Central and Eastern Europe

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Light-music synthesis

People

Networks

Colour organs

  • There will be a day when a composer will compose music with a notation that will be conceived in terms of music and light… and that day, the artistic unity we were talking about will probably be closer to perfection.., Vladimir Baranoff-Rossiné, 1925.
  • (Colour) pianos (or organs) were constructed by the likes of Alexander Scriabin (with Preston Millar), Vladimir Baranoff-Rossiné, Alexander László, and Zdeněk Pešánek (with Erwin Schulhoff) in an attempt to navigate between musical and visual realms.
  • Scriabin composed a color-music piece Prometheus: The Poem of Fire (1911) and contracted Preston Millar to build an instrument to produce colors along to the music, named Chromola (Clavier à lumières; tastiéra per luce; keyboard with lights).
  • Futurist painter Baranoff-Rossiné's instrument introduced patterns and shapes into a color organ, built upon a modern piano, thus called the Optophonic Piano (Piano optophonique). The piano projected light through painted and rotating glass plates, whose colors, shapes and rhythms closely complemented the music (1916, developed since 1912); it was presented in the Theatre of Vsevolod Meyerhold, at his exhibition in Kristiana in Oslo (1916), and in the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow (1924). Baranoff-Rossiné performed until the late 1920s, but his work was displayed in several museums in Europe and the US from 1966 to 1975.
  • Alexander László, a Hungarian raised in Germany, a pianist and orchestra conductor, composed and performed music for various silent films in 1900s-10s. Arguing for a relation between the film and the music, he wrote a theoretical text on color-light-music, "Farblichtmusik" (1925). The theories were brought into practice in a series of performances across Europe. His device, Sonchromatoscope, consisted of a few switches above his piano, controlling a few projection lights and a slide projector lightning the stage above the piano. When the first reviews arrived, the main remark was that the projections were too simple. It was in a completely different league than the Chopin-like complexity of the piano music. In those days Oskar Fischinger was experimenting with abstract films. László contacted him to help improve his performance. Multiple extra slide projectors and overlapping projection lights were added to increase the complexity and the number of possible colors. This resulted in a a visual spectacle which completely turned the reviews over. Both László and Fischinger have toured with the show. [1]
  • With their Spectrophon-Piano (1928), Pešánek and Schulhoff attempted to create an audio-visual sculpture. The piano enabled the dynamic synthesis of music and coloured light in performances in big concert halls.

Events

Literature

Bibliography

See also

Further bibliography.

Constructivists, Futurists

Terms

formism (1910s, Chwistek, Czyżewski), Pure Form (1920s, Witkiewicz), strefism (1920s, Chwistek), mechano-faktura (1920s, Berlewi), unism (1920s, Strzemiński), photogenism (1920s, Funke), robot (1920s, Čapek)

