genocchio (eds.), Contemporary Art in Asia: A Critical Reader, MIT Press, Feb 2011, 440 pp. "An anthology of critical writings to map the shift in both the nature and the reception of Asian art over the past twenty years." Publisher.
  • Artlink 33(1): "This Asian Century", Mar 2013. [54] [55]
  • Yvonne Spielmann, Indonesische Kunst der Gegenwart, Berlin: Logos, 2015, 203 pp. (German)
    • Contemporary Indonesian art: Artists, Art Spaces, and Collectors, trans. Mitch Cohen, Singapore: NUS Press, 2017, ix+178 pp.


  • Inke Arns, Netzkulturen, Hamburg: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Apr 2002. TOC. Review: Franz (MEDIENwiss). [56] (German)
  • Former West, transnational research, education, publishing, and exhibition project, 2008-2016.


  • Carl Aigner, Daniela Hölzl (eds.), Kunst und ihre Diskurse. Österreichische Kunst in den 80er und 90er Jahren, Vienna: Passagen, 1999, 216 pp. Publisher. (German)
  • Holger Kube Ventura, Politische Kunst-Begriffe. In den 1990er Jahren im deutschsprachigen Raum, Vienna: Selene, 2002, 349 pp. Based on PhD thesis (Kassel U, 2001). Reviews: Klix (ArtHist.net), Probst (Kunstforum). (German)
  • to expose, to show, to demonstrate, to inform, to offer: Artistic Practices around 1990, ed. Matthias Michalka, Vienna: mumok, and Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, 2015, 256 pp. From political activism to new forms of installation between Vienna, Cologne, and New York. Essays by Sabeth Buchmann, Helmut Draxler, Pamela M. Lee, Matthias Michalka. Interviews by/with Fareed Armaly/Julie Ault, Yves Aupetitallot, Judith Barry/Ken Saylor, Martin Beck/Stephan Dillemuth, and Matthias Michalka/Juliane Rebentisch. Artists and projects: ACME, ACT UP, A.N.Y.P., Fareed Armaly, ARTFAN, Judith Barry, Cosima von Bonin, Gregg Bordowitz, Botschaft e.V., Tom Burr, BüroBert, Clegg & Guttmann, DANK, Das ästhetische Feld, Democracy, Stephan Dillemuth, Mark Dion, DOCUMENTS, Dorit Margreiter – Mathias Poledna – Florian Pumhösl mit Ines Doujak und Hans Küng, Maria Eichhorn, Peter Fend, Andrea Fraser, Friesenwall 120, Game Girl, Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Renée Green, Group Material, If You Lived Here…, Informationsdienst, Michael Krebber, Louise Lawler, Zoe Leonard, Lesezimmer, Thomas Locher, Allan McCollum, META, minimal club, Regina Möller, Christian Philipp Müller, museum in progress, On the Museums Ruins, Stephen Prina, Gerwald Rockenschaub, Martha Rosler, Klaus Scherübel, Services, Jason Simon, Josef Strau, Texte zur Kunst, Third Text, The V-Girls, Octavian Trauttmansdorff, Vor der Information, when tekkno turns to sound of poetry, Christopher Williams, Fred Wilson, Heimo Zobernig. Excerpt. Publisher. Exhibition held at mumok, Vienna, 10 Oct 2015-14 Feb 2016. Press release, [57]. Exh. review: Demircan (Art Monthly). (English)/(German)
  • Die 90er Jahre. Sammlung der Stadt Wien - Wien Museum, MUSA / The 90s: Collection of the City of Vienna - Wien Museum, MUSA, eds. Brigitte Borchhardt-Birbaumer and Berthold Ecker, De Gruyter, 2018, 551 pp. Catalogue. Excerpt. Publisher. Exhibition held at the Wien Museum MUSA, 25 Apr 2018-20 Jan 2019. Exh. VIDEO. (German)/(English)
  • Time Is Thirsty, Vienna: Kunsthalle Wien, 2019, 76 pp. Exh. booklet. Ensemble of artworks and artefacts from 1992, the founding year of Kunsthalle Wien. Exhibition held 30 Oct 2019-26 Jan 2020. Curated by Luca Lo Pinto. Exh. reviews: McDermott (ArtReview), Feldman (Flash Art), Bradley (Frieze), Art Viewer.


  • Personal Time. Art of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1945-1996, Warsaw: Zachęta Gallery of Contemporary Art, 1996, 110 pp. Exh. held 9 Sep-13 Oct 1996.
  • Valiku Vabadus. 1990. aastate Eesti Kunst / Freedom of Choice. Estonian Art of the 1990’s, Tallinn: Tallinna Kunstihoone, 1999, 191 pp. (Estonian)/(English)
  • Lietuvos daolė 1989-1999: dešimt metų / Lithuanian Art, 1989–1999: The Ten Years, ed. Kestutis Kuizinas, Vilnius: Contemporary Art Centre, 1999, 278 pp. Exh. held 10 Sep–24 Oct 1999. (Lithuanian)/(English)
  • The Baltic Times. Contemporary Art from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, Zagreb: Museum of Contemporary Art, 2001.
  • Kogutud kriisid: Eesti kunst 1990.aastatel / Collected Crises. Estonian Art in the 1990s, Tallinn: Eesti Kunstimuuseum, 2006. Exh. held 7 Jul 2006-5 Feb 2007. (Estonian)/(English)
  • Deviņdesmitie: laikmetīgā māksla Latvijā / Nineties. Contemporary Art in Latvia, Riga: Latvian Centre for Contemporary Art, 2010, 565 pp. (Latvian)/(English)
  • Typical Individuals: Graffiti and Street Art in Tartu 1994-2014, ed. Marika Agu, Tartu: Tartu Art Museum, 2014. Exh. held 7 Nov 2014–1 Feb 2015. Exh. review: Pilv (Estonian Art).
  • The Origin of Species: 1990s DNA, Vilnius: MO Museum, 2019. Exh. held 5 Oct 2019-1 Mar 2020. Part of the exh. travelled to six cities in Lithuania: Klaipėda, Utena, Telšiai, Panevėžys, Alytus and Šiauliai. Curators: Vaidas Jauniškis, Rimantas Kmita, Mantas Pelakauskas, Miglė Survilaitė, Aurimas Švedas, Tomas Vaiseta, Renata Valčik. Curators interview (Metal). [58] [59] [60]


  • Liesbeth Huybrechts (ed.), Cross-over. Kunst, media en technologie in Vlaanderen, Leuven: Lannoo Campus & bam, 2008. TOC. Review: Müller (Etcetera). [62] [63] (Dutch)

Central and Eastern Europe[edit]

