Gerald Raunig: A Thousand Machines: A Concise Philosophy of the Machine as Social Movement (2008/2010) [Spanish, English]
Filed under book | Tags: · abstract machine, activism, film, labour, machine, philosophy, precariat, precarity, protest, social movements, theatre, war
“In this “concise philosophy of the machine,” Gerald Raunig provides a historical and critical backdrop to a concept proposed forty years ago by the French philosophers Félix Guattari and Gilles Deleuze: the machine, not as a technical device and apparatus, but as a social composition and concatenation. This conception of the machine as an arrangement of technical, bodily, intellectual, and social components subverts the opposition between man and machine, organism and mechanism, individual and community. Drawing from an unusual range of films, literature, and performance—from the role of bicycles in Flann O’Brien’s fiction to Vittorio de Sica’s Neorealist film The Bicycle Thieves, and from Karl Marx’s “Fragment on Machines” to the deus ex machina of Greek drama—Raunig arrives at an enhanced conception of the machine as a social movement, finding its most apt and concrete manifestation in the Euromayday movement, which since 2001 has become a transnational activist and discursive practice focused upon the precarious nature of labor and lives.”
First published in German as Tausend Maschinen. Eine kleine Philosophie der Maschine als sozialer Bewegung, Turia + Kant, Vienna, 2008.
Translated by Aileen Derieg
Publisher Semiotext(e), 2010
Intervention series, 5
ISBN 1584350857, 9781584350859
Mil máquinas. breve filosofía de las máquinas como movimiento social (Spanish, trans. Marcelo Expósito, 2008, added 2014-3-16)
A Thousand Machines: A Concise Philosophy of the Machine as Social Movement (English, trans. Aileen Derieg, 2010, updated on 2012-7-25)
Stevphen Shukaitis, Joanna Figiel (eds.): Subjectivity journal, Vol 5, No 1: Collective Becomings (2012)
Filed under journal | Tags: · capitalism, cognitariat, labour, precariat, precarity, psychosphere, recombinant, semiocapitalism, subjectivity, theory
Subjectivity is an international, transdisciplinary journal examining the social, cultural, historical and material processes, dynamics and structures of human experience.
“This issue of Subjectivity can be thought of as the first major engagement with Franco ‘Bifo’ Berardi’s work in English. It is not just a collection of essays that take Bifo’s ideas as their starting point, but rather a collection of essays that all start from the conjuncture of Bifo’s ideas, the issues and conditions raised by them, with forms of collective becomings in the present. The purpose then is not to consider Bifo’s work in isolation, but rather to develop it as a tool, one that is explored through continued usage and application.” (from Editorial)
With contributions by Dave Eden, Abe Walker, Anja Kanngieser, Michael Goddard, Giuseppina Mecchia, Franco ‘Bifo’ Berardi
Guest editors Stevphen Shukaitis and Joanna Figiel
Published in April 2012
Filed under book | Tags: · basic income, labour, migration, neoliberalism, politics, populism, precariat, social democracy, work
Neo-liberal policies and institutional changes have produced a huge and growing number of people with sufficiently common experiences to be called an emerging class. In this book Guy Standing introduces what he calls the Precariat – a growing number of people across the world living and working precariously, usually in a series of short-term jobs, without recourse to stable occupational identities or careers, stable social protection or protective regulations relevant to them. They include migrants, but also locals.
Standing argues that this class of people could produce new instabilities in society. They are increasingly frustrated and dangerous because they have no voice, and hence they are vulnerable to the siren calls of extreme political parties. He outlines a new kind of good society, with more people actively involved in civil society and the precariat re-engaged. He goes on to consider one way to a new better society — an unconditional basic income for everyone, contributed by the state, which could be topped up through earned incomes.
This is a topical, and a radical book, which will appeal to a broad market concerned by the increasing problems of labour insecurity and civic disengagement.
Publisher Bloomsbury Academic, 2011
ISBN 1849663513, 9781849663519
Creative Commons BY-NC Licence
essay by the author (The Guardian, June 2011)
excerpts from a seminar with the author (video, United Nations, September 2011)
interview with the author (James Foley, November 2011)
essay by the author (OpenDemocracy.net, January 2012)
Filed under newspaper | Tags: · activism, art, collective art, economics, labour, precariat, precarity
Art Work is a newspaper that consists of writings and images from artists, activists, writers, critics, and others on the topic of working within depressed economies and how that impacts artistic process, compensation and artistic property.
The newspaper is distributed for free at sites and from people throughout the United States and Puerto Rico. It is also available by mail order from Half Letter Press for the cost of postage.