People

Networks, Journals

Events

Literature

Catalogues
  • Europa, Europa. Das Jahrhundert der Avantgarde in Mittel- und Osteuropa, eds. Ryszard Stanislawski and Christoph Brockhaus, Bonn, 1994. Contributions from c150 authors. Four volumes: Vol I (five introductory essays followed by 73 short texts on the work of specific artists) 479 pp. incl. 247 col. pls. and 116 b&w ills.; Vol II (36 essays on aspects of architecture, literature, theatre, film and music) 239 pp. incl. 251 b&w ills.; Vol III, compiled by Hubertus Gassner (354 short texts of the period 1894-1994 by artists, critics etc., in German translation), 367 pp.; Vol IV (biographies; selected bibliography; list of exhibited works; index) 99 pp. [5] [6] (German)
  • Central European Avant Gardes: Exchange and Transformation, 1910–1930, ed. Timothy O. Benson, forew. Péter Nádas, Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art and Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002, 447 pp. Review: Zusi (SEEJ 2005). [7] (English)
  • Von Kandinsky bis Tatlin: Konstruktivismus in Europa/From Kandinsky to Tatlin: Constructivism in Europe, Schwerin: Staatliches Museum; and Bonn: Kunstmuseum, 2006. (German)/(English)
  • Vzplanutí. Expresionistické tendence ve Střední Evropě 1903-1936, ed. Ladislav Daněk, Olomouc: Muzeum umění Olomouc, 2008, 200 pp. [8] (Czech)
Anthologies
  • The Tradition of Constructivism, ed. & intro. Stephen Bann, New York: Viking Press, 1974, xlix+334 pp, PDF. Fifty-one texts from 1920-65 in 7 sections. Review: Compton (SR 1975). (English)
  • Between Worlds: A Sourcebook of Central European Avant-Gardes, 1910-1930, eds. Timothy O. Benson and Éva Forgács, Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art and Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002, 736 pp. Review: Zusi (SEEJ 2005). [9] (English)
Books
  • George Rickey, Constructivism: Origins and Evolution, New York: G. Braziller, 1967, xi+306 pp; rev.ed., 1995, xi+306 pp. (English)
  • Willy Rotzler, Konstruktive Konzepte: eine Geschichte der konstruktiven Kunst vom Kubismus bis heute, Zurich: ABC, 1977, 299 pp; new ed., 1988, 332 pp; 3rd ed., 1995, 332 pp. (German)
  • Kristina Passuth, Les avant-gardes de l'Europe Centrale, 1907-1927, Paris: Flammarion, 1988, 327 pp. (French)
    • Avantgarde kapcsolatok Prágától Bukarestig 1907-1930, Budapest: Balassi, 1998, 381 pp. (Hungarian)
  • Lothar Lang, Konstruktivismus und Buchkunst, Leipzig: Edition Leipzig, 1990, 208 pp. TOC. (German)
  • Dubravka Đurić, Miško Šuvaković (eds.), Impossible Histories: Historic Avant-Gardes, Neo-Avant-Gardes, and Post-Avant-Gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918-1991, MIT Press, 2003, 520 pp. [10] (English)
  • Kristina Passuth, Treffpunkte der Avantgarden: Ostmitteleuropa 1907–1930 [1988], trans. Aniko Harmath, Dresden: Verlag der Kunst, 2003, 337 pp. Review: Dmitrieva-Einhorn (H-Soz-Kult 2006). (German)
  • Vojtěch Lahoda (ed.), Local Strategies, International Ambitions: Modern Art and Central Europe 1918-1968, Prague: Artefactum, 2006, 243 pp. Papers from the international conference, Prague, 11-14 Jun 2003. TOC. Papers: Anna Brzynski, Maria Elena Versari. [11] [12]
  • Elizabeth Clegg, Art, Design, and Architecture in Central Europe 1890-1920, Yale University Press, 2006, 356 pp. [13] (English)
  • Sascha Bru, et al. (eds.), Europa! Europa? The Avant-Garde, Modernism and the Fate of a Continent, 1, Berlin: De Gruyter, 2009. (English)
  • Günter Berghaus (ed.), Futurism in Eastern and Central Europe, De Gruyter (International Yearbook of Futurism Studies 1), 2011.
  • Sarah Posman, Anne Reverseau, David Ayers, Sascha Bru, Benedikt Hjartarson (eds.), The Aesthetics of Matter. Modernism, the Avant-Garde and Material Exchange, De Gruyter, 2013.
Journal issues
  • Art Journal 49(1): "From Leningrad to Ljubljana: The Suppressed Avant-Gardes of East-Central and Eastern Europe during the Early Twentieth Century" (Spring 1990). [14] (English)
  • Centropa 3(1): "Central European Architectural Students at the Bauhaus", New York: Centropa, Jan 2003. [15] (English)
  • Centropa 6(2): "Central European Artists and Paris: 1920s-1930s", ed. Irena Kossowska, New York: Centropa, May 2006. [16] (English)
  • Centropa 11(1): "Central European Art Groups, 1880-1914", ed. Anna Brzyski, New York: Centropa, Jan 2011. [17] (English)
Articles, talks

See also

Avant-garde in Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, Romania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania. Further bibliography.