  • Body and the East: from the 1960s to the Present, ed. Zdenka Badovinac, MIT Press, 1999, 192 pp. Exh. held at Museum of Modern Art, Ljubljana, 7 Jul-27 Sep 1998; Exit Art, New York, 2001. Chronicles art, especially that of performance and body artists, in central and eastern Europe, with short artist biographies of 80 artists. Essays by Joseph Backstein, Bojana Pejić, Iara Boubnova, Jurij Krpan, Ileana Pintilie, Kristine Stiles, Branka Stipančić, László Beke, Igor Zabel, a.o. Publisher. (English)/(Slovenian)
  • After the Wall: Art and Culture in Post-­Communist Europe, 2 vols., eds. Bojana Pejic and David Elliott, Stockholm: Moderna Museet, 1999. Exh. held at Moderna museet, Stockholm, 16 Oct 1999-16 Jan 2000; Ludwig Museum of Contemporary Art, Budapest, 16 Jun-27 Aug 2000. Exh. review: Blom (Frieze).
  • Aspekte/Positionen. 50 Jahre Kunst aus Mitteleuropa 1949-1999 / Aspects/Positions. 50 Years of Art in Central Europe 1949-1999, Vienna: Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien, 2000. Exh. held at mumok, Vienna, 18 Dec 1999–27 Feb 2000; MOMa, Budapest; Miro Foundation, Barcelona; Southhampton, US; Prague. Curated by Lóránd Hegyi. Exh. review: Verwoert (Frieze). [64] [65] (German)/(English)
  • Atlas Transformace, eds. Zbyněk Baladrán and Vít Havránek with Věra Krejčová, Prague: tranzit.cz, 2009, 811 pp. (Czech)
    • Atlas of Transformation, eds. Zbyněk Baladrán and Vít Havránek, Zurich: JRP Ringier, and Prague: tranzit.cz, Sep 2010, 720 pp.
  • Edit András, Kulturális átöltözés. Művészet a szocializmus romjain [Cultural Cross-dressing: Art on the Ruins of Socialism], Budapest: Argumentum, 2009, 332 pp. [70] [71] (Hungarian)
    • Kulturní převlékání. Umění na troskách socialismu a na vrcholcích nacionalismu, trans. Róbert Svoboda, intro. Jan Zálešák, Hradec Králové: Galerie moderního umění, 2023, 344 pp. Partial trans. of Kulturális átöltözés (2009) and Határsértő képzelet. Kortárs művészet és kritikai elmélet Európa keleti felén (2023). Publisher. Book launch. [72] (Czech)
  • Gender Check: Femininity and Masculinity in the Art of Eastern Europe, ed. Bojana Pejić and Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Vienna, Cologne: Walther Koenig, 2009, 392 pp. Catalogue. Texts by: Edit András, Keti Chukhrov, Branislav Dimitrijevic´, Katrin Kivimaa, Izabela Kowalczyk, Suzana Milevska, Martina Pachmanová, Bojana Pejic´, Piotr Piotrowski, Zora Rusinová, Hedwig Saxenhuber, Georg Schöllhammer. Project website. Publisher. Exh. held at mumok, Vienna, 13 Nov 2009-14 Feb 2010; Zachęta National Gallery of Art, Warsaw, 19 Mar-13 Jun 2010. List of works. Review: Krüger (Ostblick). Symposium (2009). Symposium (2010). [73]
    • Gender Check. Rollenbilder in der Kunst Osteuropas, Vienna: mumok, 2009, 162 pp. TOC. [74] (German)
  • Gender Check: A Reader. Art and Theory in Eastern Europe, eds. Bojana Pejić, ERSTE Foundation, and Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Vienna, Cologne: Buchhandlung Walther König, 2010, 416 pp. An extensive collection of texts that explicitly analyze visual arts created before and after 1989 in the 'other' Europe in terms of gender and feminist theories. Texts by Anna Alchuk, Branislava Andjelkovic, Edit András, Zdenka Badovinac, Ágnes Berecz, Lyudmila Bredikhina, Branislav Dimitrijevic, Hildtrud Ebert, Ewa Franus, Jana Geržová, Nataša Ilić, Eva Khachatryan, Katrin Kivimaa, Izabela Kowalczyk, Vjollca Krasniqi, Laima Kreivyte, Dejan Kršic, Paweł Leszkowicz, Suzana Milevska, Danica Minic, Olivia Niţiş, Aleksis Osmanis, Martina Pachmanová, Bojana Pejić, Piotr Piotrowski, Zora Rusinová, Angeli Sachs, Lydia Sklevicky, Vera Sokolová, Inga Šteimane, Maria Vassileva, Mirek Vodrážka. TOC. Project website. Publisher. [75]
  • A pult mögött: a posztszocialista gazdaság jelenségei a kortárs művészetben / Over the Counter: The Phenomena of Post-socialist Economy in Contemporary Art, ed. Judit Angel, Budapest: Mücsarnok Kunsthalle, 2010, 228 pp. Catalogue. Exh. "inspired by the economic illusions, utopias, creativity and frustration that Central Europe has been home to recently, and ismade relevant by the global economic crisis which began in 2008, and which can be looked upon as a negative critique of the process of adopting the capitalist order." Exhibition held 18 Jun-19 Sep 2010, [77]; curated by Eszter Lázár and Zsolt Petrányi. Exh. reviews: Hermann (Balkon), Irodalmi Jelen. Commentary: Czirfusz. (Hungarian)/(English)
  • Central European Art Database (CEAD), digital platform, Olomouc: Olomouc Museum of Art, 2014 ff. Online database of visual arts and culture of Central Europe after the WWII.
  • Izabel Galliera, Socially Engaged Art After Socialism: Art and Civil Society in Central and Eastern Europe, I.B. Tauris, May 2017. Reclaiming public life from the ideologies of both communist regimes and neoliberalism, their projects have harnessed the politically subversive potential of social relations based on trust, reciprocity and solidarity. Drawing on archival material and exclusive interviews, this book traces the development of socially engaged art from the early 1990s to the present in Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania.
  • Forgotten Heritage, online database, Warsaw: Arton Foundation, 2018 ff. Visual database of artists and artworks of the European avant-garde, with a main focus on the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Art and Theory of Post-1989 Central and Eastern Europe: A Critical Anthology, eds. Ana Janevski, Roxana Marcoci, and Ksenia Nouril, New York: Museum of Modern Art (Primary Documents), Aug 2018, 408 pp. Features 75 contributions, including “primary and secondary sources, including newly commissioned texts and interviews with artists.” The contributions are divided into seven thematic chapters, in the following order: I. Reckoning with History, II. Exhibiting the “East” since 1989, III. Working in and on the Archive, IV. After the Fall: Democracy and Its Discontent, V. Maintaining the Social in Postsocialism: Activist Practices and Forms of Collectivity, VI. Deconstructing Gender Discourses, VII. In a Global World.
  • Andrzej Szczerski, Transformacja. Sztuka w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej po 1989 roku, Cracow: Wydawnictwo UJ, Dec 2018, 314 pp. TOC. Excerpt. Publisher. Review: Maksymczak. (Polish)
    • Transformation: Art in East-Central Europe after 1989, trans. Sabina Potaczek-Jasionowicz, Cracow: WUJ, Jan 2019, 258 pp. Publisher.
  • Proceedings of the Art Museum of Estonia, 9: Lost and Found Spaces: Displacements in Eastern European Art and Society in the 1990s, Tallinn: Art Museum of Estonia, 2019. Publisher. Conference, 1-3 Nov 2018, [82]. VIDEO talks. Conf. review: Łabowicz-Dymanus. (Estonian)/(English)
  • Secondary Archive, Warsaw: Katarzyna Kozyra Foundation, Apr 2021 ff. Platform for Central and Eastern European women artists. [84] [85] [86] (English),(multiple languages)