The 40-page newspaper features the writings, images, and work of Julia Bryan-Wilson, Holland Cotter, Tim Kerr, Nance Klehm, Harrell Fletcher, Futurefarmers, Robin Hewlett, Nicolas Lampert, Lize Mogel, Dan S. Wang, Gregory Sholette, Dylan A.T. Miner, Christina Ulke and Marc Herbst of the Journal of Aesthetics & Protest, OurGoods, Chris Burden, Scott Berzofsky, John Duda, InCUBATE, Linda Frye Burnham, ILSSA, Cooley Windsor, Brian Holmes, Nick Tobier, Lolita Hernandez, Stacy Malasky, Nate Mullen, Aaron Timlin, Harold Jefferies, W&N, Damon Rich, Teaching Artist Union, FEAST, 16 Beaver Group, W.A.G.E., Chris Kennedy, Nato Thompson, Carolina Caycedo, Guerrilla Art Action Group, Anthony Elms, Adam Trowbridge, Jessica Westbrook, and many other artists, art workers, curators, interns, volunteers, writers, and activists.
Produced by Temporary Services (Brett Bloom, Salem Collo-Julin, Marc Fischer), Chicago
Published by Half Letter Press, 2009
Filed under magazine | Tags: · art, art criticism, censorship, contemporary art, copyright, critique, intellectual property, internet, memory, neoliberalism, politics, precariat, precarity, privacy, public domain, public space, security, social engineering, society, sound art, sound recording, surveillance, visual culture, web, web 2.0
Open 20: The Populist Imagination. On the Role of Myth, Storytelling and Imaginary in Politics
This issue of Open deals with the imaginary, storytelling and myth in populism and politics in general.
It is one of the most famous slogans of the revolt of May 1968: ‘All power to the imagination!’ Those who appeal to the imagination nowadays – Silvio Berlusconi, the Tea Party movement, the Dutch politician Geert Wilders – have altogether different intentions. Right-wing populist movements are storming the political stage in Europe and in the USA. The imagination is now put to work to sharpen and fix identities, to stir desire for an imaginary past, and to cultivate myth. This issue of Open deals with the imaginary, storytelling and myth in populism and politics in general.
With contributions by Merijn Oudenampsen (guest editor of Open 20), Stephen Duncombe, Franco Berardi and Marco Jacquemet, Jolle Demmers and Sameer S. Mehendale, Yves Citton, Nina Power, Wu Ming, Aukje van Rooden, Willem Schinkel, Foundland, Louisa Corma and Lunda Dematteo. Rudi Laermans interviews Ernesto Laclau.
Open 19: Beyond Privacy. New Perspectives on the Private and Public Domains
In ‘Open’ 19, the concept of privacy is examined and reconsidered from the legal, sociological, media theoretical and activist perspectives.
Privacy is a right that protects one’s private life, a right that is not only established by law, but also has a political and a social significance. It can be experienced and observed differently by individuals and groups, depending upon their position in society and the desires and interests that are involved. In Open 19 focuses not so much on deploring the loss of privacy, but taking the present situation of ‘post-privacy’ for what it is and trying to gain insight into what is on the horizon in terms of new subjectivities and power constructions.
With contributions by Daniel Solove, Maurizio Lazzarato, Rudi Laermans, Armin Medosch, Felix Stalder, Joris van Hoboken, Oliver Leistert Martijn de Waal, Rob van Kranenburg, Mark Shepard and Matthijs Bouw and Gio Sumbadze.
Open 18: 2030: War Zone Amsterdam Imagining the Unimaginable
Using Amsterdam as a test case, this issue of ´Open´ is about questions and problems facing contemporary Western cities in general: fear and safety, privacy and biopolitics, control and militarization, globalization and virtualization, commercialization and neoliberalism.
The contemporary social reality of Amsterdam, in which the debates on some social issues exhibit very little creative development, can be presented in a radically different light through the fictitious element of a war in Amsterdam 2030.
Brigitte van der Sande, curator of the art project ‘2030 War Zone Amsterdam’, was guest-editor.
With contributions by Brigitte van der Sande, Willem Schinkel, Dirk van Weelden, Stephen Graham, Frank Furedi, John Armitage, Tom McCarthy, Wietske Maas en Matteo Pasquinelli, Eyal Weizman, Gert Jan Kocken en het Israëlische duo Adi Kaplan & Shahar Carmel.
Open 17: A Precarious Existence. Vulnerability in the Public Domain
This issue of ‘Open’ addresses precariousness in a cultural and social context and deals with such matters as the functioning of the art scene and the conditions of the precarious city and public space.