Literature, literary theory, aesthetics

Terms

structuralism (1920s, Prague Linguistic Circle), linguistic functionalism (1920s, Prague Linguistic Circle), proletkult (1920s, international), Poetism (1920s, Teige and Nezval), factography (1920s, LEF), aesthetic object (1930s, Ingarden), phoneme (Jakobson), morphophonology (Trubetzkoy), genetic structuralism (1960s, Goldmann), communicative functions (1960s, Jakobson)

People

Networks

Photography

Terms

photogram, photo-eye, photomontage, photogenism (1922, Funke), heliography (1928, Hiller)

People

See also

Photography in Czech Republic, Slovakia.

Light art

People

Experimental film

Terms

montage (1920s, Eisenstein), Kino-Pravda (1922, Vertov), Cine-Eye (1920s, Vertov), cinema club, Open Form (1950s-60s, Hansen), antifilm (1962, Pansini)

People

Events

GEFF festival (Zagreb, 1963-70), MAFAF festival (Pula, 1965-90), 8 mm (Novi Sad), Alternative Film Festival (Split), April Meetings festival (Belgrade, 1972-77), Alternative Film & Video Festival (Belgrade, *1982), xfilm festival and series of lectures / screenings (Sofia, since 2005), This Is All Film! Experimental Film in Yugoslavia 1951-1991 exhibition (Ljubljana, 2010)

Networks

Literature

  • Lukasz Ronduda, Florian Zeyfang (eds.), 1,2,3 -- avant-gardes : film, art between experiment and archive, Centre for Contemporary Art, Warsaw ; Berlin ; New York : Sternberg, 2007.
  • Ana Janevski (ed.): As Soon as I Open My Eyes I See a Film. Experiment in the Art of Yugoslavia in the 1960s and 1970s, Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw, 2010. With essays by Ana Janevski (on experimental art and film in Yugoslavia), Stevan Vuković (on political upheaval in 1968 in Belgrade), and Łukasz Ronduda (on contacts between Yugoslav and Polish artists in the 1970s). [18] Interview with Ana Janevski, June 2011
  • Bojana Piškur et al (eds.), This Is All Film: Experimental Film in Yugoslavia 1951-1991 [Vse to je film: Eksperimentalni film v Jugoslaviji 1951-1991], catalogue, Museum of Modern Art, Ljubljana, 2010. 154 pages. ISBN: 9789612060909

See also

Experimental film in Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, Estonia, Lithuania. Further bibliography.

Geometric abstraction, Neo-constructivism, Op art, Kinetic art

Terms

visual kinetics (plastique cinétique, 1950s, Vasarely)

People

See also

Slovakia, Hungary, Romania. Further bibliography.

Audiovisual compositions

People

See also

Audiovisual compositions in Czech Republic, Slovakia. Further bibliography.

Cybernetics

See Computing and cybernetics in CEE.