  • Atlas Transformace, eds. Zbyněk Baladrán and Vít Havránek with Věra Krejčová, Prague: tranzit.cz, 2009, 811 pp. (Czech)
    • Atlas of Transformation, eds. Zbyněk Baladrán and Vít Havránek, Zurich: JRP Ringier, and Prague: tranzit.cz, Sep 2010, 720 pp.
  • Po sametu. Současné české umění s přesahy do minulosti, eds. Sandra Baborovská and Karel Srp, Prague: GHMP, and Arbor vitae, 2009. Publisher. [89] (Czech)
  • Formáty transformace 89-09. Sedm pohledů na novou českou a slovenskou identitu, ed. František Kowolowski, Brno: Dům umění města Brna, 2010, 267 pp. Describes and interprets the changes in Czech and Central European society that occurred between 1989 and 2009; in their projects, seven curators ask whether art and theory can be used to realistically shape cultural, social and political space. Curators: Vladimír Beskid, Karel Císař, Aneta Mona Chisa, Martina Pachmanová, Marie Polášková, Michal Koleček, Tomáš Pospiszyl; exh. coordinator: František Kowolowski. Exhibition held at the House of the Arts, Brno, 17 November 2009-17 January 2010. Flyer. Publisher. Design. Reviews: Dolanová (A2), Gregor (Jazdec). Curators' survey (Art&Antiques) [90]. (Czech)
  • České umění 1980-2010. Texty a dokumenty, eds. Jiří Ševčík, Pavlína Morganová, Terezie Nekvindová and Dagmar Svatošová, Prague: VVP AVU, 2011, 980 pp. Anthology of texts and documents divided into eleven thematic chapters, "highlighting the phenomena of contemporary discussion and long-term tendencies that created a certain tension of opinion in the Czech art scene": "Selhala moderna?", "Postmoderní obrat", "Mezi identitou a intimitou", "Asynchronní prostory", "Rozptýlená koncentrace", "Konec malby?", "Technický obraz", "(Re)politizace", "Osobní je veřejné", "Dokumentární obrat", "Jiná moderna". With chronology. Publisher. Review: Macáková (iLiteratura). Commentary: Císař (Sešit). (Czech)
  • Lenka Lindaurová, et al., Mezera - Mladé umění v Česku, 1990-2014, Prague: Společnost Jindřicha Chalupeckého, 2014, 544 pp. (Czech)
  • Pavlína Morganová (ed.), Někdy v sukni: Umění 90. let [In a Skirt – Sometimes: Art of the 1990s], Brno: Moravian Gallery, and Prague: Prague City Gallery, 2014. Review: Geržová (Profil). Commentary: Pachmanová. (Czech)
  • Archeologie euforie / Archeology of Euphoria, 1985⁠–⁠1995. Fotograf Festival #9, Fotograf 07, 2019, 43 pp. Exh. held 26 Sep-14 Nov 2019. [94] [95] [96] [97] (Czech)/(English)
  • Obrazy konců dějin: česká vizuální kultura 1985-1995, Prague: Uměleckoprůmyslové museum v Praze, and BiggBoss, 2020, 462 pp. Exh. held 16 Oct 2019-21 Jun 2020; curated by Pavel Vančát. Publisher. (Czech)
  • Radim Kopáč, Gabriela Kontra, Padáme i na tvou hlavu. Skvoty, centra, kluby v Praze: Co bylo, co zbylo z devadesátek, Prague: Pulchra, 2021, 360 pp. Publisher. Excerpt. [99] (Czech)
  • Heroin Crystal. Generace devadesátých let v GHMP, ed. Olga Malá, Prague: GHMP, 2022, 388 pp. Publisher. Exh. held at Dům U Kamenného zvonu, Prague, 14.4.–28.8.2022. Curated by Olga Malá. (Czech)/(English)


  • François Cusset (ed.), Une histoire (critique) des années 1990. De la fin de tout au début de quelque chose, La Découverte, May 2014, 256 pp; new ed., Jun 2020, 330 pp. TOC, Excerpt. Publisher, new ed. Exhibition 1984-1999. La Décennie / The Decade held at the Centre Pompidou-Metz, 24 May 2014-2 Mar 2015. Curated by Stéphanie Moisdon. Exh. photo. Exh. review: Lequeux (Le Monde). [101] (French)
  • Culture Pop Marauders, Saint-Ouen: Mains-d'œuvres, 2016, [12] pp. Press dossier. Exh. "interested in the question of influence and tries to perceive what traces of the 90s can be found in the works of artists whose culture (sportswear, street culture, packaging, music, domestic design, cultural studies, video clips, blockbusters, normalization of drugs...) was forged during this period." Exh. held 17 Nov-4 Dec 2016; curated by Benoît Lamy de La Chapelle. Exh. review: Luquet-Gad (Vice). [102] [103] (French)


  • Marius Babias (ed.), Im Zentrum der Peripherie. Kunstvermittlung und Vermittlungskunst in den 90er Jahren. Texte-Interviews-Projekte, Dresden: Verlag der Kunst (Fundus-Bücher 128), 1995, 351 pp. Excerpt. TOC. Review: Pesch (Kunstforum). (German)

  • Messe 2ok: ökonoMiese machen, eds. Alice Creischer, Dierk Schmidt, and Andreas Siekmann, Cologne/Berlin: Permanent Press, 1996, 120 pp. A reader from a fair for political initiatives and art groups, organised by Alice Creischer, Andreas Siekmann, Birger Huebel, Michaela Odinius and Dierk Schmidt; took place parallel to Art Cologne 1995. (German)
  • Hans-Christian Dany, Ulrich Dörrie, Bettina Sefkow (eds.), dagegen-dabei. Texte, Gespräche und Dokumente zu Strategien der Selbstorganisation seit 1969, Hamburg: Kellner, 1998, 336 pp. Exh. series held at Kunstverein in Hamburg, 1.11.–18.12.1994, 8.1.–5.2.1995. Exh. reviews: Babias (Frieze), Babias (Kunstforum), Schiff (taz). Review: Grzonka (springerin). [104] [105] (German)
  • Diedrich Diederichsen, Der lange Weg nach Mitte. Der Sound und die Stadt, Cologne: Kiepenheuer und Witsch, 1999; repr., Kiwi, 2018, 312 pp. TOC, Foreword, Excerpt. Publisher. (German)
  • Children of Berlin. Cultural Developments 1989-1999, Berlin: Kunst-Werke, 1999, 96 pp. Catalogue. Exhibition held at P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, New York, 7 Nov 1999-2 Jan 2000. Curated by Alanna Heiss and Klaus Biesenbach. Exh. reviews: Holland Cotter (NYT), Daryl Chin (PAJ).
  • Rudolf Frieling, Dieter Daniels, Medien Kunst Interaktion: Die 80er und 90er Jahre in Deutschland / Media Art Interaction: The 1980s and 1990s in Germany, ed. Sybille Weber, Vienna/New York: Springer, 2000, 293 pp. Catalogue, with CD. Exh. held at ZKM, 16 Mar-10 Apr 2000; curated by Rudolf Frieling. Excerpt, Excerpt. [106] (German)/(English)
  • Rudolf Frieling, Dieter Daniels (eds.), Medien Kunst Netz, 1. Medienkunst im Überblick / Media Art Net, 1: Survey of Media Art, forew. Peter Weibel, Vienna/New York: Springer, 2004, 397 pp, HTML, HTML. Contributors: Inke Arns, Dieter Daniels, Söke Dinkla, Golo Föllmer, Rudolf Frieling, Oliver Grau, Heike Helfert. TOC. Excerpt. Commissioned by Goethe-Institut and ZKM Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe. Hosted and organised by ZKM. Online platform. Symposium. Research project (2001-2005). Flyer. Review: Jacke (Neue Medien). [107] [108] (German)/(English)
  • Rudolf Frieling, Dieter Daniels (eds.), Medien Kunst Netz 2. Thematische Schwerpunkte / Media Art Net 2: Key Topics, forew. Peter Weibel, Vienna/New York: Springer, 2005, 319 pp, HTML, HTML. Contributors: Inke Arns, Josephine Bosma, Dieter Daniels, Rudolf Frieling, Susanne Holschbach, Tjark Ihmels, Verena Kuni, Julia Riede, Gregor Stemmrich, Yvonne Volkart. TOC, Excerpt. Publisher. Commissioned by Goethe-Institut and ZKM Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe. Hosted and organised by ZKM. Online platform. Research project (2001-2005). [109] (German)/(English)
  • 40jahrevideokunst.de – Teil 1. Digitales Erbe: Videokunst in Deutschland von 1963 bis heute, eds. Rudolf Frieling and Wulf Herzogenrath, Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2006, 399 pp. With DVD. Publisher. [110] [111] [112] (German)