For a few years now there has been an international discourse surrounding the notion of ‘precarity’ or ‘precariousness’, boosted by European social movements and philosophers such as Paolo Virno. Precarity refers to the relationship between temporary and flexible labour arangements and an existence without predictability and security, which is determining the living conditions of increasingly larger groups in society. Precarity occurs simultaneously at many places within society as a consequence of the neoliberal, post-Fordist economy with its emphasis on the immaterial production of information and services and continuous flexibility. The same is true of the creative sector: flexible production and outsourcing of work, typical aspects of the service economy, can also be seen in businesses devoted to art, culture and communication.
With contributions by Nicolas Bourriaud, Brian Holmes, Ned Rossiter/Brett Neilson, Jan Verwoert, Paolo Virno, Pascal Gielen/Sonja Lavaert, Gerald Raunig, Recetas Urbanas en Merijn Oudenampsen.
Open 16: The Art Biennial as a Global Phenomenon. Strategies in Neo-Political Times
This anniversary issue of ‘Open’ focuses on the art biennial as a global phenomenon.
On 19 October 2008, in connection with the first Brussels Biennial and in association with the Flemish-Dutch Huis deBuren, the Flemish foundation for visual, audio-visual and media art BAM and the Lectureship in Arts in Society of the Fontys College for the Arts, Pascal Gielen organised a programme of lectures and debates focussing on the art biennial as a global phenomenon.
The speeches by Chantal Mouffe, Michael Hardt, Boris Groys, Charles Esche and Maria Hlavajova are now being published in Open, Cahier on Art and the Public Domain, supplemented with essays by Brian Holmes, Irit Rogoff, Simon Sheikh and Thierry de Duve. The texts have been edited by Pascal Gielen and Jorinde Seijdel, editor-in-chief of Open. This extra issue of Open is also a jubilee issue to celebrate the fifth anniversary of the cahier in its present form.
Open 15: Social Engineering. Can Society be Engineered in the Twenty-First Century?
This issue of ‘Open’ reflects on old and new forms of the philosophy of social engineering in relation to the urban and social space and to the (communal) life therein.
Is social engineering now a hollow ideal, or does it offer urgent perspectives once more? In current discussions about urban politics and social systems, theorists and designers are once again asking whether social engineering is not a pre-requisite of the human desire for organizational forms and interventions that guarantee a pleasant communal existence.
With contributions by Rene Boomkens, Gijs van Oenen, Marc Schuilenburg, Giorgio Agamben, Charles Esche, Niclone van Harskamp, Pascal Gielen, BAVO, ZUS, Partizan Publik, Flexmens, Jeanne van Heeswijk en Dennis Kaspori.
Open 14: Art as a Public Issue. How Art and Its Institutions Can Reinvent the Public Dimension
The public sphere is an ideological construct that must be constantly reinvented and redefined. The impact of neoliberal forces is compelling even art and its institutions to reinvent, reformulate or re-legitimize their public dimension and involvement.
For both art and art institutions, after all, still manifest themselves at the sufferance of the public, the audience. They cannot avoid re-examining what is public and why, who the audience is and where it is situated, and how they wish to relate to it. Do they dare become part of ‘the political’, or do they let themselves become instruments of market players and party politics?
Open 13: The Rise of the Informal Media. How Search Engines, Weblogs and YouTube Change Public Opinion
This issue of ‘Open’ examines what the implications of the rise of the informal media are for the public sphere.
The media through which news and information are gathered and exchanged have expanded significantly in the last several years. Weblogs, advanced search engines, virtual environments like Second Life, and phenomena such as MySpace, Hyves, Flickr and YouTube are offering new tools, communication opportunities, social networks and platforms for public debate. These are informal media, largely programmed, supplied and broadcast by the user – in contrast to conventional macromedia like television and the printed press, which are more institutionally determined.
This issue of Open examines what the implications of this are for the public sphere. Questions are raised, among other things, about how news and information are handled on the internet, about the conditions of our everyday media practices and about the opportunities for artists to work in a culture in which the lines between maker and user, between amateur and professional, are being blurred.
Open 12: Freedom of culture. Regulation and privatization of intellectual property and public space
This issue of ‘Open’ focuses on questions regarding the privatization of intellectual property and presents several alternative approaches to urban design that aim to restore the communal dimension to public space.