Electroacoustic music

Trivia

  • Lev Termen, the patriarch of musical electronics, a talented physicist, created Aetherophone (later called the Theremin or Thereminovox) in 1920 - unsurpassed till now in the family of performing electronic instruments (owing to its keen sound control options).
  • Other early instruments include Sonchromatoskop by Sándor László (1920), Sonar by N.Anan'yev (c1930), Ekvodin by V.A.Gurov (1931), Emiriton by A.Ivanov and A.Rimsky-Korsakov (1932). While in the United States, Termen also created Theremin Cello (electric Cello with no strings and no bow, using a plastic fingerboard, a handle for volume and two knobs for sound shaping, c1930), Theremin keyboard (a piano-like device, c1930), Rhythmicon (world's first drum machine, 1931), and Terpsitone (platform that converts dance movements into tones, 1932). In the 1930s, professor E.A.Sholpo established a laboratory for sound synthesis where he developed his Variophone (1932), a precursor of the synthesizers. A.A.Volodin, a scientist in the field of electronic sound synthesis, designed a whole series of new instruments.
  • In Moscow, Eugene Murzin constructed one of the world's first synthesizers in 1955. He named his invention, ANS synthesizer, in honor of Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin, as the ANS worked on the principle of the transformation of light waves into electronic soundings. The compositions created on the ANS in the Moscow Studio of Electronic Music since 1958 played the major role in the development of electronic music in USSR. In the 1960s, the ANS was the only synthesizer in the Union, and became the training ground of a great number of young composers, including one of the most dedicated experimenters in the field of electronic music, Edward Artemyev. Artemyev's compositions are characterized by a constant search for new sounds and by a desire to obtain maximum timbre modification from minimal sound material. In the music for A. Tarkovsky's film Solaris (1972), Artemyev discovered an entire realm of unusual (for that time) sound effects; he founded a new trend in electronic music that musicologists have named 'space music'. (In 1972 the studio acquired the module synthesizer "SYNTHI-100" of English company "Taylor".)
  • Warsaw Autumn Festival initiated by Baird and Serocki presented since 1956 works by Berg, Schönberg, or Bartók; Stockhausen or Schaeffer visited. Polish Radio Experimental studio was founded by Patkowski in 1957.
  • In Czechoslovakia, the first representative Seminar on Electronic Music, organized on the initiative of several Czech and Slovak composers, musicologists and sound technicians, was held at the Research Institute of Radio and Television in Pilsen in 1964. It appeared a miracle to many people interested in this kind of musical creativity. The seminar dealt seriously and manifestly with questions of electronic music, for the first time in Czechoslovak cultural context. The representative survey on electronic music written by Czech musicologist Vladimir Lebl and published in 1966 was the fundamental theoretical work, followed by his translation of the book "La Musique concrete" by Pierre Schaeffer. Several compositions by the classicists of concrete, tape and electronic music appeared in radio broadcasts in 1965 and the first LP with electronic music pieces by both inland and foreign composers was published as soon as in 1966. Followed by foundation of experimental music studios in Bratislava (1965) and Pilsen (1967).
  • During 1950s-70s the number of composers visited New Music courses in Darmstadt (Kotonski, Piňos, Jeney, Sáry), studied and worked with studios WDR Cologne (Kotonski, Eötvös, Dubrovay), GRM Paris (Kotonski, Kabeláč, Piňos, Vidovszky), Munich (Piňos), STEM Utrecht (Kabeláč), or IRCAM Paris (Eötvös).
  • Gorizont became known as some sort of Russian version of Kraftwerk, releasing an LP by the "Soviet State" record label Melodia.

Terms

musique concréte (1949, Schaeffer, Paris), elektronische Musik (1950, Eimert and Meyer-Eppler, Cologne), New Music, synthesizer (ANS synthesizer, 1955, Moscow; RCA Music synthesizer, 1955), white noise, vocoder, atonal music, serialism

Studios

Polish Radio Experimental Studio Warsaw (1957, Patkowski), Experimental studio of electronic music Moscow (1958, Murzin), Experimentalstudio für künstliche Klang- und Geräuscherzeugung East Berlin (1953 or 1962?), Experimental Studio of Slovak Radio Bratislava (1965, Kolman), Experimental Studio of Czech Radio Pilsen (1967-94), New Music Studio Budapest (1970), Electronic Studio of Radio Belgrade (1972, Radovanović), Electro-acoustic Music Studio at Academy of Music Krakow (1973, Patkowski), Electronic music studio Sofia (1974), Electroacoustic Music Studio of the Hungarian Radio Budapest (1975, Decsényi), Studio for Electronic Music Dresden (1984, Wissmann), Audiostudio of Czechoslovak Radio Prague (1990-94), Theremin Center Moscow (1992, Smirnov), Electronic Music Studio at the Estonian Academy of Music Tallinn (1995, Sumera) more

People

Events

Literature

See also

Electroacoustic music in East Germany, Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia. Further bibliography. See also Audiovisual tools and instruments, Electronic art music, The International Documentation of Electroacoustic Music and [19].

Multimedia environments

People and works

Literature

See also

Multimedia environments in Czech Republic, Hungary. Further bibliography.

Computer art, Dynamic objects, Cybernetic sculpture

Terms

new materials, information aesthetics (1960s, Bense and Moles)

People

Events, Networks

Works

Literature

See also

Computer art in Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria. Further bibliography.