  • Make Your Own Life: Artists In & Out of Cologne, ed. Jenelle Porter, Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2006, 96 pp. Catalogue. Exh. Brought together over 25 artists of three generations—centering from Cologne but also including Los Angeles, New York, London, and Berlin—to explore themes of autonomy, artistic collectivity and social relationships, and the privileging of the artist’s life and context as a basis for understanding creative practice. Artists: Bernadette Corporation, Cosima von Bonin, Merlin Carpenter, Stephan Dillemuth, Michaela Eichwald, Roe Ethridge, Andrea Fraser, Kim Gordon, Charline von Heyl, Gareth James, Mike Kelley, Martin Kippenberger, Jutta Koether, Michael Krebber, Louise Lawler, Hans-Jörg Mayer, Lucy McKenzie, Nils Norman, Albert Oehlen, Christian Philipp Müller, Stephen Prina, Josephine Pryde, Blake Rayne, Reena Spaulings, Josef Strau, Rosemarie Trockel, Filmgruppe West, Christopher Williams, Christopher Wool, a.o. Exh. held at the ICA Philadelphia, 21 Apr-31 Jul 2006, [113]; Power Plant, Toronto, 21 Sep-2 Dec 2006; Henry Art Gallery, Seattle, 20 Jan-15 Apr 2007; MCA North Miami, 18 May-29 Jul 2007; curated by Bennett Simpson. Exh. reviews: Rattemeyer (Artforum) [114], Smith (NYT), Lewitt (Texte zur Kunst), Graves (Stranger). Commentary: Müller (Frieze), Goldmann et al. (Frieze). [115]
  • Reality Bites: Making Avant-garde Art in Post-wall Germany / Kunst nach dem Mauerfall, ed. Sabine Eckmann, Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, and St. Louis, MO: Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, 2007, 320 pp. TOC. Exh. held at the Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, 9 Feb-29 Apr 2007; Opelvillen, Russelsheim, 20 May-2 Sep 2007. (English)/(German)
  • Berlin 89/09. Kunst zwischen Spurensuche und Utopie / Art Between Traces of the Past and Utopian Futures, eds. Guido Fassbender and Heinz Stahlhut, Cologne: DuMont, and Berlin: BG Berlinische Galerie, 2009, 167 pp. Exh. held 18 Sep 2009-31 Jan 2010. (German)/(English)
  • Record again! 40JahreVideokunst.de Teil 2, eds. Christoph Blase and Peter Weibel, Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2010, 535 pp. With DVD. Publisher. [116] [117] (German)/(English)
  • Stadt und Knete. Positionen der 1990er Jahre, exhibition, after the butcher, Berlin, 20 Nov 2020-7 Mar 2021. The exh. revolves around four collaboratively produced animation films: Infobox (1996), Wie eins zum anderen kam (1996), Die Krumme Pranke (1997), and Egoland (1997). Artists: A-Clip, Gruppe Gummi K / MicroStudio Surplus (Alice Creischer, Martin Ebner, Christoph Keller, Ariane Müller, Andreas Siekmann, Nicolas Siepen, Josef Strau, Klaus Weber, Amelie von Wulffen), Jaaaa & Protzband Nicolas Siepen, Siegfried Koepf & Martin Ebner & Gunter Reski, Josef Kramhöller, NEID, Annette Wehrmann, Ina Wudtke, Amelie von Wulffen, a.o. Exh. VIDEO walk. Discussion VIDEO. Reviews: Scheder (taz), Karrasch (/100).

  • ... oder kann das weg? Fallstudien zur Nachwende, exhibition, nGbK, Berlin, 16 Sep-7 Nov 2021. Devoted to East German artists' search for a new and distinctive vocabulary, a search that continues–in a »Nachwende« (post-unification) period understood in the broader sense to extend to this day. Over the course of the two-year project, multiple thematic case studies emerged, and were assigned to one exhibition week each: »Paradies Leerstand« [Paradise vacancy], »Muttiland Revisited«, »Marlboro Man«, »Stasisauna«, »Depot Bilderstau« [Depot image backlog], »Wessiwerdung« [Becoming Wessi], »Ossiwerdung« [Becoming Ossi]. Project group: Bakri Bakhit, Elske Rosenfeld, Wolfgang H Scholz, Anna Voswinckel, Suse Weber. Artists: Tina Bara, Nadja Buttendorf, Can Candan, Yvon Chabrowski, Harun Farocki, Anna Zett/Hermann Heisig, Bernd Hiepe, Margret Hoppe, Susanne Huth, Silke Koch, Eric Meier, Minh Duc Pham, Andrea Pichl, David Polzin, Sabine Reinfeld, Sophie Reinhold, Elske Rosenfeld, Tucké Royale, Rainer Görß/Ania Rudolph, Wolfgang H Scholz, Gabriele Stötzer, Achim Valbracht, Anna Voswinckel, Suse Weber, Wilhelm Klotzek/Peter Woelck. Project website. Exh. booklet, (de). [118]
  • Sven Lütticken, "Organizational Aesthetics", October 183, 2023, pp 17-49. Spanning the mid-1990s to the present, this account of organizational aesthetics includes critical discussions of artists, activists, theorists, and collectives including BüroBert, Alice Creischer, Andrea Fraser, Jeanne van Heeswijk, Geert Lovink, ruangrupa, and Jonas Staal. [119]


  • Yannis Kolokotronis (Γιάννης Κολοκοτρώνης), Néa Ellinikí Téchni 1974-2004 [Νέα Ελληνική Τέχνη], Xanthi: Ιδρυμα Θρακικης Τέχνης και Παραδοσης (Foundation of Thracian Art and Tradition), Aug 2007, 351 pp. [120] (Greek)


  • "Kortárs művészet a kilencvenes években", in Gábor Andrási, et al., Magyar képzőművészet a 20. században, Budapest: Corvina, 1999. (Hungarian)
    • "Contemporary Art in the Nineties", in The History of Hungarian Art in the Twentieth Century, trans. John Bátki, Budapest: Corvina, 1999.
  • János Szoboszlai, "Selbstporträt einer Generation", in Die zweite Öffentlichkeit. Kunst in Ungarn im 20. Jahrhundert, ed. Hans Knoll, Dresden: Verlag der Kunst, 1999. TOC. (German)
    • "Egy generáció önarcképe. Tájékozódási pontok a kilencvenes évek magyarországi képzőművészetéhez", in A második nyilvánosság. XX. századi magyar művészet, Budapest: Enciklopédia, 2002. TOC. (Hungarian)
  • Erzsébet Tatai, Neokonceptuális művészet Magyarországon a kilencvenes években, Præsens, 2005, 231 pp. (Hungarian)
  • Beáta Hock, Nemtan és pablikart. Lehetséges értelmezési szempontok az utóbbi másfél évtized két müvészeti irányzatához [Women’s Art and Public Art: Interpretive Aspects for Recently Emerging Art Practices], Budapest: Praesens, 2005. (Hungarian)
  • János Sturcz, A heroikus ego lebontása. A művész teste mint metafora a magyar művészetben a nyolcvanas évek közepétől napjainkig / The Deconstruction of the Heroic Ego: The Artist's Body as Metaphor in Hungarian Art from the Mid-80's to the Present, trans. Katalin Orbán, Budapest: Magyar Képzőművészeti Egyetem, 2006, 156 pp. TOC. (Hungarian)/(English)
  • Nem kacsák vagyunk egy tavon, hanem hajók a tengeren / We are not Ducks on a Pond but Ships at Sea, eds. Rita Kálmán and Katarina Šević, Budapest: Impex – Contemporary Art Provider, 2010, 128 pp. On independent art initiatives in Budapest from 1989 to 2009. Publisher. [123] [124] (Hungarian)/(English)
  • Beáta Hock, Gendered Creative Options and Social Voices: Politics, Cinema and the Visual Arts in State-socialist and Post-socialist Hungary, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2013, 284 pp. TOC. Introduction. Publisher.
  • Publikus magánügyek. A 90-es évek művészete magyarországi magángyűjteményekben / Public Private Affairs: The Art of the '90s in Hungarian Private Collections, eds. Brigitta Muladi and János Schneller, Szentendre: Ferenczy Museum Center - ArtMill, 2019, 182 pp. Exh. held 29 Mar-12 May 2019. [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] (Hungarian)/(English)
  • TechnoCool. Új irányok a kilencvenes évek magyar képzőművészetében (1989-2001), ed. Zsolt Petrányi, Budapest: Szépművészeti Múzeum–Magyar Nemzeti Galéria, Dec 2023, 308 pp. Distribution. Exh. held at the Hungarian National Gallery, 27 Oct 2023-11 Feb 2024, curated by Katalin Harangozó, Sára Major, Zsolt Petrányi, Linda Alexandra Tarr. VIDEO interviews. (Hungarian)