The growing number of conflicts relating to the public and private ownership and control of knowledge and culture has lent a certain urgency to our thinking about the ‘common’ in the public domain. ‘Freedom of Culture’ has become a pressing issue with legal and ethical implications. To what extent can culture be freely distributed, exchanged or appropriated? And what guarantee is there for the continued existence of places where the ‘commons’ can manifest themselves and be discussed?
Open 11: Hybrid Space. How wireless media are mobilizing public space
‘Open’ 11 investigates the implications and possibilities offered by wireless, mobile media in the hybrid public space.
The public domain is a place where people act and create a ‘communal world full of differences’. This space has become ‘hybrid’ in nature: a complex of concrete and virtual qualities, of static and mobile domains, of public and private spheres, of global and local interests. Last but not least, hybrid space is formed by wireless and mobile media like GSM, GPS, Wi-Fi and RFID. These media are deployed as control mechanisms, but also as alternative tools for increasing and intensifying public agency. A select company of artists, designers, architects and urban designers is investigating its implications and possibilities and putting them to the test.
Open 10: (In)tolerance. Freedom of Expression in Art and Culture
No discourse seems more hollow at the present moment than that about tolerance and freedom of expression: in Western culture these concepts are scarcely capable any longer of generating meanings that apply and appeal to all of us.
The codes, rules, agreements and symbols that determine our freedoms and rights within the public domain have ceased to function effectively. Leaving cynicism and nihilism behind, the politico-philosophical concept of the public sphere needs to be articulated anew. The desire for this is projected not just onto politics, but also onto art, architecture and the city. Open 10 brings together analyses, stances and proposals of theoreticians and artists.
Open 9: Sound. Sound in Art and Culture
Public space is not only visually but also acoustically manifest: public nature is a function of visibility and audibility.
Including the role of sound in reflections on public space and in its actual design is therefore as necessary as considering the visual. In n0. 9 there are essays about the way in which sound and audio media play an aesthetic, ethical or political role in contemporary urban space. This issue illustrates how radio is undergoing a veritable cultural and artistic revival and how sound is deployed in art in relation to social or spatial surroundings. This issue presents work by international artists and also includes an mp3 disc with sonic artworks and interviews.
Open 8: (In)visibility. Beyond the image in art, culture and the public domain
The degree of visibility of social, political, economic and cultural events through public images is regarded as an indicator of the level of democracy in a society. Visibility is associated with openness and communication, with social order and political stability.
The invisible represents not only the uncontrolled, impossible or suppressed but also that which is waiting to be disclosed. Within this regime the visual media continuously produces images while the ‘audience’ is also constantly engaged in visualizing its own experiences. In this intoxicating process every message of a social agenda seems to disappear. So what position does art have in this? What can be the commitment of the artist, designer or architect and his or her involvement and legitimacy? And which specific developments in contemporary visual culture play a role in this? On this issue the regular editorial staff worked together with guest editors, Willem van Weelden en Jan van Grunsven.
Open 7: (No)Memory. Storing and recalling in contemporary art and culture
The present organization and experience of the public domain are to a significant extent defined by the tension between individual and collective, old and new, autochthonous and allochthonous memories. It is therefore imperative to re-examine the content, the control and the place of memory within the public domain.
How can active use be made of the information stored in the current ‘memory places’? What is the role of art in this? Is collective remembrance still possible? How can the cultural heritage be made accessible without turning city and country into one big open-air museum? And what are the implications of new media and digital storage technologies for the social and historical process of safe-keeping and remembering?
Open 6: (In)security
There is a yearning for security in today’s public domain. The individual and the community are increasingly demanding protection and control over the space, themselves and others. A society of control is looming, but one lacking a clear idea about the nature and the origin of its underlying fears.
This cahier examines the consequences of the current preoccupation with security for the public space and the visual arts. What are the implications for the functioning of the public domain, for its arrangement, design and experience? And how does this influence the task and perception of art? From art, architecture, philosophy and politics come theoretical and practical scenarios, proposals and visions that expose something of today’s security paradigm, advocate alternative (conceptual) models or offer insights into the current ethics and aesthetics of security.
Open is a cahier that reflects upon contemporary public space from a cultural perspective. Through a thematic investigation into the changing conditions of public space and through new ideas relating to this space, Open aims to make a structural contribution to the development of theories about these subjects and to function as a platform for reflection on socio-cultural and artistic practices.
Editorial staff: Jorinde Seijdel (editor-in-chief), Liesbeth Melis (editor)
Design: Thomas Buxó in collaboration with Klaartje van Eijk
Initiated by SKOR | Foundation for Art and Public Domain.
Published by NAi Publishers, Rotterdam.