Video

Terms

new art practices (1970s)

People

Events

April Meetings festival (Belgrade, 1972-77), Video CD biennial (Ljubljana, 1983-89), WRO Biennale (Wroclaw, since 1989), Sub Voce exhibition (Budapest, 1991), French-Baltic-Nordic Video and New Media Festival (Riga/Vilnius/Tallinn, *1992), Ex Oriente Lux exhibition (Bucharest, 1993), Videomedeja festival (Novi Sad, *1996), New Video, New Europe exhibition (Chicago, 2004), E.U. Positive exhibition (Berlin, 2004), Instant Europe (Udine, 2005)

Networks

Archives

See also

Video in Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia (2), Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania. Further bibliography.

New media art, Media culture

Terms

mailing list, discussion forum, media lab (1990s-2000s), net art (1990s), streaming, tactical media, hacker culture, audiovisual performance, digital signal processing (DSP), Pure Data, Max/MSP, vvvvv, SuperCollider, online social network

People

Events

The Media Are With Us conference (Budapest, 1990), Ostranenie (Dessau, 1993/95/97/99), Orbis Fictus exhibition (Prague, 1994), Hi-tech/Art exhibition and symposium series (Brno, 1994-97), MetaForum conferences (Budapest, 1994-96), Butterfly Effect (Budapest, 1996), Dawn of the Magicians? (Prague, 1996-97), LEAF conference (Liverpool, 1997), Beauty and the East Nettime conference (Ljubljana, 1997), Communication Front (Plovdiv, 1999-2001), Media Forum (Moscow, *2000), Enter Multimediale festival (Prague, 2000/05/07/09), Multiplace festival (Bratislava/Prague/Brno/international, *2002), FM@dia (Prague, 2004), Trans european Picnic (Novi Sad, 2004), Remake exhibition (Brno/Bratislava/Cluj, 2012).

Networks

Literature

See also

Media theory

People

Vilém Flusser (Prague/Germany/Brazil)

Events

The Media Are With Us (Budapest, 1990), Prague Media Symposium (Prague, 1991-98), MetaForum (Budapest, 1994-96), Mutamorphosis (Prague, 2007)

Art theory, history, and criticism

People

Jindřich Chalupecký (Prague), Tomáš Štrauss (Bratislava/Germany), Ješa Denegri (Belgrade), Bojana Pejić (Belgrade/Berlin), Jiří Valoch (Prague), Boris Groys (Moscow/Berlin), Igor Zabel (Ljubljana), Miško Šuvaković (Belgrade), Marina Gržinić (Ljubljana), Miklós Peternák (Budapest), Piotr Piotrowski (Poznan/Warsaw), Viktor Misiano (Moscow), Éva Forgács (Budapest/Pasadena), Keiko Sei (Brno/Karlsruhe/Thailand), Tomáš Pospiszyl (Prague), IRWIN (Ljubljana), Boris Buden (Zagreb), Georg Schöllhammer (Vienna), Reuben Fowkes (Budapest), Gerald Raunig (Vienna), Dejan Sretenović (Belgrade), Dmitry Vilensky (St. Petersburg), David Crowley.

Networks

Third Text, Springerin magazine (Vienna), Tranzit (Vienna), EIPCP (and Transversal journal, Vienna), Chto delat (St. Petersburg), SocialEast, Prelom magazine (Belgrade), IDEA Arts+Society magazine (Cluj), ARTMargins (int), Artyčok (Prague)

Local histories

Countries
avant-garde, modernism and after

Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Central and Eastern Europe, Chile, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kosova, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Slovenia, Slovakia, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States

See also

Support

The research was supported by cOL-mE, International Visegrad Fund, and ERSTE Foundation.

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Contributors include Dušan Barok, Guy van Belle, Nina Czegledy, Lenka Dolanová, Eva Krátká, Magdaléna Kobzová, Barbora Šedivá, Joanna Walewska, Darko Fritz, Miro A. Cimerman, Matko Meštrović, Paul Stubbs, Rarita Szakats, Călin Man, Raluca Velisar, Miklós Peternák, János Sugár, Pit Schultz, Diana McCarty, Barbara Huber, Maxigas, Miloš Vojtěchovský, Grzegorz Klaman, František Zachoval, Sølve N.T. Lauvås, and many others.