  • Irish Art Now: From the Poetic to the Political, eds. Kim Levin, Declan McGonagle, and Fintan O'Toole, New York: Independent Curators International (ICI), and London: Merrell Holberton, 1999, 96 pp. TOC. Exh. held at the Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin, 1999; McMullen Museum of Art, Boston College, 3 Oct–12 Dec 1999; Art Gallery of Newfoundland and Labrador, 30 Jan–9 Apr 2000; Chicago Cultural Center, 14 Jul–23 Sep 2001; Pittsburgh Center for the Arts, 4 Sep–1 Nov 1998. Curated by Declan McGonagle. Publisher.
  • Valérie Morisson, Locating the Self, Welcoming the Other: In British and Irish Art, 1990-2020, Oxford: Peter Lang, 2022, xiv+388 pp. Publisher.


  • Alle soglie del duemila. Arte in Italia negli anni '90, ed. Renato Barilli, Milan: Mazzotta, 1999, 118 pp. Exh. held at Belluno, Palazzo Crepadona - Cortina d'Ampezzo, Galleria Civica, 7 Aug-26 Sep 1999. (Italian)
  • Elettroshock: 30 anni di video in Italia 1971-2001, eds. Bruno Di Marino and Lara Nicoli, Rome: Castelvecchi, 2001, 158 pp. Exh. held 21-27 May 2001. (Italian)


  • 30 jaar Nederlandse videokunst / Thirty Years of Dutch Video Art, Amsterdam: Nederlands Instituut voor Mediakunst, MonteVideo/Time Based Arts, 2003. Exh. held 11 Jan-8 Mar 2003. (Dutch),(English)
  • Sanneke Huisman, Marga van Mechelen (eds.), A Critical History of Media Art in the Netherlands: Platforms, Policies, Technologies, Prinsenbeek: Jap Sam Books, 2019, 376 pp. Review: Lurk (Comm Today). [135]


  • Nuit blanche, scènes nordiques: les années 90 / White Night: Nordic Scenes, the 1990s, Paris: Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 1998, 35+32+[310] pp. Exh. held at Musée d'art moderne de la ville de Paris, 7 Feb-10 May 1998; Art Sonje Center, Seoul, 22 Dec 1999-5 Mar 2000. Curated by Laurence Bossée and Hans-­Ulrich Obrist. Exh. review: Lebovici (Liberation). [136] [137] [138] (French),(English)
  • Fellessentralen: Norsk kunstproduksjon i 90-årene, Oslo: Kunstnernes hus, 1998. Exh. help 14 Feb-29 Mar 1998, 183 pp. (Norwegian)
  • Come Closer: 90s Art from Scandinavia and Its Predecessors, Cologne: Oktagon Verlag, 1998, 135 pp. Exh. held at Liechtensteinische Staatliche Kunstsammlung, Vaduz, 19 Feb-19 Apr 1998; Nikolaj Udstillingsbygning, Copenhagen, 1998; Ludwig Muzeum, Budapest, 10 Sep-1 Nov 1998. Curated by Friedemann Malsch and Maria Lind. (German)/(English)
  • Aavan meren tällä puolen / Härom de stora haven / This Side of the Ocean, Helsinki: Kiasma, Nykytaiteen museo, 1998, 266 pp, IA. Exh. held at Kiasma, Helsinki, 30 May-13 Sep 1998. (Finnish)/(Swedish)/(English)
  • Out of the North: Contemporary Art from Denmark and Sweden, ed. Martin Hentschel, Ostfildern-Ruit: Cantz, 1998, 143 pp. Exh. held at the Württembergischen Kunstverein, Stuttgart, 24 Sep-15 Nov 1998; curated by Martin Hentschel. Focus on video and sculpture.
  • Sören Engblom, Art in Sweden: Leaving the Empty Cube: Contemporary Swedish Art, Stockholm: Svenska institutet, 1998, 135 pp; 2nd ed., rev., 2002, 155 pp, IA.
    • Svensk konst: ut ur det tomma rummet: om den svenska samtidskonsten, Stockholm: Svenska institutet, 2000, 140 pp. (Swedish)
  • Nordic Nomads, ed. Andrea Kroksnes, New York: White Columns, 1998, 28 pp. Exh. held 4 Dec 1998-31 Jan 1999. Curated by Andrea Kroksnes. Exh. review: Williams (Frieze). [139]
  • Svenska hjärtan: folkedräkt eller tvångströja?, Stockholm: Moderna Museet, 2004, 148 pp. Essays by Charlotte Bydler, Rodrigo Mallea Lira and Magdalena Malm, Jonas Hassen Khemiri, Ylva Habel, Charles Esche, Ximena Narea, and Mikael Raattamaa. Exh. held 12 Jun-15 Aug 2004; curated by Charlotte Bydler, Rodrigo Mallea Lira, and Magdalena Malm. (Swedish)
  • Rune Gade, Camilla Jalving, Ny-brud: dansk kunst i 1990erne, Copenhagen: Aschehoug, 2006, 296 pp. (Danish)
  • Skiascope 3. Omskakad spelplan: konsten i Göteborg under 1980- och 1990-talet / A Disarranged Playing Board: Art in Gothenburg during the 1980s and 1990s, eds. Kristoffer Arvidsson and Jeff Werner, Gothenburg: Göteborgs Konstmuseum, Jun 2010, 296+xxx pp. Exh. review: DN. (Swedish)/(English)
  • Øystein Ustvedt, Ny norsk kunst etter 1990 / New Norwegian Art since 1990, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget, 2011, 232 pp. Publisher. (Norwegian),(English)
  • Gunnar Danbolt, Frå modernisme til det kontemporære: tendensar i norsk samtidskunst etter 1990, Oslo: Samlaget, 2014, 350 pp. Publisher. (Norwegian)
  • Jonas Ekeberg, Postnordisk. Den nordiske kunstscenens vekst og fall 1976-2016, Oslo: Torpedo, 2019, 632 pp. A comprehensive presentation of Nordic art and art life, centred around three historical situations: the early 1990s, when artists, critics and curators on the "new" art scenes challenged Nordic postmodernism; the late 1990s, when the artists of the 1990s were controversially labelled "the Nordic miracle"; and the 2000s, when there was a leftward shift in the art institution and a rightward shift in cultural policy. Chapter 5. Publisher. Reviews: Ørum (Kunstkritikk), Flåtter (Artscene). (Norwegian)
    • Post-Nordic: The Rise and Fall of a Nordic Art Scene, 1986-2006, trans. René Lauritsen, Oslo: Torpedo, 2023. Publisher. (English)
  • A Cultural History of the Avant-Garde in the Nordic Countries Since 1975, eds. Benedikt Hjartarson, Camilla Skovbjerg Paldam, Laura Luise Schultz, and Tania Ørum, Leiden: Brill, Aug 2022, xxx+1043 pp. Publisher.


