Filed under report | Tags: · artificial intelligence, computing, industry, machine learning, society, technology
“The Stanford One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence, a project that launched in December 2014, is designed to be a century-long periodic assessment of the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its influences on people, their communities, and society. Colloquially referred to as “AI100″, the project issued its first report in September 2016. A Standing Committee works with the Stanford Faculty Director of AI100 in overseeing the project and designing its activities. A little more than two years after the first report appeared, we reflect on the decisions made in shaping it, the process that produced it, its major conclusions, and reactions subsequent to its release.
The inaugural AI100 report, which is titled “Artificial Intelligence and Life in 2030,” examines eight domains of human activity in which AI technologies are already starting to affect urban life. In scope, it encompasses domains with emerging products enabled by AI methods and ones raising concerns about technological impact generated by potential AI – enabled systems. The Study Panel members who authored the report and the AI100 Standing Committee, which is the body that directs the AI100 project, intend for it to act as a catalyst, spurring conversations on how we as a society might shape and share the potentially powerful technologies that AI could enable. In addition to influencing researchers and guiding decisions in industry and governments, the report aims to provide the general public with a scientifically and technologically accurate portrayal of the current state of AI and its potential. It aspires to replace conceptions rooted in science fiction books and movies with a realistic foundation for these deliberations.”
Publisher Stanford University, September 2016
Creative Commons BY-ND 4.0 International License
Commentary: Barbara J. Grosz & Peter Stone (Communications of the ACM, 2018).Comment (0)
Filed under book | Tags: · artificial intelligence, computation, computing, history of science, machine learning, neural networks, robotics
“This book traces the history of artificial intelligence, from the early dreams of eighteenth-century (and earlier) pioneers to the more successful work of today’s AI engineers. The book includes many diagrams and easy-to-understand descriptions of AI programs that will help the casual reader gain an understanding of how these and other AI systems actually work.”
Self-published 2009 (web version)
Publisher Cambridge University Press, 2009 (print version)
Open access (web version)
ISBN 9780521116398, 0521116392 (print version)
Review: Peter Norvig (Artificial Intelligence, 2010).
PDF (15 MB)Comment (0)
Marie Hicks: Programmed Inequality: How Britain Discarded Women Technologists and Lost Its Edge in Computing (2017)
Filed under book | Tags: · computing, history of computing, history of technology, technology, united kingdom, women
“How Britain lost its early dominance in computing by systematically discriminating against its most qualified workers: women.
In 1944, Britain led the world in electronic computing. By 1974, the British computer industry was all but extinct. What happened in the intervening thirty years holds lessons for all postindustrial superpowers. As Britain struggled to use technology to retain its global power, the nation’s inability to manage its technical labor force hobbled its transition into the information age.
In Programmed Inequality, Marie Hicks explores the story of labor feminization and gendered technocracy that undercut British efforts to computerize. That failure sprang from the government’s systematic neglect of its largest trained technical workforce simply because they were women. Women were a hidden engine of growth in high technology from World War II to the 1960s. As computing experienced a gender flip, becoming male-identified in the 1960s and 1970s, labor problems grew into structural ones and gender discrimination caused the nation’s largest computer user—the civil service and sprawling public sector—to make decisions that were disastrous for the British computer industry and the nation as a whole.
Drawing on recently opened government files, personal interviews, and the archives of major British computer companies, Programmed Inequality takes aim at the fiction of technological meritocracy. Hicks explains why, even today, possessing technical skill is not enough to ensure that women will rise to the top in science and technology fields. Programmed Inequality shows how the disappearance of women from the field had grave macroeconomic consequences for Britain, and why the United States risks repeating those errors in the twenty-first century.”
Publisher MIT Press, 2017
ISBN 9780262035545, 0262035545
Reviews: Ksenia Tatarchenko (British Journal for the History of Science, 2017), Janet Abbate (IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 2017), Lianne Gutcher (The National, 2017), Dominic Lenton (E&T, 2018), John Gilbey (Times Higher Education), Christophe J. Phillips (Isis, 2018), Mark J. Crowley (History, 2018), Megan Finn (Information & Culture, 2018).
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