  • Schizma. Sztuka polska lat 90 [Schism: Polish Art of the 1990s], ed. Adam Mazur, Warsaw: CSW Zamek Ujazdowski, 2009, 19 pp. Catalogue. Exh. held 9 Oct-29 Nov 2009. Exh. VIDEO. Exh. reviews: Bartelik (Artforum), Sarzyński (Polityka), Deptuła (Dwutygodnik), Cymer (Swiat obrazu). [142] (Polish)
  • W stronę miasta kreatywnego. Sztuka Poznania 1986-2011. Wybrane zagadnienia, ed. Wojciech Makowiecki, Poznan: Galeria Miejska Arsenał, 2011. (Polish)
  • Karol Sienkiewicz, Zatańczą ci, co drżeli. Polska sztuka krytyczna, Kraków: Karakter, and Warsaw: Muzeum sztuki nowoczesnej w Warszawie, 2014, 488 pp. A story about a group of today's best-known Polish artists who entered the world of art in the early 1990s. The protagonists of the book, which is set in Warsaw, as well as in Budapest, Cairo, Sopot and Venice, include Zbigniew Libera, Katarzyna Kozyra, Paweł Althamer, Artur Żmijewski. Publisher. Book launch VIDEO. (Polish)
  • British British Polish Polish. Sztuka krańców Europy, długie lata 90. i dziś, eds. Marek Goździewski and Tom Morton, Warsaw: Ujazdowski Castle Centre for Contemporary Art, 2015, 428 pp. Catalogue. Texts: Oliver Basciano, Jakub Bąk, JJ Charlesworth, Marek Goździewski, Isobel Harbison, Izabela Kowalczyk, Tom Morton, Paweł Możdżyński, Maryla Sitkowska. Publisher. Exh. held 7 Sep-15 Nov 2013. [143] (Polish)
    • British British Polish Polish: Art from Europe's Edges in the Long '90s and Today, Warsaw: Ujazdowski Castle Centre for Contemporary Art, 2015, 428 pp. Publisher. [144]
  • Jakub Banasiak, Proteuszowe czasy Rozpad państwowego systemu sztuki 1982-1993, Warsaw: Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw (Nowe historie sztuki), Nov 2020, 596 pp. On the transformation of the state art system at the close of the Polish People’s Republic era; highlights two moments: the significance of the liberalisation of the system after 1986, and the processual nature of systemic changes reaching into the early 1990s. Publisher. (Polish)


  • Parangolé, 2. Fragmentos desde los 90: Portugal / Fragments from the 90's: Portugal, eds. David Barro and Paulo Reis, Valladolid: Museo Patio Herreriano, 2008, 395 pp. Project website. Exh. held 14 Mar-22 Jun 2008; curated by David Barro and Paulo Reis. [146] (Spanish),(Portuguese),(English)


  • Cel ce se pedepseşte singur. Ştefan Bertalan, Florin Mitroi, Ion Grigorescu. Arta şi România în anii ‘80-’90 [The one who punishes himself. Ștefan Bertalan, Florin Mitroi, Ion Grigorescu. Art and Romania in the 1980s and 1990s], ed. Erwin Kessler, Mogoșoaia: Centrul Cultural Palatele Brâncovenești, 2009, 334 pp. Exh. held at the Centrul Cultural Palatele Brâncovenești, Mogoșoaia, 5 Apr-15 May 2009; Galeria Curtea Veche, 3 Apr-30 May 2009. [147] (Romanian)
    • The Self-punishing One: Ștefan Bertalan, Florin Mitroi, Ion Grigorescu: Arts and Romania during the 1980s and 1990s, Bucharest: Romanian Cultural Institute, 2010, 331 pp.


  • Neue Ansätze: zeitgenössische Kunst aus Moskau / Novoe nachalo: sovremennoe iskusstvo iz Moskvy, Düsseldorf: Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, 2003, 83 pp. Essay by Olga Sviblova. Exh. held 31 May-13 Jul 2003. Press release. (Russian)/(German)
  • Реконструкция. 1990–2000. Часть 1 / Reconstruction. 1990–2000. Part 1, ed. Elena Selina (Елена Селина), Moscow: Artguide, 2013, 250 pp. Contains theoretical essays by Elena Selina, Sasha Obukhova, Andrey Kovalev, Boris Groys and Sergey Khripun, as well as sections with a chronology of Moscow art, a timeline of exhibitions in Moscow galleries from 1990 to 2000, and an appendix with bios of artists, curators, and art theorists who were active in the 1990s. Publisher. Exh. held at the Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, Moscow, 18 Sep-24 Nov 2013. [152] (Russian)/(English)
  • Реконструкция. 1990–2000. Часть 2 / Reconstruction. 1990–2000. Part 2, Moscow: Artguide, 2014, 320 pp. The section "Moscow Galleries. Exhibitions. 1990–1995" contains information on all shows that took place at the 14 most influential galleries in Moscow in the first half of the 1990s, including fragments of press releases and reviews in papers and magazines; "Moscow Galleries. Profiles" contains essays on the history of the galleries; and section three continues with the chronology of exhibitions in the second half of the 1990s. Publisher. Exh. held at the Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, Moscow, 23 Jan-23 Mar 2014. [153] (Russian)/(English)
  • Kollektsia! Art contemporain en URSS et en Russie, 1950-2000, Paris: Centre Pompidou, and X. Barral, 2017, 367 pp. (French)


  • Petra Hanáková, Ženy-inštitúcie? K dejinám umeleckej prevádzky deväťdesiatych rokov, Bratislava: Slovart, and Vysoká škola výtvarných umení, 2011, 208 pp. Reviews: Koklesová (Pravda), Kukurová (Romboid), Gatialová (SME). [154] (Slovak)


  • José Luis Brea (ed.), El punto ciego. Arte español de los años 90 , Ed U Salamanca, 1999, 144 pp. Publisher. (Spanish)
  • Hasta pulverizarse los ojos, Madrid: BBVA Contemporáneos, 2005, 135 pp. Exh. held at Sala de Exposiciones BBVA Palacio del Marqués de Salamanca, Madrid, 23 Sep-30 Oct 2005; Sala de Exposiciones BBVA, Bilbao, 11 Nov-18 Dec 2005. Exh. review: Salas & Pantaleoni (El Pais). (Spanish)
  • Identidades críticas. Arte Español de los noventa, Valladolid: Museo Patio Herreriano, 2006, 135 pp. Texts by Juan Antonio Álvarez, Armando Montesinos, Alicia Murría, Mariano Navarro. Publisher. Exh. held 3 Feb-30 Apr 2006. Exh. review: El Norte de Castilla. (Spanish)
  • Parangolé, 3. Fragmentos desde los 90: España / Fragments from the 90's: Spain, eds. David Barro and Paulo Reis, Valladolid: Museo Patio Herreriano, 2008, 415 pp. Project website. Exh. held 14 Mar-22 Jun 2008; curated by David Barro and Paulo Reis. (Spanish)/(English)
  • Tomás Ruiz-Rivas, La cara oculta de la Luna. Arte alternativo en el Madrid de los 90, Madrid: Antimuseo/CIIA, 2019, 236 pp. Excerpt. Publisher. Exh. held at CentroCentro Cibeles, Madrid, 20 Oct 2017-4 Feb 2018; curated by Tomás Ruiz-Rivas. Exh. reviews: Costa (elDiario), Descubrir el arte.
  • Renata Ribeiro dos Santos, Arte contemporáneo latinoamericano en España: dos décadas de exposiciones (1992-2012), Granada: Universidad de Granada, 2019, 281 pp. Review: Corpas (Comentarios bibliográficos). (Spanish)
  • María Aramburu Gil, Espacios alternativos para las artes visuales durante la década de los 90 en el País Vasco, Universidad del País Vasco, 2022. PhD thesis. [156]


  • Olga Petrova (Ольга Петрова), Mystetsʹkyy Kyyiv 1990-kh. Rekonstruktsiya [Мистецький Київ 1990-х. Реконструкція], Kyiv: TOV «Pablish pro», 2019, 479 pp. Exh. 1990-ті. Історія сучасності held at the National Museum "Kyiv Art Gallery", 26 Feb—15 Mar 2020. [157] [158] (Ukrainian)
  • Poptrans. Dystantsiyne bachennya. Mystetsʹki praktyky Uzhhoroda 90-kh—00-kh [Поптранс. Дистанційне бачення. Мистецькі практики Ужгорода 90-х—00-х], eds. Kateryna Tikhonenko (Катерина Тихоненко) and Anastasia Oleksii (Анастасія Олексій), Kyiv: Mystetskyi Arsenal (Мистецький арсенал), 2021, 90 pp. Exh. held in Spring 2019; curated by Kateryna Tikhonenko. Publisher. [159] (Ukrainian)

United Kingdom[edit]

  • Nicola Kearton, British Art: Defining the 90s, Academy Group, 1995.
  • Life/live: la scène artistique au Royaume-Uni en 1996: de nouvelles adventures, 2 vols., ed. Carrie Pilto, Paris: Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 1996, 255 & 151 pp. v. 2: Anthologie, IA. Exh. survey of artist-run projects in London; held at the ARC, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, 5 Oct 1996-5 Jan 1997; Fundação das Descobertas, Centro Cultural de Belem, Lisbon, 23 Jan-21 Apr 1997. Curated by Hans Ulrich Obrist. Artists. (French)/(English)
    • Life-live: a cena artística no Reino Unido em 1996: novas aventuras, 2 vols., ed. Clara Távora Vilar, Lisbon: Centro Cultural de Belém, 1997. (Portuguese)
  • Liam Kelly, Thinking Long: Contemporary Art in the North of Ireland, Gandon Editions, 1996, 247 pp. Excerpt.
  • There is Always an Alternative: Possibilities for Art in the Early Nineties, eds. Mark Hutchinson and Dave Beech, London: Arts Council England, 2005. "Articulates an alternative history of art practice and a history of alternative art practices around the early 1990s based on a political understanding of the position of the artist." Exh. held at temporarycontemporary, London, 29 May-10 Jul 2005; organised by Dave Beech and Mark Hutchinson.

  • A Journey Through London Subculture: 1980s to Now, London: Institute of Contemporary Arts, 2013, 76 pp. Catalogue. Illustrates a perceived thread of creativity between the post-punk era and the present day. Gilbert & George, John Maybury, House of Beauty & Culture, Tom Dixon, Jeffrey Hinton, Bodymap, St John, Alexander McQueen, Martino Gamper, Julie Verhoeven, Giles Deacon, Charlie Porter, Chisenhale Gallery, Lucky PDF, Vogue Fabrics Nightclub, Sibling, J W Anderson, Bethan Laura Wood, Matthew Darbyshire and Louise Gray are amongst the 60 figures from London’s scene involved in the project. Exhibition held at The Old Selfridges Hotel, 13 Sep-3 Nov 2013. Exh. VIDEO.
  • Sophie Orlando, British Black Art: Debates on the Western Art History, Dis Voir, Sep 2016, 128 pp. Introduction. Reviews: Mills (Images), Dibosa (Art Monthly). [161]
  • Elizabeth Fullerton, Artrage! The Story of the BritArt Revolution, London: Thames & Hudson, Jul 2021, 224 pp. Excerpt. Publisher.
  • Valérie Morisson, Locating the Self, Welcoming the Other: In British and Irish Art, 1990-2020, Peter Lang, 2022, xiv+388 pp. Publisher.


  • Videodokument: video umetnost v slovenskem prostoru 1969-1998 / Video Art in Slovenia 1969-1998, ed. Barbara Borčić, Ljubljana: SCCA Ljubljana, 2001. With CD. [163] (Slovenian)/(English)
  • In Search of Balkania: A User's Manual, eds. Roger Conover, Eda Čufer, and Peter Weibel, Graz: Neue Galerie Graz am Landesmuseum Joanneum, 2002, 191 pp. Introduction. Exhibition. [164]
  • Blut & Honig. Zukunft ist am Balkan / Blood & Honey: The Future’s in the Balkans, eds. Christine Humpl and Harald Szeemann, Klosterneuburg: Sammlung Essl Privatstiftung, 2003, 287 pp, 2nd ed., 2004. Exh. held 16 May 2003 - 28 Sep 2003. Exh. review: Haitzinger (ARTMargins). [165] [166] (German)/(English)
  • Marina Gržinić, Situated Contemporary Art Practices: Art, Theory and Activism from (the East of) Europe, Ljubljana: ZRC, and Frankfurt am Main: Revolver, 2004, 155 pp. A collection of revised recent texts, published in international magazines and anthologies. Discusses art projects by IRWIN, Tanja Ostojic, Emil Hrvatin, Laibach, Dragan Zivadinov, Ilya Kabakov, Oliver Ressler, Aurora Reinhardt, Walid Ra’ad, a.o. TOC. Publisher. Book launch. [167]
  • O Normalnosti – Umetnost u Srbiji, 1989-2001 / On Normality. Art in Serbia 1989–2001, Belgrade: Museum of Contemporary Art, 2005, 382 pp. Exh. held 11 Sep-20 Nov 2005. Contributors: Branislava Andelkovic, Branislav Dimitrijević, Dejan Sretenović, Vladimir Tupanjac, Aleksandra Mirčić, Kristian Lukić. Artists. Exh. review: Wash Times. [168] [169] (Serbian)/(English)
  • The Second Explosion: the Nineties, ed. Tadej Pogačar, Ljubljana: Zavod P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E., 2017, 220 pp. Texts: Božo Repe, Tadej Pogačar, Nina Popič, Polona Poberžnik, Barbara Sterle Vurnik, Dejan Habicht, Vladimir Vidmar, Tjaša Pogačar Podgornik. Publisher. Exh. held at National Museum Metelkova, Ljubljana; Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art Koroška & Carinthian Regional Museum, Slovenj Gradec, 9 Dec 2016 – 23 Feb 2017; P74 Gallery & škuc gallery, Ljubljana, 15 Dec 2016-20 Jan 2017. (English)/(Slovenian)
  • Vladan Jeremić, Funkcije umetničkih praksi u uslovima tranzicije u Srbiji 1991–2008, Belgrade: FPN, 2019. PhD thesis (Serbian)

In the period starting in 1978 and ending in the new millennium, we witness the production in the fields of art, culture, technology and the social that suddenly and forever changed the entire space, and Ljubljana in particular, from an insignificant village to an urban place with its eyes open to the future. Everything that was built during these decades has left its mark: Urbanity, the protection of human rights, the coming out of LGBTQI+ communities, the anti-militarist worldview and the conception of technology as open source, and last but not least, the vision of anti-colonial and anti-capitalist struggles. [170]

Latin America[edit]

  • Jacqueline Barnitz, Twentieth-Century Art of Latin America, 2001, xxii+400 pp; 2nd ed., rev. & exp., with Patrick Frank, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2015, xviii+415 pp.
  • Arte en los noventas, 6 vols., eds. Carlos Alberto Torres Tovar and Rafael Vega, Colombia: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2004. Based on the academic project "Las Artes en Colombia en la Década de los Años Noventa@, designed to promote reflective and critical texts about the 1990s development and production of art, architecture and design. [171] [172] (Spanish)
  • Marking Time, 1995-2005: Contemporary Art From Chile, exhibition, Blanton Museum of Art, Austin, TX, 28 Jan-22 May 2005. Announcement. [173]
  • Recovering Beauty: The 1990s in Buenos Aires, ed. Ursula Davila-Villa, Austin, TX: Blanton Museum, 2011, 144 pp. A survey of seventy works by thirteen representatives of one of the first post-dictatorship artistic formations in Argentina. Loosely known as the “Grupo Rojas” for their close association with Galería Rojas at the Centro Cultural Ricardo Rojas in Buenos Aires. Exhibition held at the Blanton Museum of Art, 20 Feb-22 May 2011. Excerpt. Exh. review: Quiles (Artforum).
  • México Inside Out: Themes in Art since 1990, ed. Andrea Karnes, Fort Worth: Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, 2013, 182 pp. Exh. held 15 Sep 2013-5 Jan 2014. TOC. (English)/(Spanish)
  • Strange Currencies: Art & Action in Mexico City, 1990-2000, ed. Kaytie Johnson, Philadelphia: Galleries at Moore College of Art & Design, 2015, 128 pp. Catalogue. Publisher. Exh. announcement. Exh. reviews: Kartofel (ArtNexus), Mir (Hyperallergic).
  • Amy Sara Carroll, REMEX: Toward an Art History of the NAFTA Era, University of Texas Press, Dec 2017, 416 pp. "Carroll organizes her interpretations of performance, installation, documentary film, built environment, and body, conceptual, and Internet art around three key coordinates—City, Woman, and Border. She links the rise of 1990s Mexico City art in the global market to the period’s consolidation of Mexico–US border art as a genre. She then interrupts this transnational art history with a sustained analysis of chilanga and Chicana artists’ remapping of the figure of Mexico as Woman." Publisher. Review: Emmelhainz (ARTMargins). [175]
  • Cuauhtémoc Medina, Abuso mutuo. Ensayos e intervenciones sobre arte postmexicano (1992-2013), Ciudad de México: Ediciones MP, 2017, 472 pp. Publisher. TOC. (Spanish)
  • Licenciado Verdad. Grupos y espacios en México: arte contemporáneo de los 90 / Groups and Spaces in Mexico: Contemporary Art of the 90s, eds. Patricia Sloane and Kurt Hollander, Ciudad de México: Ediciones MP, and Barcelona: RM Verlag, 2017, 588 pp. Publisher. [176] (Spanish)/(English)
  • Guadalajara. Una geografía particular. Grupos y espacios en México. Arte contemporáneo de los 90, Ciudad de México: Ediciones MP, and Barcelona: RM Verlag, 2018, 479 pp. Publisher. (Spanish)/(English)
  • Below the Underground: Renegade Art and Action in 1990s Mexico / Más abajo que el underground: Arte renegado y acción en el México de los noventas, ed. Irene Tsatsos, Pasadena, CA: Armory Press, 2019, 192 pp. Looks at social spaces and political actions created by alternative art practices, beyond the now-familiar independents toward diverse artist initiatives – from newly acquired brick and mortar spaces, to ad hoc street performances and interventions, living room galleries, clubs, collaboratively produced ‘zines, archives and collections, pirate radio programs, and more. TOC. Exh. held at Armory Center for the Arts, Pasadena, CA, 14 Oct 2017-28 Jan 2018; curated by Irene Tsatsos, with Amy Sara Carroll, Sol Henaro, Alexis Salas, Lorena Wolffer. Project website. Part of the Getty’s Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA initiative. (English)/(Spanish)
  • Forecast Form: Art in the Caribbean Diaspora, 1990s–Today, ed. Carla Acevedo-Yates, Chicago: Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago, 2022, 288 pp. Takes the 1990s as its cultural backdrop, gathering artworks by 37 artists. Essays by Carlos Garrido Castellano, Genevieve Hyacinthe, Aaron Kamugisha, and Mayra Santos-Febres, and roundtable conversation with Carla Acevedo-Yates, Christopher Cozier, María Magdalena Campos-Pons, and Teresita Fernández. Publisher. Exh. held at the Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago, 19 Nov 2022-23 Apr 2023; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 5 Oct 2023-24 Feb 2024; Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, 6 Apr-8 Jul 2024. Curated by Carla Acevedo-Yates, with Iris Colburn, Isabel Casso, and Nolan Jimbo.

North America[edit]

  • Lateral Thinking: Art of the 1990s, ed. Toby Kamps, San Diego, CA: Museum of Contemporary Art, 2002, 144 pp. Exh. held 15 Sep 2001-21 Jan 2002.
  • Chris Kraus, Video Green: Los Angeles Art and the Triumph of Nothingness, New York: Semiotext(e) (Active Agents), 2004, 217 pp. "Examines the explosion of late 1990s Los Angeles art driven by high-profile graduate programs. Probing the surface of art-critical buzzwords, Chris Kraus chronicles how the City of Angels has suddenly become the epicenter of the international art world and a microcosm of the larger culture."
  • Recent Pasts: Art in Southern California from the 1990s to Now. SoCCAS Symposium Vol. I, ed. John C. Welchman, Zurich: JRP Editions, 2005, 160 pp. [180]

Over the past twenty years, an abundance of art forms have emerged that use aesthetics to affect social dynamics. These works are often produced by collectives or come out of a community context; they emphasize participation, dialogue, and action, and appear in situations ranging from theater to activism to urban planning to visual art to health care. Engaged with the texture of living, these art works often blur the line between art and life. [181] 
  • Sarah Schulman, The Gentrification of the Mind: Witness to a Lost Imagination, University of California Press, 2012, 179 pp. Memoir of the AIDS years (1981–1996), Schulman recalls how much of the rebellious queer culture, cheap rents, and a vibrant downtown arts movement vanished almost overnight to be replaced by gay conservative spokespeople and mainstream consumerism on the Lower East Side in New York.
  • NYC 1993: Experimental Jet Set, Trash and No Star, eds. Massimiliano Gioni, Gary Carrion-Murayari, Jenny Moore, and Margot Norton, New York: New Museum, 2013, 183 pp. Looks at art made and exhibited in New York over the course of one year. Incl. historical texts from 1993 by Francesco Bonami, Nicolas Bourriaud, Judith Butler, Laura Cottingham, Thelma Golden, and J. Hoberman; reflections by Massimiliano Gioni, Megan Heuer, Jenny Moore, Margot Norton, and Ethan Swan; timeline of key events by Claire Lehmann. Exhibition held 13 Feb-26 May 2013. Curated by Massimiliano Gioni, Gary Carrion-Murayari, Jenny Moore, and Margot Norton. TV Guide. Exh. VIDEO. Exh. review: Vogel (Flash Art), Tani (Art Practical), Pollack (Observer).
  • Alexandra Schwartz, Come as You Are: Art of the 1990s, University of California Press, with Montclair, NJ: Montclair Art Museum, 2014, 224 pp, IA. First major museum survey to historicise art made in the United States in the 1990s; with 65 works by 45 artists. "The book is organised around three themes--the “identity politics” debates, the digital revolution, and globalisation; its title refers to the 1992 song by Nirvana and to the issues of identity that were complicated by effects of new technologies and global migration." Contributors include Huey Copeland, Jennifer González, Suzanne Hudson, Joan Kee, Kris Paulsen, Paulina Pobocha, and John Tain; with a chronology by Frances Jacobus-Parker. Publisher. Exhibition held at Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, NJ, 8 February-17 May 2015; Telfair Museums, Savannah, GA, 12 June-20 September 2015; University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor, MI, 17 October 2015-31 January 2016; Blanton Museum of Art, Austin, TX, 21 February-15 May 2016. Exh. review: Indrisek (Blouin).
  • Don’t Look Back: The 1990s at MOCA, exhibition, Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA), Los Angeles, 12 Mar-11 Jul 2016. Included six thematically grouped sections, titled: Installation; The Outmoded; Noir America; Place and Identity; Touch, Intimacy, and Queerness; and Space, Place, and Scale. Curated by Helen Molesworth. Exh. review: Sargent (Vice).
  • Images on Which to Build, 1970s-1990s, exhibition, Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, 30 Sep 2022-12 Feb 2023; Leslie-Lohman Museum of Art, 10 Mar-30 Jul 2023. "Through photographic documentation of activism, education, and media production within trans, queer, and feminist grassroots organizing of the 1970s through the 1990s, Images on which to build reveals the technologies through which influential image cultures were constructed and circulated." Curated by Ariel Goldberg. Essay.


  • Unnerved: Contemporary Art from New Zealand , South Brisbane: Queensland Art Gallery, 2010. Exh. held at QAGOMA, South Brisbane, 1 May-4 Jul 2010; National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 26 Nov 2010 – 27 Feb 2011.


This section was first published on the occasion of We Have Never Been Closer at the symposium Not For Sale / Sold Out in Olomouc on 16 September 2023 and will continue to change. Thanks to all contributors.

see also[edit]

1990s media events, Cyberfeminism, Net art, Soros Centers for Contemporary Art